Pop Art 2012 by lanyuehua

VIEWS: 20 PAGES: 101

									                       Pop Art
                 “The Landscape of Signs”

• “In the ten years after 1947 the number of televisions in the United
  States jumped from ten thousand to forty million,...” (Fineberg)

• Rise of the art market – Newly rich collectors like Robert Scull
  bought in quantity: “Assisted by the careful promotion of a few key
  dealers, the price of work by the most fashionable younger artists of
  the sixties escalated as much as 4,000 percent over the decade
  [1960s]” (Fineberg)
 (left) Francis Bacon (British, 1909-1992), Head Surrounded by Sides of Beef,
1954, British Existential Figuration; (right) Eduardo Paolozzi (British, 1924-
2005), Real Gold, collage, 14 x 19 in., 1950, British Pop
The Blitz: From September 7 1940 through May 1941, the German Luftwaffe
bombed British cities, especially London, almost nightly. Here London fire
fighters extinguish flames following an air raid. More than 43,000 deaths and
1,400,000 people were made homeless, 4 million homes destroyed or badly
(left) Eduardo Paolozzi Its a Psychological Fact That Pleasure Helps Your
Disposition, 1948, collage. Affirmative or adversarial (avant-garde) posture?
Shown in his influential 1952 “Bunk” slide lecture that marks the beginning of
British Pop. “Bunk” is from Henry Ford: “history is more or less bunk….we want to
live in the present.”

(right) Hannah Höch, The Beautiful Girl, collage (photomontage), 1919, Berlin
Dada / Adversarial posture toward commercial culture – what was Paolozzi’s
attitude towards it?
Eduardo Paolozzi, (right) I was a Rich Man's Plaything 1947; (left) Meet
the People, 1948, from Ten Collages from 1952 BUNK lecture, collage
mounted on card support, 14 x 9.5 in. “The iconography of a new world.”
  Richard Hamilton (British, b. 1922) Just What is it That Makes Today's Homes So
  Different, So Appealing? Collage (photomontage), 10 x 9”, 1956, KunsthalleTübingen,
  Tubingen, Germany. British Pop

Hamilton defined Pop Art in a
letter dated January 16, 1957:
"Pop Art is: popular, transient,
expendable, low-cost, mass-
produced, young, witty, sexy,
gimmicky, glamorous, and Big

The Independent Group’s “This is Tomorrow” exhibition, 3 installation views, 1956,
Whitechapel Gallery (Institute of Contemporary Art) London
Richard Hamilton, (left) Towards a Definitive Statement on the Coming Trends in Men's
Wear and Accessories (a) Together Let Us Explore the Stars 1962; (right) $he, 1958-61,
both oil & collage on canvas, British Pop
(left) Richard Hamilton, The Large Glass or The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors,
Even, 1963, an exact copy and homage to (right) Marcel Duchamp, The Large Glass or
The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even 1915-23; (center) Photo of Duchamp by
Hamilton, c. 1968
  Hans Namuth, photograph marking the 25th Anniversary of Leo Castelli Gallery,
  1982. Standing left – right: Ellsworth Kelly, Dan Flavin, Joseph Kosuth, Richard
  Serra, Lawrence Weiner, Nassos Daphnis, Jasper Johns, Claes Oldenberg, Salvatore
  Scarpitta, Richard Artschwager, Mia Westerlund Roosen, Cletus Johnson, and Keith
  Seated left – right: Andy Warhol, Robert Rauschenberg, Leo Castelli, Ed Ruscha,
  James Rosenquist, and Robert Barry

In the late fifties and
Sixties, “There were two
Camps, mine and Clement
Greenberg’s. “ Leo Castelli
Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), Before and After, 1961, casein and
pencil on canvas, 54 x 69 7/8"
Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987), Bonwit Teller window decor, NY, April 1961;
    (left) Dick Tracy, 1960, casein and crayon, 48” high; A Boy for Meg, 1962
                               oil on canvas, 72” high
Andy Warhol, 32 Campbell’s Soup Cans, 1962, acrylic on canvas, screened with hand painted
details, 20x16 in. ea (lower right) Ferus Gallery installation, Los Angeles,1962. Warhol’s first
gallery show. Repetition and coldness of appropriation from commodity culture is the hallmark of
Pop Art. Five canvases sold for $100 each, but Irving Blum, co-owner of Ferus, bought them
back to keep the set intact and later partly gifted them to MoMA NYC.
Jasper Johns (American, b.1930), Painted Bronze, hand painted cast bronze, 1960,
Proto-Pop (Neo-Dada)
(right) Warhol, Campbell Soup Can, 1968, screened acrylic on canvas, Pop Art
Andy Warhol and Gerard Malanga (1967) silk-screening in the Factory, located on the
fifth floor at 231 East 47th Street in Midtown Manhattan. The Factory moved to 33 Union
Square West in 1967. Warhol used silkscreen from 1962 on.
(right) Warholstars group portrait by Gerard Malanga, 1968(?); (left) film still and poster
for Warhol's film Exploding Plastic Inevitable, 1966, with the Velvet Underground. The
Andy Warhol Museum owns 273 Warhol films and almost 4,000 videotapes.

                        “If you want to know all about Andy Warhol, just look at the
                         surface of my paintings and films and me, and there I am…
                                                          There’s nothing behind it.”
                                                                        - Andy Warhol
Warhol, (left) Gold Marilyn Monroe, 1962, acrylic, silkscreen and oil on
canvas; (right) Marilyn, 1962. Series followed Monroe’s (probable) suicide in
August 1962.
Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962, acrylic silkscreen on canvas
Andy Warhol, 210 Coca-Cola bottles, 1962, Silkscreen, ink & synthetic
polymer paint on canvas, 6’10” x 8’9”
Warhol, (left) Jackie, The Week That Was, 1963
(right) Suicide 1963, Acrylic and silkscreen, 6’ H
Warhol, Five Deaths Eleven
Times in Orange, synthetic
polymer paint, silk-screened
on canvas, 1963
Warhol, (left) Lavender Disaster, 1971; (right top and below) Electric Chair, 1971,
screenprints. “Everything I do is connected with death.” (Warhol, 1978)
Andy Warhol, Brillo Box, 1964, acrylic and silkscreen on plywood, 17 x 17 x 15 in

                                                         At the Tate Modern: the conundrum

“Greenberg’s narrative … comes to an end with Pop … It came to an end when art came
   to an end, when art, as it were, recognized there was no special way a work of art
   had to be.”                                              - Arthur Danto (1964)
                                                                 After the End of Art, 1997

“Is an endless playing with the definition of art all that art now has to offer?”
                                                                 - Charles Harrison
                                                                 “Conceptual Art” (Themes)
Roy Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997), cover of Newsweek, 1966, New York Pop Art
Roy Lichtenstein’s educational background: (left) Reginald Marsh (Lichtenstein’s teacher
at the Art Students’ League, NYC), Why Not Take the “L”?, oil on canvas, 1930
(right) Flash Lab, Ohio State, where Lichtenstein studied 1942-44
Roy Lichtenstein, Girl With a Ball, 1960 compare with Andy Warhol, Dick Tracy, 1960,
New York Pop Art. When Warhol saw Lichtenstein’s cartoon paintings in 1960 he
stopped making them.
Roy Lichtenstein screened and hand-
painted ben day dots, a method of
mechanical color printing, evident
below in detail from a 1964 painting

    See slide show of Roy Lichtenstein
              studio / process
Roy Lichtenstein, 1990 notebook, “Crying girls”
 Roy Lichtenstein, WAAM! 1963, Magna on canvas, 2 panels; 68 x 166 inches overall;
 source: a 1962 issue of DC Comics' All-American Men of War

“Lichtenstein was not painting things but signs of things.” Fineberg
James Rosenquist, President Elect, oil on masonite, 12 feet wide, 1960-1 (New York
Pop Art); (right) mockup for painting and (below) artist in studio

“I’m interested in contemporary fission – the flick of chrome, reflections, rapid
associations, quick flashes of light. Big-bang! Bing-bang! I don’t do anecdotes; I
accumulate experiences.”
Rosenquist,(left) right & left halves of F-111, installation, oil on canvas and aluminum, 23
sections, 10 x 86 feet, 1964-5, The Museum of Modern Art, NY

 Marisol, Baby Boy, 1963                   Marisol, The Family, 1963
Claes Oldenburg, Snapshots from the City, performance with first wife, Pat Muschinski,
at Judson Gallery, Judson Memorial Church, New York. February 29, March 1-2, 1960.
Performance / Happening at Oldenburg’s “Ray Gun Theater”
(right) The Street installation 1960
Claes Oldenburg, The Store, Dec. 1, 1961 - Jan. 31, 1962, Ray Gun Mfg. Co., 107 East
Second Street, New York. Roast Beef, 1961, inside studio/store (with artist), view looking
out, poster, Green Gallery sponsor.

“I am for an art that is political-erotic-mystical, that does
something other than sit on its ass in a museum.”
 Claes Oldenburg (American, born Sweden, 1929). Pastry Case, I. 1961-62. Painted
plaster sculptures on ceramic plates, metal platter and cups in glass-and-metal case, 21 x 30 x 15,"
                                       New York Pop Art

   "I make my work out of my everyday experiences, which I find as perplexing and
                    extraordinary as can be.“ Oldenburg, 1960
Claes Oldenburg. (American, born Sweden, 1929). Green Gallery Installation (2 views),
1962; Floor Cake (right) 1962. Synthetic polymer paint and latex on canvas filled with
foam rubber and cardboard boxes, 58 3/8" x 9' 6 1/4" x 58 3/8“. Pop Art
Claes Oldenburg, Bedroom Ensemble, life size, wood, vinyl, metal, artificial fur,
cloth, paper, 1963, National Gallery of Canada, Ottowa. Oldenburg took a
perspective drawing of a set of bedroom furniture from a newspaper advertisement,
built his furniture in 3-D, giving them the forms they had in 2-D.

        “This is the kind of reality that if you intrude it vanishes.” Oldenburg
Oldenburg, Soft Toilet, 1966; Dormeyer Mixer,1965
Oldenburg, Giant Lipstick, erect (left) and limp (center), Yale University,
1969. Anti-Vietnam war
Claes Oldenburg,
Clothespin, 1976, Cor-Ten
and stainless steels, 45 ft. x
12 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.,
Centre Square Plaza,
Philadelphia. Scale.
Carnivalesque humor in
public art, as well as inside
art world joke in allusion to
Brancusi’s 1909 Kiss (above).
Wayne Thiebaud (US, b. 1920), Five Hot Dogs, 1961, o/c, 18 x 24 in, Whitney MAA Thiebaud
earned a BA degree from Sacramento State College in 1941 an M.A. degree in 1952.
Thiebaud’s “Pop” work was in The New Realist show at Sidney Janis (1962 NYC) with
other major figures associated with Pop, New Realism, and Gutai
Wayne Thiebaud, Cakes, 1963
Edward Kienholz (US, 1927-1994),
Back Seat Dodge ’38 (two views),
1964, tableau with truncated Dodge
and mixed materials (plaster casts,
beer bottles, chicken wire, artificial
grass, etc.) Los Angeles Funk
Edward Kienholz, The Wait, 1964–65. Tableau: wood, fabric, polyester resin,
flock, metal, bones, glass, paper, leather, varnish, black-and-white photographs,
taxidermed cat, live parakeet, wicker, and plastic, 80 × 160 × 84 in. (life size)
overall. Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
Kienholz, Ed, The State
Hospital (INTERIOR), 1966,
Tableau: plaster casts,
fiberglass, hospital beds,
bedpan, hospital table, goldfish
bowls, live black fish, lighted
neon tubing, steel hardware,
wood, paint 96 x 144 x 120 in.
Moderna Museet, Stockholm
Kienholz, Ed, The State Hospital (EXTERIOR), 1966, Tableau: plaster casts,
fiberglass, hospital beds, bedpan, hospital table, goldfish bowls, live black
fish, lighted neon tubing, steel hardware, wood, paint 96 x 144 x 120 in.
Moderna Museet, Stockholm

                                                       Joseph Cornell, Medici Boy, 1942-52

Betye Saar (Los Angeles, b. 1930, mixed heritage African, Native American, Irish and Creole).
The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, mixed-media assemblage, 1972, BAMFA. Saar began making
assemblages after seeing a 1968 exhibition works by Joseph Cornell (1903-1972).
Robert Arneson (Benicia, CA
Robert Arneson, John with Art, 1964, glazed ceramic with polychrome
epoxy, life size, Seattle Art Museum, gift of Manuel Neri
Robert Arneson, Typewriter, 1966, glazed ceramic, around 6 x 11 x 12 in.
UC Berkeley Art Museum
Robert Arneson, ceramic sculpture
California Artist, 1982, on display in front
of his studies for the sculpture, Museum
of Modern Art, San Francisco
Ed Ruscha (US, based in Los Angeles, b. 1937), Standard Station, Amarillo, Texas,
1963, oil on canvas, 5ft 5 in x 10 ft/ Pop and Minimalism/ CA car culture

In 1962 Ruscha was included, along with Lichtenstein, Warhol, Thiebaud, et al, in
the groundbreaking "New Painting of Common Objects," curated by Walter
Hopps at the Pasadena Art Museum. Ruscha’s first solo exhibition was in 1963 at
the Ferus Gallery in LA.
Ed Ruscha, Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights, 1962, oil on canvas, 5ft 6in X
11ft 1in, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York. Hollywood culture
                    Ed Ruscha, Flying A, Kingman, Arizona,
                    from Twentysix Gasoline Stations, 1963, photographic book, sold for
                    $3.50 (An original signed copy is now worth up to $35,000.)
                    Minimalist and California Pop (anti)aesthetic: serial repetition and
                    deadpan view of contemporary reality.

Book cover

http://www.sfmoma.org/multimedia/videos/202 Ruscha on his art (1 minute)
                                       Through his deliberate lack of
                                       style, Ruscha draws attention
                                       “to the estranged relationship
                                       of people to their rural
                                       environment, but without
                                       staging or dramatizing the
                                       estrangement.” He took
                                       around 60 photographs, and
                                       selected 26, removing any
                                       that he felt were too

Compare Ruscha’s (1963) vision of
the American West (above) with
Ansel Adams’ interpretation based on
19th century Romantic landscape
painting aesthetics (right) Moonrise
over Hernandez, N.M. October 31,
1941. Adams made “Art” and did not
work in other media: skill-based vs.
Ruscha’s concept-based photography
                                           Ansel Adams, Grand Tetons and the Snake
                                           River, 1942

Rusha’s road trip, California ><Oklahoma
                                           Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, 1863
Ed Ruscha took the photographs of
Sunset Strip with a motorized Nikon
camera mounted to the back of a
pick-up truck. This allowed him to
photograph every building while
driving – first down one side of the
street and then the other. The
pictures were then pasted in order
they were shot, and the individual
buildings were labeled with their
respective address numbers.
Conceptual and Minimal.
Opens to 27 feet. Reinvented the craft and luxury status of the artist book genre by
mass production, cheap, machine-made, affordable
  Ed Ruscha, The Old Trade School Building, 2005, synthetic polymer on canvas
54 x 120 in., from The Course of Empire Series, US Pavilion, Venice Biennale, 2005

(bottom) Blue Collar Trade School, 1992, Synthetic polymer on canvas, 54 x 120 in.
      New Realism (Nouveau Réalisme)
International, Paris-centered movement named after the eponymous
       exhibition at Sidney Janis Gallery in New York in 1962

         AKA the “Slice of Cake School” (Time magazine)
 Yves Klein (Nouveau Réalist, French,1928-1962) (left) Monochrome Blue 3 (IKB
 [International Klein Blue], 1960, pigment & resin on canvas on wood, c. 6’ H; Compare
 (right) Kasimir Malevich, Black Suprematist Square, 1914-15, and (below) compare
 exhibitions: 1960 Klein and (right) 1915 Malevich (Russian Suprematism)

Klein produced 194 monochromes
between 1955-1961
Yves Klein, Anthropométrie performances, Paris, 1960
Anthropométrie de l’époch bleue (Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch), pure pigment in
resin on paper mounted on canvas, 1960, Nouveau Réalisme
Yves Klein, (left) Le Vide (The Void), Iris Clert Galérie, Paris 1958, gallery installation;
(right) Leap into the Void, March 9, 1960, New Realism, altered photograph
Daniel Spoerri (Swiss, born Romania, 1922), Hungarian Meal, Trap Picture, 1963,
assemblage: metal, glass, porcelain, fabric on painted chipboard

In the gallery, which was converted into a restaurant, dishes prepared by Spoerri
- an excellent cook - were served by well-known critics. After the meal, the
guests constructed their own Trap-Pictures by gluing down what was left on their
tables as is.

  Called “Eat Art” by Spoerri who later founded the Eat Gallery in Dusseldorf
Christo Javacheff (Bulgarian-American, 1935 - ) Nouveau Réalisme (New Realism), Wall
of Barrels, Iron Curtain, 1961-2, 240 oil barrels, 168” high; (right) Wrapped Wheelbarrow,
1963 (Christo met Jean-Claude, his lifetime partner, in Paris in 1958)
Niki de Saint-Phalle, (New Realist, French-American, 1930-2002), Crucifixion, 1963,
Fabric pasted over an armature of wire mesh and various affixed objects, 100” high;
(right) Jean Dubuffet (Postwar Existentialism, French 1901-1985) A Tree of Fluids, 1950
“In 1961 I shot at: Daddy, all the men, small men, tall men, important men, fat
men, men, my brother, society, church, school, my family, my mother, all the
men, Daddy, myself, men again.”
                                                       Niki de Saint-Phalle

       “Shoot” paintings
 Niki de Saint-Phalle, Hon ("She" in Swedish), 1966. 6 ton colossus (82'/20'/30'). With
 Jean Tinguely and Per Olaf Ultvedt as a temporary installation at the Moderne Museet,
 Stockholm. One of a series of “Nana” sculptures

The Carnivalesque
Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely, Pompidou Center kinetic Stravinsky fountain from
the top floor of the Beaubourg art museum & cultural center.
(far left) View of Stravinsky fountain at pavement level
Jean Tinguely (Nouveau Réalist, Swiss 1925-91), Homage to New York, Kinetic event-
sculpture that self-destroyed in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art. New York,
March 17, 1960
Tinguely’s Nouveau Réalisme Sources: Dada: Marcel Duchamp, (left) Bicycle Wheel
(readymade), 1913; (right) Duchamp, Rotorelief, rotative plaques, glass, metal, motor,
1920, kinetic art; (below left ) Francis Picabia (French, 1879-1953), Amorous Parade,

                           Tinguely’s Homage to New York
 The Way Things Go (German: Der Lauf der Dinge) is a 1987 kinetic art video by
 the Swiss artists Peter Fischli and David Weiss. The 30-minute film is a classic
 of contemporary art: absurdist, dadaist for sure, fascinating.

“It is 6 September 1985. In exactly 134 days the space shuttle will explode
shortly after take-off, inscribing an eerily beautiful plume of white vapour in the
sky. Another 88 days later, again due to a chain of human errors and structural
faults, Chernobyl's block four reactor will go into meltdown.” (Patrick Frey – see
Tate website http://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue8/fischliweiss_waythingswent.htm)
Above: Survival Research Labs robot
Click link for part of a 2006 performance in San Jose:
Gerhard Richter and Konrad Lueg, Living With Pop, 1963: a performance of
“Capitalist Realism.” The Düsseldorf artist group (Richter, Lueg, and Sigmar Polke)
mounted an installation of objects in a local furniture store, installing themselves with
the commodities for sale (“living sculptures”) as a demonstration of "Capitalist
Realism." To what earlier, state-supported realisms was "Capitalist Realism"

Richard Hamilton, 1956
(left) Richter and Sigmar Polke, 1965, from Richter/Polke exhibition catalogue
(right) Richter, 1998, from Gerhard Richter: 40 Years of Painting exhibition cat.
Gerhard Richter (b. Dresden, 1932), [Nazi officer] Uncle Rudi, 1965, oil on canvas
        (right) Administrative Building, 1964, Oil on canvas, 38 1/4 x 59 “
                photo sources – family snapshot and encyclopedia

                          “I believe in nothing” [Richter]

                                “…photography. . .had no style, no composition,
                                no judgment. It freed me from personal experience.
                                That’s why I wanted to have it – not to use it as a
                                means to painting but to use painting as a means
                                to photography.                          - Richter
    Gerhard Richter, Aunt Marianne, oil on canvas, 1965, 47 x 51 in
      from a photograph of Richter as a baby with Aunt Marianne
“Whenever I behaved badly I was told you will become like crazy Marianne.”
      Gerhard Richter, Phantom Interceptors, 1964, oil on canvas, 55" x 6' 3“
          (right) Alpha Romeo (With Text), 1965, oil on canvas, 60” x 59”

What is grisaille?
Richter, Eight Student Nurses, 1966, oil on canvas, 8 individual paintings, each c. 36 x 27 in
Compare Gerhard Richter’s Eight Student Nurses, 1966
 with Andy Warhol’s Jackie: The Week That Was, 1963
       (left) Gerhard Richter, Abstract Painting, 1976, oil on canvas, 26 x 23 in.

 “After the gray paintings, after the dogma of ‘fundamental painting’ whose purist and
moralizing aspects fascinated me to a degree bordering on self-denial, all I could do was
         start all over again. This was the beginning of the first color sketches.”

                                                  Compare concept of Rauschenberg’s
                                                  Factum I & II, 1957
  Gerhard Richter, October 18, 1977: Baader-Meinhof series, Confrontation 1 and 2,
1988, oil on canvas, all 45” H. The subject is Ulrike Meinhof, the Baader-Meinhof group -
  or gang – part of the Red Army Faction, was the first of the Marxist terror groups that
              killed bankers, politicians and bystanders across 70s Europe.
October, 1977, news photo of protesters in Stuttgart at funeral of Andreas Baader
Final paintings in Gerhard Richter’s October 18, 1977
    Baader-Meinhof series titled Tote 1, 2, and 3
(left) Gerhard Richter, Betty (Richter’s daughter), 1988, oil on canvas, 40 x 23“
(right) Richter, October 18, 1977 [Ulrike Meinhof] : Baader-Meinhof series,
Confrontation 1, 1988. Both oil paintings were made in 1988.
   (left) Gerhard Richter, Iceberg in Fog, 1982, oil on canvas, 27 x 39 in
compare (left) Caspar David Friedrich (German Romantic Painter, 1774-1840)
         (top) Monk by the Sea (1809) and (bottom) Polar Sea (1823)
Gerhard Richter, Untitled, 1987, oil on canvas, 118” square
                    Richter, Betty, 1988, oil on canvas, 40 x 23“
                       compare (right) Untitled, oil, 1987, 118”

“Painting is the form of the picture, you might say. The picture is the depiction, and
                      painting is the technique for shattering it.”
                                                   Lichtenstein, cover
                                                   Of Newsweek, 1966

   Sigmar Polke, Bunnies, 1966, acrylic on
linen, 58 x 39” A “raster” painting (commercial
   printing process showing “benday” dots)
                                                  Warhol, "Marilyn," 1964
       Sigmar Polke (German,1941-1910), (left) Modern Art, 1968
(right) Polke, Lovers II, 1965, oil and enamel on canvas, 6 ft 3 in x 55 in
Ralph Goings, 2011 exhibition poster, Airstream,1970, oil on canvas, 60 x 85 in.
MUMOK, Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Vienna
Richard Estes (born Kewanee, Illinois, 1932) Telephone Booths, 1968, acrylic on
masonite, 48 x 69 in., Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid. Signature subjects are urban
street life – mostly New York City – of the late ‘sixties and ‘seventies.
Duane Hanson (US, 1925–
1996), Woman with Dog, 1977,
cast polyvinyl polychromed in
synthetic polymer, with cloth
and hair, 46 × 48 × 51 in.
overall. Whitney Museum of
American Art, New York
Chuck Close (US, 1940)
Self-Portrait, 1967-8, acrylic
on canvas, c. 9 x 6 ft.,
Walker Art Center,

Vija Celmins (US based in LA, b. Latvia 1939), Pan, oil on canvas 24 x 35 in., 1964
Vija Celmins, Suspended Plane, 1966, oil on canvas, 24 x 35 x 2 ½ in., SFMOMA
   [Celmins on painting process: http://www.sfmoma.org/multimedia/videos/99 ]

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