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CAM in Africa South Africa



Case Study Report 02:
Ndumo Community Centre, South Africa
CAM in Africa: South Africa
Case Study Report: Ndumo Community Centre

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... 2
  ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................... 4
  GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................ 4
0.      Project Snapshot ............................................................................................... 5
1.      Introduction ....................................................................................................... 7
2.      Basis of Selection of Case Study ..................................................................... 7
3.      Chronology of events........................................................................................ 7
4.     Observations/Findings...................................................................................... 7
     4.1  The Need ..................................................................................................... 7
     4.2  Contextual Factors ....................................................................................... 8
     4.3  Options and alternatives ............................................................................... 8
     4.4  Decision making process ............................................................................. 9
     4.5  Resources utilised. ....................................................................................... 9
     4.6  Stakeholders Comments .............................................................................. 9
     4.7  Key Factors .................................................................................................. 9
     4.8  Key people ................................................................................................. 11
     4.9  Key elements ............................................................................................. 11
5.     Analysis............................................................................................................ 11
     5.1  People-centred ........................................................................................... 11
     5.2  Participatory ............................................................................................... 11
     5.3  Multi-level ................................................................................................... 12
     5.4  Partnership-based ...................................................................................... 12
     5.5  Dynamic ..................................................................................................... 12
     5.6  Sustainable ................................................................................................ 13
     5.7  Condition and Suitability ............................................................................. 13
     5.8  Other .......................................................................................................... 14
     5.9  The project is cost-effective. ....................................................................... 14
6.     Conclusions / Recommendations .................................................................. 14
     6.1  Disablers .................................................................................................... 14
     6.2  Enablers ..................................................................................................... 15
     6.3  Lessons ...................................................................................................... 15
     6.4  What is the case study an example of? ...................................................... 15
7.     Appendices ...................................................................................................... 16
     7.1    List of people contacted ............................................................................. 16
     7.2    Report on Interviews .................................................................................. 18
       7.2.1     Interview with the Builders: Elvis Gumede, Richard Mthethwa, Elius
       Gumede 18
       7.2.2     Meeting with Mr Mthethwa, Board Member of the Trust, Community
       Activists and Principal Head for Ndumo Commercial School ............................ 21
       7.2.3     Meeting with Mr Gama Mathe, the manager of Ndumo Community
       Centre 23

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                                             Page 2
    7.2.4     Meeting with Nikita from the Environment Education Centre, Nature
    Conservation Services....................................................................................... 25
    7.2.5     Meeting with the Induna Mr J Tembe .................................................. 27
    7.2.6     Meeting with the Members of the Recycling Group, Nelly and Oberd . 28
    7.2.7     Meeting with Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso Mathe and
    Bathobile Ntimbane. .......................................................................................... 29
    7.2.8     Meeting with Mr TM Malu, Teacher at Ndumo High School ................ 30
    7.2.9     Meeting with Nduminsani Malwani ...................................................... 32
    7.2.10 Meeting with Mr Mandla Tembe of Ezemualo KZN Wildlife ................ 33
    7.2.11 Telephone Interview with George Norvall, the Project Manager on the
    project. 34
    7.2.12 Telephone Interview with Mr Rodney Harber, the architect on the
    project. 35
    7.2.13 Meeting with Nora from Peace Foundation, the funder. ...................... 36
  7.3    Field notes .................................................................................................. 39
  7.4    List of illustrations ....................................................................................... 39
    7.4.1     Site Analysis........................................................................................ 39
    7.4.2     Average Climate Statistics for Richards Bay ....................................... 40
    7.4.3     Photographs ........................................................................................ 40
    7.4.4     Drawings ............................................................................................. 44
  7.5    Supporting Documents ............................................................................... 44

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                                         Page 3
    PEACE: Planning, education, agriculture, community facilitation, environment
          and ecosystem.

    CENTRE: Ndumo Community Centre

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                  Page 4
 CAM in Africa: South Africa
 Case Study Report: Ndumo Community Centre
0.    Project Snapshot

     Name of project              Ndumo Community Centre
     Location                     Ndumo, Kwa Mthanti Area, Northern Maputaland, KwaZulu Natal
     Address                      P O Box 7025, Qotho, 3964
     Contact person               Gama Mathe
     Contact details:
             Address              P O Box 7025, Qotho, 3964
             Telephone            082 293 4988
             Fax                  035 591 0114
     Lead organisation            Peace Foundation
             Client               Peace Foundation
             Sponsor              Peace Foundation

             Professionals        Rodney Harber, George Narvall
             Collaborating        Love Life, Nature Conservation Services, Drop In Centre, Kewlogg
             organisations        Foundation.
             Users                Community members and different community organisations
             Local                Local Councillor Mr D Mabika
             Government           Elvis Gumede, Richard Mthethwa, Elias Gumede
             Builders             Materials acquired by Peace Foundation
     Financial profile            See 5.9 in report
     Purpose (type of facility,   Community Hall for Community Meetings; Telecentre for Computer
     key uses)                    Studies, Internet and typing services, Photo copying, Public telephones
                                  and Faxing Machine; Small business Premises (Hair saloon, Bakery,
                                  Offices and Tuck shop); Crèche for children; Church group meetings;
                                  Processing of Identity cards and birth certificates by Home Affairs
                                  Department and Offices and base for Love Life activities
     Achievements                 The centre brings the community together through the common use of

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                          Page 5
  (distinguishing features)   space especially the community hall. Creation of jobs for community.
                              More projects have come to the area through the centre enhancing
                              community activities and development.
  Key dates (e.g.,            Started in October 1998 and stopped until 2001 but it is not yet
  completion date)            complete.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                      Page 6
1.    Introduction
 Ndumo Community Centre is located in Ndumo. Ndumo is a rural village in the
 kwaMthanti area in Ingwavuma District, Northern Maputoland. Northern Maputoland
 is in the northern part of KwaZulu-Natal province. The community centre serves a
 rural community with about eight primary schools and two high schools. There are
 two people employed to run the centre, the building manager and the chief
 administrator. The facilities offered at the centre are small businesses, offices, crèche
 and the telecentre. The building construction on the centre started in October 1998.
 The centre is still under construction. The projected is funded through Peace
 Foundations. The community has been involved in the developments of the centre
 from the initiation of the idea to the present state. The builders and labour were
 sourced from the local community. The manager and the administrator both come
 from the local community. In total, there are about eight people from the local
 community working in the community centre.

2.    Basis of Selection of Case Study
 Ndumo Community Centre has been chosen as an example of good practice
 because it developed out of a proactive relationship between Peace Foundation and
 the community over a long term that in the past included building classrooms and
 teachers’ housing. The need for the structure was identified by the community,
 intentionally avoiding the all too common top-down approach of such developments.
 The success of the project is determined by community’s input.

3.    Chronology of events
 1998: October, construction started on site. It stopped soon after that.
 2001: Construction resumed on site. The building is not finished. Construction is still
       in process though it has been suspended pending further instructions from the
       consultant and delivery of some materials.
 2003: August, the building will be completely finished according to the project
       manager, Mr George Norvall.

4.    Observations/Findings
 The following were the observations made:

4.1    The Need
       The proposal for the centre developed from the need for a community meeting
       facility such as a community hall. The people used to meet under the tree for
       community meetings or consultations. The community realised that they needed
       a place where they could access services. Also it needed to be a central place in
       which to focus the community activities. The community centre was to facilitate
       different activities like community meetings, community functions, access to
       computers, photocopying and printing. The community would normally access
       such facilities from Jozzini, which is more than 50Km away. They also needed a
       centre for community economic activity such as space for small businesses and
       a channel to bring in projects from outside to the community.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                          Page 7
4.2   Contextual Factors
      The background of the project is that the initiatives came as a response to the
      poverty of the area. The area is very poor and underdeveloped. It can be safely
      said that the area is forgotten. The people are very poor and they realised that
      no body is going to take them out of that state if they do not do something about
      it themselves. The main economic activity is farming. The people concentrate
      mainly on raising life stock. They keep domesticated animals such as cattle,
      sheep and goats. However, this does not empower the people economically
      because they cannot farm and sell the life stock competitively. The area is
      geographically isolated and very remote, which makes transport very expensive.
      The people cannot afford to raise their animals to the same standards as those
      of commercial farmers.
      The level of education is generally low. Most of the youth only reach grade 12.
      The illiteracy level is very high especially among the elderly people. There is no
      access to any form of training in the area. It is difficult to find employment in the
      area because there is little or no economic activity.
      Culturally, the people practice a mixture of both Zulu and Western culture. This
      is evident in the food they eat – traditional and western food. The clothing is
      western except during traditional ceremonies and celebrations. For the
      construction of houses, both traditional and conventional methods are used.
      There has been some influence from western religions but many people still
      maintain Zulu values. Socially, the people in the community participate in sports
      like soccer, netball and basketball. There is also a Zulu cultural dance group,
      which celebrates the Zulu dance and song.
      Financially, the project was funded through the Peace Foundation. This is an
      organisation that raises funds to help poor communities to upgrade/develop their
      basic facilities. Peace foundation marketed the Ndumo area to potential donors
      until they found a donor to fund the development activities in the area. At first,
      classrooms and teachers’ housing accommodation were funded. The project
      budget was identified in a joint meeting between the donor, the architect and the
      project coordinator. When the project coordinator described what was required,
      the architect worked out a cost estimate of R 450 000 which amount was then
      provided by the donor.
      A project manager was appointed to manage the construction. He employed
      local builders who were paid a contract sum for labour only. There were three
      builders on the project and each was apportioned a part of the building that they
      then constructed from foundation to roof. The builders employed assistants to
      help them. All the materials were acquired by the project manager from the near
      by town called Mkuze. The project manager worked on a voluntary basis but the
      architect was paid professional fees that were provided for in the donor’s budget.

4.3   Options and alternatives
      The community did not have many choices. All the efforts to get help from the
      government and other government structures had failed. Their only hope was
      through the Peace Foundation. The community had no means of marketing
      themselves to attract donors. Peace Foundation managed to market the area
      and acquire the needed funding. Without assistance from Peace foundation, the
      community would have continued to meet under the trees as before.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 8
4.4   Decision making process
      The decision making process was through the Ndumo Development Committee.
      This committee constituted of individuals from the community. These included
      representation from the churches, schools, the tribal authority, politicians and
      ordinary members of the community. It was formed to oversee the developments
      in the area. Committee members consulted with the community on the
      developmental requirements. A report was presented to the management
      committee with representation from the community, the donor and the
      consultants. Some student volunteers from the university of Natal worked in the
      community as facilitators and produced a report for the committee. After
      consultations within the committee, decisions were made as team.

4.5   Resources utilised.
      The resources used on the project range from management skills to materials.
      The funding came from the donor through the Peace Foundation. Peace
      Foundation used management skills to facilitate the delivery of the facility
      through planning and coordination. Two professionals were used, the architect
      who did the design and the project manager who worked on a voluntary basis.
      The local community provided the builders and labour for the construction
      process including the block makers. The materials were from Mkuze, a nearby
      town except for sand, which was taken from a near-by riverbed.

4.6   Stakeholders Comments
      The community is very happy with the facility. It has made a positive impact on
      their lives. In addition, all the stakeholders feel that the facility has definitely
      improved the lives of the local people. The community has access to facilities
      that they never had before and more projects have come to the area through the
      centre. However, the project coordinator who organised the funding and
      coordinated the consultants and community is not happy about the status of the
      project and the fact that it has dragged on so slowly this far.

4.7   Key Factors
      Enabling: The main enabling element was the community structure that was
      formed to look at the problems the area was facing. The community structure
      that had been established to facilitate the implementation of the project
      contributed positively to the project. The development committee helped to
      mobilise the community to facilitate community participation. The community was
      committed to the success of the project and participated in the meetings that
      were held to discuss their problems. The community contributed to the
      identification and development of the projects that could improve their lives.
      They also participated in the identification of their needs and the identification of
      the site. The community’s willingness to contribute had a positive effect on the
      The project coordinator’s efforts in raising the funds and her support for the
      centre were key factors to the success of the project. The project coordinator
      visited the community regularly to encourage them even before she managed to
      find the donor.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 9
     Constraining: The main constraining factor at this point was the funding. Peace
     foundation had problems in finding additional donors as the project developed.
     The lack of interest of government structures had a negative impact on the
     Enabling: The community participated in the construction process in that all the
     labour and the builders were sourced locally. By providing a committed work
     force, the community contributed positively. There were times when the project
     manager would not go there on time to pay the builders but the work still
     progressed as planned. The community has waited patiently even in periods
     when construction had come to a stand still due to lack of funding.
     The commitment of the project manager and the volunteer community facilitators
     from University of Natal also contributed to the success of the project. These
     people worked very hard to see the project through. Above all, the perseverance
     of Peace Foundation to raise funds and their commitment to the cause made the
     project successful. The coordinator had difficulty finding donors for the project.
     Constraining: The main constraining factor during the production was the fact
     that no site analysis was done before the design drawings were done. When the
     foundations were being dug, clay soils were discovered. The clay soils were not
     anticipated and hence no provision made in the design of the building.
     Foundation trenches had to be taken deeper and costs escalated. The budget
     did not allow for an engineer to design the foundations.
     There were delays during the construction process due to lack of funds. The
     money was coming in very slowly. Sometimes the building construction would
     stop. Because of the foundation problems, the budget was over the original
     One of the builders was sick, which also delayed the finish of the building.
     The professionals on the project came from Durban, which is far from the
     construction site. This affected the rate of construction and progress because
     they could only travel to site at certain times.
     Enabling: The management capacity of the building manager plays a big role in
     the smooth running of the centre. There is a management structure, which
     enables smooth communication. The community’s support and commitment to
     the centre also plays a considerable role.
     Constraining: The constraining elements were the initial conflicts within the
     community when the building manager was appointed. However, the conflicts
     were resolved. The main constraining element is the lack of funding for running
     of the centre. There is no standing budget for the management and maintenance
     of the centre.
     The other very important constraining aspect is that the community is
     marginalized and sidelined by government structures. Presently, the community
     has been divided into two different wards, which make it difficult for future
     planning because they fall under different political leaders.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 10
4.8    Key people
       The key person in this project is Nora. Nora and her husband are the ones who
       exposed the area to potential donors. The members of the development
       committee also played a big role in mobilising community participation.

4.9    Key elements
       The project has been made possible by the commitment of the donor through
       Peace Foundation, the voluntary services of the Project manager and students
       from the University of Natal, and the commitment of the community.

5.    Analysis
 The project objectives have been met in terms of design requirements but the
 construction of the centre has taken longer than was anticipated. The project costs
 are higher than estimated. Technically, the building is not a sound structure due to
 the limitations in the design of the foundations. However, the centre provides a focus
 of activities for the community, which they did not have previously.

 The following analysis is based upon the CAM criteria proposed as project critical
 success factors.

5.1    People-centred
       Even if the centre is not complete, the local community feel that the centre is
       contributing positively to their lives. The centre is the focal point of the
       community. People meet there for important and special events reinforcing a
       sense of belonging and togetherness.
       The community centre is a product of the community’s labour and efforts, so the
       community is very proud of it. They identify by it “our community centre.” The
       community feels that it is very privileged to be the first in area to have a
       community centre.
       The centre has contributed in generating a better life for the people because the
       community has access to facilities that they did not have previously. The centre
       has provided new jobs and business opportunities for the community. It also
       provides a decent venue were the community can hold different events. In
       addition, the community has access to computer training.

5.2    Participatory
       Initiation: The community participated in the identification of the needs and site.
       They also participated in the development of the design and design
       requirements. Community participation was achieved through consultative
       Production: Local labour and builders were used in the construction of the
       centre. Even the block makers came from the local community. Blocks were
       made on site.
       Operational: All the people working at the centre come from the local community.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 11
      So the centre is being managed and maintained at a local level, but it is evident
      that the centre does not yet have the capacity to sustain itself. The centre needs
      some capital input to get it off its feet until there is a good economic base at the
      centre to sustain it. However, the area does not have an economic base that can
      support major maintenance works like replacement of the roof if need be.
      Since the community initiated the idea, the centre is a baby of the community.
      The community contributed to the design and design requirements of the centre.
      The builders and labour was sourced from the community. It is a product of their
      labour so they feel that it belongs to them.
      The Ndumo Management Trust was formed to over see the management of the
      centre. It is a legal entity and it owns the centre. It constitutes of board members
      who come from the local community.

5.3   Multi-level
      The community hall is used for community meetings but it is also used by the
      Department of Home Affairs for the Identity Card and Birth Certificates
      Campaigns. The local authority also uses it for the civic campaigns. The
      community centre is also a business centre for the community while Love Life
      run there programmes from there as well. It has a crèche and computer training
      Presently, the centre provides employment for people from the local community.
      The project helped to retain investment in the community, including both
      financially and in terms of knowledge and skills. According to the architect 40%
      of the contract sum was retained in the community. The assistants to the
      builders who constructed the centre developed their skills in the process so that
      they are able to build independently.

5.4   Partnership-based
      The partnership is mainly between the community and the private sector. There
      has been no public government involvement on the project. The project is a
      result of continued consultation between the participants and the initiatives of the
      project. The community’s input has been sort throughout the project.
      The main other stakeholder on the project is the Peace Foundation. Though the
      project did not proceed according to their plans, they still think it has contributed
      to uplift the lives of the local people. It will contribute even more when it is

5.5   Dynamic
      The centre can sustain itself in daily operations but it requires capital input to
      boost the activities within the centre. More money is required to finish the
      building so that it can operate at its optimal capacity. The idea can be replicated
      in another setting and at different scales according to the local requirements and
      The centre is capable of growing and sustaining itself if supported to a certain
      level so that it can gain some momentum. When it is complete and operational, it
      can generate enough funds to meet the running costs. The centre needs to
      create alternative ways of fundraising and to find more partners.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                          Page 12
      The design of the centre is very flexible making it possible for the centre to be
      used for many different functions not within the design brief. The telecentre was
      designed to be a blacksmith’s workshop but it functions well as a telecentre.

5.6   Sustainable
      The project has not impacted negatively on it’s own environment because it has
      not changed any significant aspect of the ecosystem of the area. It does not
      exploit the natural resources negatively in its design and implementation.
      Moreover, since the centre is used by the Environment Education Centre for
      their activities, the centre is a platform from where environmental awareness
      programmes are propagated.

5.7   Condition and Suitability
      Status: The building is not complete. The following are not yet complete: The
      toilets facilities, kitchen, plumbing, roller doors not yet fixed, painting and the
      water tanks to harvest the water. The complete parts of the building are barely
      furnished. Some are not even furnished at all. For example, there is no furniture
      or equipment of any sort in the community hall or the crèche although the
      spaces are being used.
      A walk through the building reveals a number of limitations in the design and
      The floor is cracking in many places as shown in the picture of the manager’s
      office. See appendix 7.4.3 picture 09.
      It appears that there were no expansion joints in the walls of the hall as shown in
      the pictures of the hall. The project manager and the builders are now trying to
      include expansion joints through using the natural cracks. There is a strange
      detail attached to the wall of the hall, the roof of the attached building crosses
      the window of the hall. See appendix 7.4.3 pictures 55-64.
      There is no drainage system to drain the water from rain or otherwise from the
      courtyard, which is surrounded by buildings. The water sinking down in the
      courtyard will have a negative effect on the foundations of the building. There is
      no decision on what is going to happen to the courtyard surface. It is hoped that
      it should be paved to prevent further damage to the foundations. The retaining
      wall of the courtyard is already badly cracked. See appendix 7.4.3 picture 19.
      The soil conditions were not considered in the design of the foundations as is
      evident in the characteristic cracks in the building. It seems as if the building is
      settling at different rates and levels. See appendix 7.4.3 picture 21.
      One side of the building is just built at one level without following the site
      topography according to the design drawings. This is attributed to the builders
      incapacity to read the plans. See appendix 7.4.3 picture 08.
      The general area around the building has not been landscaped what so ever.
      The choice of materials used in the finishes has high maintenance cost
      implications. The building has been plastered smooth and painted a bright blue
      and white. The area is muddy with dark soils so the walls are showing the dirt
      and in need of a coat of paint. Since the choices of materials were limited by the
      funds available, the building could nevertheless have been painted in colours
      that are appropriate for its natural setting. For the floor, a plain floor screed has

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                          Page 13
       been used, which is not very durable as it is already broken in places.
       Considering the traffic and maintenance costs, tiles that can withstand high
       traffic could have been used. The use of glass sliding doors, which are yet to be
       installed, will imply high replacement cost if they are broken. See appendix 7.4.3,
       Picture 46.
       The centre is generally clean but not smart. The centre needs to be cleaned
       everyday and general cleaning to be done frequently to remove dirt and
       cobwebs from the walls and ceiling. The yard outside the building looks
       unkempt, vegetable and flower gardens should be grown to make it look
       attractive and clean. See appendix 7.4.3, Picture 54.
       Functionality: the building is very functional (well designed) and meets all the
       requirements for which it was planned. What adds value to the building is the
       fact that the spaces are designed to be flexible in their use. The office that was
       designed for the tribal authority with a circular waiting area has been converted
       into an office for Love Life.

5.8    Other
       The asset physical is a quality product made of cement blocks; and it is
       plastered and painted. When complete, it will be fully serviced with water,
       electricity and sewerage disposal. It has had a positive effect on the community
       as a whole because of the facilities that it provides.
       The surrounding land is used as: there is a Commercial School directly opposite
       the centre. The Commercial School is being run as a High School due to lack of
       funds for equipment and materials. On both sides of the centre and behind are
       community gardens. When the centre is complete, it is going to be properly
       fenced so that gardens can be developed. This will allow the centre to blend into
       the environment. See appendix 7.4.3 pictures 01, 26 and 41.

5.9    The project is cost-effective.
       The project exceeded its budget due to an overrun in the costs of the
       foundations. If a proper site analysis had been done and an engineer consulted,
       the project would not have been so expensive. The project initial cost estimate
       was R 450 000.00. Already more than R 1 000 000.00 has been spent and it is
       not yet completed. Considerable amount had to be spent on securing
       appropriate foundations. More funding for initial planning and design could have
       averted the situation.

6.    Conclusions / Recommendations

6.1    Disablers
       Lack of Building Capacity: Incapacity of the builder from the local community to
       read building drawings; the builders could not read the design drawings properly
       so they could not get the levels right.
       Lack of Specialists: There was no soil engineer on the project to recommend the
       design of foundations appropriate for the soil conditions on site.
       No Analysis of the Area: There was no study on the area and soils (site analysis)
       to ascertain design requirements.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 14
      Budget Restrictions: There were insufficient funds to plan for the project properly
      and thoroughly.

6.2   Enablers
      Community Structures: The community structure (Ndumo Development
      Committee) mobilised and facilitated community involvement from the inception
      of the project.
      Community commitment and determination: The community was committed and
      determined to see the project succeed.
      Financial Support: Although the money came in slowly, the available financial
      support made the project possible.
      Commitment of Peace Foundation: Peace Foundation was committed to raise
      the funds despite all difficulties.
      Voluntary services: The commitment and generosity of volunteers to offer their
      services on the project reduced the financial strain on the community’s budget
      for the project.

6.3   Lessons
      For implementation of good community asset management:
      The community’s structures that are established in response to their problems
      should be recognised.
      The community should be involved from the initiation of the project for them to
      own the project.
      It is necessary to encourage and facilitate motivation of the community so that
      they take ownership and become naturally determined and committed to see the
      project succeed.
      The community cannot succeed no matter how committed they are without other
      partners to help and support them.
      It is very important to involve professionals to do technical/specialist work to
      provide a sound and solid cost effective facility.
      Commitment from donors to see the project through to its end is important.
      A properly laid down management and maintenance programme should be
      developed together with a budget and fund sourcing strategy to establish and
      ensure sustainability of the assets.

6.4   What is the case study an example of?
      Community initiative: The community took the initiative to organise itself and plan
      for its needs in response to a desperate situation.
      Multi-use Community Centre: A multipurpose centre can be established through
      the identification of community needs.
      Influence of significant persons: A person with good connections can influence
      other people who have the resources to help poor communities.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 15
7.    Appendices

7.1    List of people contacted
 DATE/DOC                  NAME, CONTACT          ROLE                    SKETCH PROFILE
                                                                          He was born and grew up in the
 02/07/2003                                       He has been
                                                                          area. He did his primary school
                                                  running the centre
                           Gama Mathe,                                    and secondary school education
                                                  since 2001. He is
 Afternoon                 Building Manager.                              at the local schools. After he
                                                  responsible for all
                           Cell No 082 293                                finished his college education at
                                                  the operations and
                           4988                                           Natal Technikon, he was
 Ndumo Community                                  maintenance of the
                                                                          employed at the centre as the
 Centre                                           centre.
                                                                          Centre Manager.

                                                                          All the three builders were from
                                                                          the local community. The
                                                  They did all the
                                                                          builders grew up and were
                                                  construction work
 02/07/2003                                                               educated in Ndumo. They have
                                                  on the building
                                                                          acquired their building trades
                           Elvis Gumede,          starting from the
                                                                          from working within the
 Morning                   Richard Mthethwa,      foundation to the
                                                                          community. Each builder had a
                           Elius Gumede,          roof. They were
                                                                          portion of the building to
                           Builders.              helped by their
 Ndumo Community                                                          construct and was paid wages
                                                  assistants. They
 Centre                                                                   for the work. From the wages
                                                  were employed as
                                                                          they received, they paid their
                                                                          assistants who were also local

                           Jabulani J
 02/07/2003                                       He is part of the
                           Mthethwa, Board                                Mr JJ Mthethwa has been very
                                                  Trust that runs the
                           Member of the                                  instrumental in the development
                                                  centre so he takes
                           Ndumo Community                                of the area as a whole. He took
 Morning                                          part in the decision
                           Trust, Principal of                            part from the initiation of the
                                                  making on the
                           Ndumo                                          development committee for the
                                                  operations of the
 Ndumo Community           Commercial                                     area, which started most of the
                                                  centre. He is also
 Centre                    School cell o82                                developments.
                                                  one of the users.
                           209 1088

                                                  She uses the
                                                  centre as a venue
                                                                          Nikita is originally from Britain.
 03/07/2003                                       and for other
                                                                          She has been in the country for
                           Nikita works for the   facilities from the
                                                                          9 years and she has immigrated
                           Environmental          Telecentre for the
 Morning                                                                  to South Africa officially. She has
                           Centre with Nature     project on
                                                                          taken residence of the country
                           Conservation           Environmental
                                                                          as well. She has been working
 Ndumo Community           Services               issues she is
                                                                          with the Ndumo Community
 Centre                                           working on with 8
                                                                          centre for the past 2 years.
                                                  schools in the

                                                  He was involved in      He was born and breed in the
 03/07/2003                                       the development of      area. He was a humble
                           J Tembe, Nduna         the community           community member before he
                           for the area           centre initially as a   became the Nduna for the area.
                                                  community               He should give his blessings for
                                                  member. Now that        all the developments and
 Ndumo Community                                  he is Nduna, he is      activities that are taking place in
                                                  responsible for         the area. He is the local

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                            Page 16
Centre                                          everything in the       administrator for the people from
                                                area and the            the tribal authority.

                                                                        A group of local youth were
                                                                        trained on how to recycle
                                                                        materials. The group will be
03/07/2003                                                              involved in a project that will be
                          Nelly and Oberd
                                                                        recycling materials at the centre.
                          from the group that   Thy will the centre
                                                                        This project will provide
Afternoon                 was recently          as the venue for
                                                                        employment for the youth. Most
                          trained in the        their recycling
                                                                        of the youth involved in the
                          recycling of          project.
Ndumo Community                                                         project have reached grade 12
Centre                                                                  but did not have the funds to
                                                                        further their studies. This project
                                                                        has provided training and jobs
                                                                        for the youth.

                          S’thembiso Mathe      They are employed       These are the youth of the
03/07/2003                and Bathobile         by Love Life and        community. They were born and
                          Ntimbane, they are    their office and        educated locally. They have both
Afternoon                 both                  operating base is       finished grade 12 but could not
                          groundbreakers        at the centre. They     afford to further their education.
                          (employed by Love     use the centre and      They are now employed by Love
                          Life) in the          help in the             Life to work on the different
Ndumo Community           community.            cleaning.               programmes.
                                                He is the
                                                chairperson for         Mr TM Malu is from the local
                                                Ndumo                   community. He was educated in
04/07/2003                                      Environmental           the local schools. He studied for
                                                Education               his teaching profession privately
                          Mr TM Malu,           Committee Stirring      with Azahi College of
                          Teacher at Ndumo      Committee, which        Johannesburg by
                          High School           includes 8 schools      correspondence. He now works
Ndumo Community                                 in the area. The        at the local Ndumo High School.
Centre                                          committee uses          He is actively involved in the
                                                the facilities of the   community development
                                                centre for its          activities.

                                                He runs the
                                                programme on
                          Ndumisani                                     He is from the local community.
04/07/2003                                      behalf of Kewlogg
                          Malwane working                               He is running the programme as
                          with the Integrated                           the district community facilitator.
                                                through University
Morning                   Rural Development                             The programme has a number of
                                                of Pretoria. Post
                          Programme                                     objectives aimed at alleviating
                                                Graduate School of
                                                                        poverty and empowering the
Ndumo Community                                 Agriculture. He
                                                                        community in all different
Centre                    072 649 0652          uses the facility for
                                                                        aspects of life.
                                                some of their

                                                He is the project       He has been working on
04/07/2003                Mandla Tembe
                                                leader for the          community education on wild life
                          working with the
                                                Environmental           for past 10 years. He has vast
                          Ezemuelo KZN
                                                Education Centre        experience in the area and he is

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                          Page 17
 Afternoon                  Wildlife.            and works on other     working with the community
                                                 activities of          through the schools that are the
                                                 Wildlife. He uses      project.
 Game Reserve               Office No 035 591    the facilities as
                            0114 Cell 082 256    such and as a

 Local Authority offices
                            Councillor D
                            Monika cell 082      Local authority.
 Phone interview still      345 5951

                            Harber, Rodney
                            Harber and
                            PO Box 50062
                            Musgrave 4062
                            South Africa
                            Tel +27 31 209       Rodney Harber is
 Telephone Interview        0304                 the architect on the
 still pending try Friday                        project.
 11/07/2003                 Fax +27 31 209

                                                 He was in charge
 10/07/2003                 George Norvall,
                                                 of the actual
                            Project Manager
                            cell 072 204 0444
 Telephone interview at                          process of Ndumo
                            office 031 260
 09:30hrs                                        community centre
                                                 on site.

7.2   Report on Interviews

7.2.1 Interview with the Builders: Elvis Gumede, Richard Mthethwa, Elius
 Date 02/07/2003
 Time: Morning
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre

 The first interview was with the builders as named above. I arrived at the centre at
 about 08:00hrs in the morning. The centre was about 17 km from the lodge were I
 was staying. The road is not tarred so it was a rough rid considering I was using an
 ordinary car not a 4x4, which could have been ideal for the kind of road. It was a
 good break to drive through the bush with hardly any traffic alongside. The area has
 scanty bushes with a lot of undergrowth. We saw a lot of domesticated animals
 grazing and being herded along the way.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                       Page 18
I found the manager of the centre with a number of people waiting for me. We
introduced each other and I was welcomed warmly. I started chatting with the people
outside informally after I was introduced to them. Some of them I was going to
interview them that morning. It was interesting how differently we perceive things.
When I complained about how far the place was, I was frankly asked, “Far, from
where?” by Mr JJ Mthethwa. This question set aback and I had to rethink my
statement. I actually offered to withdraw the statement and rephrased it differently.
Mr Mthethwa explained how that perception of the distance of the place has affected
and marginalized the area in terms of development. He argued that since even at
planning level nationally and provincially, the area is perceived as very far, little or no
development comes to the area. Therefore, because of stakeholders perceiving the
area has far, it has had a negative impact on the area.

For the discussion with the builders, we had to use the services of an interpreter. Mr
Mthethwa, when asked by the Building Manager, agreed to interpret for us. The
interview was done with the building manager present so I feel that might have
affected the answers to the questions. When I expressed my fears to the manager,
he assured me that there was nothing to hide.

After we introduced ourselves with a brief background given by the Building
Manager, Mr Gama Mathe, the interview started.

The builders were recommended by the development committee under Ndumo Trust.
The committee members knew the builders by the work they have done in the
community previously. Therefore, when the project manager from Peace Foundation
approached the committee to suggest possible builders, the committee
recommended these builders. Then the Project Manager appointed through Peace

The builders were not employed as contractors or subcontractors but more like
trades men. They were paid wages or salaries for the their manpower. They were
allowed to employ assistants to help them. These assistants were paid by the
builders from their wages.

The builders had to train their own assistants in block making and brick laying
themselves. Most of the training was through demonstrations and observations. Then
the assistants were asked to demonstrate to show if they had learned what was
expected if them.

The builders and their assistants are all local people from the community. Employing
local people provided employment for the community during the construction
process. There was also skill transfer to the assistants to the builders.

The builders did not play any part in the planning and design of the community
centre. They constructed the facility just following plans provided by the architect.
Each builder had a portion of the community that each had to construct from
foundation to roof level. The pictures show the different builders in front of the portion
they built.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 19
The builders feel that the provision of this facility has had a positive effect on the
community. During the construction of the facility, jobs were created because the
builders were local people from the community. There was also transfer of skills to
the assistants that helped the builders to build. Some of the assistants are now
building on other local projects like houses on their own. Even if the building is not
finished, it is being used. In the process, more jobs have been created for the local
community. The following people are employed in one way or another at the centre.
The manager for the community centre who runs the centre on a daily basis; There
are two teachers to teach computers at the telecaster; there is an administrator for
the telecentre who handles typing, faxes, photocopying and internet; and there is a
teacher and an assistant for the crèche.

The telecentre facilities have improved communication channels for the people of the
area. Now they have access to the inter-net, faxes and phones which they did not
have previously. The community also has access to computers and computer training
through the telecentre.

Previously, the people had problems to find a good venue for their various activities
like weddings, meetings and other events; the community hall serves this function
very well. The community hall has become a centre of activity for the community. It is
also used by some church groups.

The builders are all happy with the way the centre is being managed and run even if
it is not finished. There are no funds budgeted for both management and
maintenance, therefore they feel that the manager is doing the best under the
circumstances. Since the building is not finished, there are no maintenance or
management programmes. The builders do not take part in the maintenance or
running of the centre but they said that some community members volunteer to help
with the cleaning since is no cleaning lady.

The main challenge of the area is the lack of construction projects in the area where
they can be employed. They feel that Peace Foundation should have employed them
on other projects that they are running. Peace Foundation has let down the builders
by not showing any recognition of their quality of work through acknowledgement.
They also suggested that when government or/and local authority is doing
construction projects in the area, they should not come with contractors but they
should contract the local people.

They also complained that it is taking too long to finish the building. Some materials
are there but they have to wait for the consultants to come and issue instructions. It
takes a long time for the consultant to come so the delays are long. They suggested
that an alternative decision process or procedure should be developed to prevent
such delays.

I thanked the builders for affording me the time to talk to them. Then I took some
pictures of them in front of the portions of the building that they constructed with their
permission. See picture 05, 06 and 07.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                          Page 20
7.2.2 Meeting with Mr Mthethwa, Board Member of the Trust, Community
          Activists and Principal Head for Ndumo Commercial School
 Date 02/07/2003
 Time: Morning
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre

I did not need to re-introduce myself to Mr Mthethwa as we had chatted together
before earlier in the morning. Mr Mthethwa told the whole story on how the
community centre came to being. It started with a little intelligent boy who worked in
the game reserve. His brilliance impressed some tourists who were visiting in the
game reserve that they decided to see his home and meet his family. When the boy
brought them home, they were shocked by the poverty that prevailed in the boy’s
community. That community was Ndumo community.

These people (the tourists) decided to help but they did not want to through the
government structures, which they found too bureaucratic. So, the people of the area
were asked to form a committee thus the birth of the Ndumo Development
Committee. The tourists went on a fundraising campaign and brought more people to
the area to come to see the poverty of the area. The funds were raised coordinated
through Peace Foundation.

Together with the community through the committee, Peace Foundation assessed
the situation and prioritised the needs. They realised that they needed more classes.
They built more classes in the schools in the area.

To attract teaching staff to the area they built teachers accommodation, which was in
form cottages. Previously the teachers were just squatting in the local community.
There were few teachers willing to come to the area because of poor accommodation
and poor transport infrastructure. Considering the remoteness of the place, the
teachers needed to be enticed or attracted to go there.

Through this initiative, 22 classrooms were provided in the area. At the time, the
government was running a programme called Rand for Rand. Under this, programme
the government contributing an equal amount of money as the community-to-
community school developments. Therefore, the government gave the committee
about R 7 000.00 per classroom that the community built. The community through
the committee (Ndumo Development Committee) gave the money to Peace
Foundation so that it can be used to help other communities that are in need. Peace
Foundation however suggested that the money could be used for another project in
Ndumo community and asked the community to come up with one project. That is
when the community decided to have a community hall.

As the community looked in the idea of the community hall, they realised that they
needed more than just a community hall. They needed a facility where the
community can come for other services as well. Then they decided that they needed
a community centre that will provide other facilities like business centre and offices.
Through consultations with the community and tribal authority, a site was identified.
The tree that has been incorporated in the courtyard design of the centre was the
identifying object. The soldiers from the nearby post helped to clear the site, which
was then showed to Peace Foundation.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 21
The consulting architect worked with the community to develop the design of the
community according to there needs and desires. The centre that has been
constructed even if it is not finished is a venue for the following activities: Identity
Card and Birth Certificate Campaign by the Home Affairs Department, Crèche, Small
businesses, Offices, as a venue for different events and activities, Computer
Training, Faxes, Photo Copying, Typing, and Telephone Facilities.

The construction of the community centre is not yet complete. The following things
are still in complete: Toilet Facilities, Plumbing, Roller Doors, and Water Tanks.

The community needs more facilities for the youth such as a youth centre. The
community and the building manager have come up with the attached proposal. It
should also include sporting facilities for the youth so that the youth can be
constructively active instead of just roaming the street. The youth are also inhibited
by the age difference between them and the nursing sisters at the local clinic. They
cannot freely talk to the sisters at the clinic so they need a clinic that will offer
counselling to the youth but with much younger staff. Mr Mthethwa feels that the
teachers are not trained to handle pregnancies in girl pupils, which have been
introduction in schools now. Such a clinic will help even in that aspect.

Ndumo Development Committee seems to have died a natural death. The main
reason was that it was sidelined and marginalized by the government and
government structures. The government structures have other structures through
which they channel their development activities. The government seem to be of the
opinion that the way the committee was operating was not the right way of
implementing development activities. However, the main objectives of the committee
were to spear head development in the area by getting basic services and facilities
like water, electricity, good road and good schools. It was a product of the people
meeting under a tree to share their common sufferings due to draught or flooding.

The committee achieved a lot through its initiatives. With a loan from KwaZulu
Finance Corporation, they managed to provide clean water to the people of the area
and a gravel road. This initiative was also supported by the Mandela government
who put 28 Million Rand in the provision of clean water to the area.

The water programme provided some opportunities for the contractors on the project
because some lodges in the area are owned by pipe engineers who worked on the
project. This has opened up the area to more tourists. This has stimulated the craft
market to grow providing employment and income for the people of the area.

During all these activities, the committee met a lot of resistance especially from the
old. The old insisted that insisted that they did not see anything wrong with their way
of life.

The centre is under the Trust. The trust constitutes of the local institutions, which are
the schools, the police, the church, the politicians, the induna and ordinary people
from the local community. The trust over sees everything that goes on in the centre.
The trust has appointed the building manager, the chief clerk or administrator and

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 22
 two computer teachers. These employees are paid from the income generated from
 the centre through the different activities.

 The main income is generated from the photocopying, faxes and fees from computer
 training. Other sources income generating activities through rentals and typing
 facilities. The income generated from these activities is not enough to sustain the
 centre so there is no cleaning person. The cleaning is done on a voluntary basis by
 members of the community.

 Since the building is incomplete, there is no maintenance programme and budget.
 Maintenance is reactive according to the immediate needs and urgency of the matter.
 The management of the centre is done by the Building manager and Mr Mthethwa
 was very satisfied his work.

 Politically, the area is represented more on paper than practically. The members of
 parliament only visit the area when there is a launch of a government institution or
 programme. Otherwise, they visit the area for personal business like funerals of their
 relatives or friends. The community feels left out and forgotten by the government.
 The main political of the area is the Inkhata Freedom Party (IFP). African National
 Congress (ANC) is new in the area and still small.

 The community centre has had a very positive impact on the community as a whole.
 It is an important venue for community activities like meetings, celebrations and
 events. It provides the following facilities to the community: typing, computer training,
 faxes, photo copying, inter-net, telephones, crèche for children, offices and small
 businesses. It has provided employment for people who work at the centre and
 business opportunities for the small businesses operating from there. However, Mr
 Mthethwa would love to see a stage when the centre can be self-sustainable. He
 feels it has the potential to generate enough funds to run and maintain it.

 I thanked Mr Mthethwa at the end of the meeting. Mr Mthethwa kindly asked for a
 hard copy of the final report to be sent to him to Ndumo Community Centre, PO Box
 7025, Qotho 3964 for the attention of Mr Gama Mathe, CC Jabulani J Mthethwa.

7.2.3 Meeting with Mr Gama Mathe, the manager of Ndumo Community Centre
 Time: Afternoons
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre
 By now, I had established a friendly relationship with Mr Gama Mathe. I did not need
 to introduce the subject or myself because he was familiar with the process since he
 had sat on one of the meetings. He is the manager of the community centre. He over
 sees the daily activities in the centre.

 He was appointed by Peace Foundation while he was studying in Durban. He started
 working in April 2001. He was born and educated in the local area until he went for
 his tertiary education in Durban. While he was in Durban, he was approached by
 peace foundation to come and run the centre. It was a good opportunity for him as he
 was always home sick while away. It also gave him an opportunity to work for the
 community, which was one thing he had always wanted to do.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 23
The community reception to him was mixed. Some members of the community were
happy while some were not. There was some in fighting over his appointment but
over time all the community, members are happy with the job he is doing. What
motivated him in the midst of all the conflicts was that wherever you go there will be
people who will not like you but what is important is do your work and serve the
community well.

When he was appointed, he had to reopen the centre because to had closed due to
unpaid bills for electricity and telephone. Initially the centre was been run by two
ladies but it was not well managed. He negotiated with Peace Foundation who paid
the bills so the services were reconnected. At first, he worked alone until the centre
was operational.

His management activities include running of the Telecentre. The Telecentre was
sponsored by the government of the Netherlands. It offers the following facilities:
Faxes, Photocopying, Telephones, Internet, Computers and Computer Training, and
Typing. The funds that are generated from the Telecentre are used to manage and
sustain the centre. There are two teachers for the computer training and one
administrative staff.

He manages the rentals of the small businesses. These include the crèche, the
saloon (Hair), Tuck-shop and Bakery. However, the Bakery and Tuck-shop are not
yet operational.

He coordinates the activities of Love Life Programmes. Love Life operates from the
centre and it has its office there. There are running four programmes. These include
the motivation, the debating, the life skills and the sports and recreation programme.
There are four people employed to run the different programmes and there some
volunteers from the community.

The community benefit from the centre in a number of ways. During the construction
of the centre, local contractors and labour were used. This provided jobs and skills
transfer to the community.

The operations of the centre have provided employment for the following people six
members of the local community, the manager, two teachers for computer training,
the administrative clerk and two teachers for the crèche. Through the centre, four
people have been employed by Love Life. These people are working on the different
programmes run by Love life.

The centre has provided opportunities for local community to operate small
businesses. The small businesses are the crèche, the Tuck-shop, Saloon (Hair) and

The community hall is a venue for different events and activities. People hold
wedding celebrations and other ceremonies. Some church groups hold their
meetings there. Members of the community meet there for community activities and

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                      Page 24
The centre has become a channel for project to flow to the community. Some of the
future projects that have come through the centre are Beadwork, Welding, Poultry
Project, Sewing and the Recycling Project.

The centre is facing a number of challenges. The main challenge is that the centre is
not completed so it cannot be utilised up to its optimal capacity.

Financially, the centre is supposed to be self-sustainable but now it is not making
enough money to sustain itself. The economic activity in the centre is too minimal to
pay the running costs. Other ways of fundraising must be found.

The lack of funds has affected the maintenance of the building. There are no funds to
pay for maintenance let alone management. The managers salary is very low that it
is not a motivating factor. What motivates the manager is more what he can do for
the community (his community) than the financial benefits for him.

Maintenance is reactive. If there is a need to maintain something, the manager
assesses if they can afford to fix it. If they can then they pay for it from the money
that they generate from the centre. Otherwise, they inform Peace Foundation so that
it can pay for the maintenance.

Mr Gama Mathe is happy to be managing the centre and he is hopeful that it will be
finished soon so that it can be operational. The community and the board of trustees
are supportive in his work and they are very happy with what he is doing. Moreover,
in my own opinion, he is doing the best under the circumstances.

I thanked Mr Gama Mathe for his time.

7.2.4 Meeting with Nikita from the Environment Education Centre, Nature
          Conservation Services
 Date: 03/07/2003
 Time: Morning
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre

Nikita is originally from England. She immigrated to South Africa about nine years
ago. She has officially taken up South African Permanent Residence. She has been
working in the area for sometime now. She is working on an environmental
educational programme for the schools in the area. There are eight schools involved
in the project.

The organisation that Nikita works for uses the centre for a number of things. They
use the centre as the venue for their events. Within this year, they have held the
following celebrations: World Environment Day, Zulu Dance and Singing
Competition, Poetry Competition, Poster Competition and Play Performance
Competition. Nikita said that without centre, it would have been practically impossible
to do these activities.

The venue is appropriate for them to use because of the different facilities in place
like running water, electricity and separate rooms which can be used to do different

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 25
things. For example, the VIPs and Tribal Authorities can be served in different rooms
to show respect. The location of the centre also plays a very vital role. It is centrally
located which makes it easily accessible by the members of the community.

The education centre also uses the other facilities and services that are offered by
the telecentre, photocopying, colour printing, making of certificates.

Nikita feels that the centre has had a positive impact on the community because it is
the focal point for the community. The people have a place where they can meet and
hold their meetings. It has also created jobs for the community because they are
about 10 people working there. The Love Life programmes that are going on in the
centre have changed the lives of the youth. The Love Life programmes have created
employment for the youth who work as groundbreakers in the community.

The education centre main contribution to the centre is payment for the use of the
facilities. The education centre also pays for the other services that they use from the
centre. When they are holding an event at the centre, they hire community members
to clean the centre before and after using it. In this way, they even create some
employment for the community. Thus, they contribute to the maintenance of the
building. Nikita is very impressed and satisfied with the way the centre is being
managed because she is aware that there is no external funding available for the
maintenance and management of the centre.

The main challenge of the area is that it is geographically isolated. Nikita feels that
because of this, it is forgotten. It is the last place to get any form of development
when it should be the first. This has contributed to the level of education being low
and poor. The schools are not well and properly equipped. There is no furniture and
other resources in the schools for the learners. The schools have no water and
electricity. However, the graduates from these schools are expected to compete at
the same level with the children from properly equipped schools. The illiteracy level is
very high and what is unfortunate is that there is no access to any form of training for
the people in the area. The only hope for the people is the centre. The people are
hoping that through the centre, new projects will come to the area that can provide
some form of training for the people.

Due to the isolation, there are no opportunities for the people. What makes it even
worse is the state of the road. The road is gravel so transport is very scarce. Many
companies in the transport industry do not want to service the area because of the
bad road. It is very costly to maintain the vehicles. In rainy season, it is even worse
because it is sticky. The few buses and taxes that frequent the area are very

Socially, the people are very religious and still practice most of their Zulu culture in
terms of food and values. The main social activities are competitions between
schools, soccer, cultural events, Love Life campaigns, pension day and religious
meetings. The dominant religious group are Zionist Christian Church (ZCC) and

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 26
Nikita suggested the following for centre: a gate, vegetable gardens, another coat of
paint, and active marketing of the centre. The community would really appreciate if
the is completed.

After thanking Nikita, we walked outside to take a picture of her. See appendix 7.4.3
Picture 29.

7.2.5 Meeting with the Induna Mr J Tembe
 Date: 03/07/2003
 Time: Morning
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre

In the initiation of the project, the induna was involved only as a community member.
He attended all the meetings that were held to facilitate community involvement. He
was very interested in the development of the community centre because the
community needed a central place for meetings, weddings and other special events.
He was not yet an induna then.

He said that the money that was used to establish the community centre was the left
over from the school projects. The idea of a community centre instead of community
hall was welcome him because it gives the community access to many facilities that
they did not have. To access certain services like photocopying and computer
training, they had to travel more than 50 km to Jozzina, the nearest town.

Mr J Tembe became induna last year. As the induna, he over sees everything that
goes on in the area. Everything should be done with his blessings. He has an office
at the centre where the people come to see him. The people bring all their problems
and complaints to him. He meets with the people and consults to see how they can
be resolved. If he cannot help them, he reports to the Nkosi, who is the chief for the
area. The Nkosi meets with the local councillors to resolve the problems and
sometimes visits the people to explain complex matters. The induna, the tribal
authority (Nkosi) and the local authority (councillor) work hand in hand to look at and
resolve the people’s problems and developments of the area.

The Induna feels that the community centre has had a positive effect on the
community because the community has access to facilities they did not have before.
At the telecentre, the people can do the photocopying, typing, faxing, printing and
computer training.

On management and maintenance, the induna is happy with the job that the
manager is doing. He said that since the building is not finished, the manager is
doing his best. He however, feels that the manager is underpaid for the job is doing.
He wishes more funds could be raised to pay him better.

He could not offer any suggestions because he can only do that after the local tribal
committee meets and discusses.

The main challenge of the area is the road. The road is too bad that it does not
encourage investors to come to the area. All potential investors are discouraged by

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 27
the road because it would be very expensive to invest in the area. Thus, the
community has lost out development and other opportunities because people are put
off by the road so they do not come to see the place. The government should
seriously consider improving the road.

I thanked the induna and asked his permission to take a picture of him. He agreed so
I took a picture of him, see appendix 7.4.3 picture 31.

7.2.6 Meeting with the Members of the Recycling Group, Nelly and Oberd
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre
 Time: Afternoon
 Date: 03/07/2003

The group of people who had just had training in recycling of materials mainly
constitute of the youth and adults. There were 20 in total. They were trained in
Empangeni and the sponsorship came from the Department of Environment and
Tourism through Peace Foundation. This group is supposed to undertake a project
on recycling of materials. The project will be based at the community centre. The day
of the meeting, the group had come to meet the project coordinator to discuss the
technicalities of the project.

Nelly and Oberd were both agreeable about the involvement of the community. They
said they were both involved in the development of the community centre as the
youth of the community. They participated in the meetings that were held to discuss
the development process as part of the community.

They said that some youth worked with the builders as assistants. They feel that
there was transfer of skills to the youth because some of the youth assistants can
build independently now.

In their opinion, the community centre has had a positive effect on the community
because of projects like theirs that have come to the community through the centre.
These projects create jobs for the community. They agree with all the interviewees
spoken to earlier about the benefits of having a telecentre and the facilities it
provides. The community hall has provided a decent meeting place instead of what
happened before. They used to meet under trees without any shelter from the
elements of weather. It is now easy for the community members to hold meetings
and other functions.

They feel management is good because there are no conflicts. Maintenance is
satisfactory to them. They feel that with the present management, there is more
access to training for the community. Before, it was very difficult to get any access to

They are of the opinion that the level of education of the area is high because most
people have matric level. Even the literacy level is high according to Nelly and Oberd
because most people in the area can read and write. However, there is no access to
tertiary education. Most of the people are poor so they cannot afford to send their
children for tertiary education. Jobs are scarce. It is very difficult to find a job in the

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 28
local area; in most cases, people have to leave the local area to urban areas to look
for employment.

Both Nelly and Oberd suggested the area in front of the building should be paved
because there is a lot of mud there especially when it rains.

I thanked them and we went outside for a picture, which I took after getting their
permission. See appendix 7.4.3, Picture 33.

7.2.7 Meeting with Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso Mathe and
          Bathobile Ntimbane.
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre
 Time: Afternoon
 Date: 03/07/2003

They were both employed by Love Life last year as groundbreakers. They worked on
a voluntary basis at first. They work is time consuming because they work in the
community. They work from 09:00hrs to 16:00hrs. Love Life runs four programmes
under which they work.

The four programmes that Love Life is running in the area are:
A The Debate Programme is running in four schools. Under this programmes pupils
between 12 and 17 years are taught the different styles of debating. Even pupils
below the age of 25 years are sometimes included.

B The Motivation Programme is running in four schools. Under this programme,
pupils are taught about positive life styles, drugs and Aids.

C. The Sports and Recreation Programme. Under the programme training and
organisation is done through Love Life for the following games: Volleyball, Netball,
Basketball and Ladies Soccer. There is even a Tournament league under the

D The Life Skills Programme. Under this programme, the youth are taught about their
body’s physical developments. They are taught on what to expect and how to handle
their physical changes.

S’thembiso and Bathabile were both in school when the development of the centre
started. They just heard the rumours that there will be a community centre. They
were not involved in the development of the centre.

They both help in the maintenance of the community centre. They personally clean
their offices, as there are no cleaning personnel. After functions, they both help with
the cleaning of the hall and the centre. They are happy with the management of the
centre because they operate smoothly from the centre. They hope there could be
enough funds for maintenance so that so that the centre is kept clean. The yard in
front of the centre need to be paved to prevent the mud from going in side the centre
to lessen up the dirt.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 29
They share the same sentiments as the regards the positive impact and benefits to
the community. They feel that the community has benefited through job creation, the
crèche, saloon (hair), the hall, computers, computer training, and other facilities
provided by the telecentre as mentioned earlier.

They feel that the telecentre is too small; it should be relocated to bigger room
because it is disturbing during computer lessons when they are photocopying. They
also suggested that a sports complex should be built for the youth with basketball
courts because there are no courts to train.

On the capacity of the community, they feel that the illiteracy level is very high
especially in elderly people who they have to help to even make a phone call. The
education level is generally fine, the youth go up to grade 12.There are no training
facilities and job opportunities are scarce. The wages are very low when one works
on the farm. They said one gets as low wages as R10.00 sometimes even R 5.00.

The food that they eat is mixture of western and traditional Zulu food. The
construction methods are both traditional and conventional as explained earlier. I
asked them for a picture and they agreed, see appendix 7.4.3, picture 40.

7.2.8 Meeting with Mr TM Malu, Teacher at Ndumo High School
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre
 Time: Morning
 Date: 05/07/2003

By now, I was getting confused by the name of the centre or even the area. Some
people were referring to it as ‘Ndumo’ while others were saying ‘Ndumu.’ Mr TM Malu
shed some light on this. He said that at time long time ago there was a chief of the
area called Nduma. Therefore, the area was called Ndumo. Then when the game
reserve declared was declared in the area, they called Ndumu after the chief but a
variation of his name. Then a shop was opened in the area and named Ndumu so
then most people ended up calling the area Ndumu. However, both names are

Mr Malu was born and grew up in Ndumu. He went to the local Primary and
Secondary schools. He then did a teaching programme through correspondence with
Azalih College of Johannesburg.

He was involved in the development of the community centre as a youth member of
the Ndumo Development Committee. He was representing the youth and their
interests. However, he pulled out when there were problems between the community
and the committee. The community accused the committee of poor communication.
The community argued that the committee had a duty to give the community a
financial report of the construction process. The committee was unable to do this
because they were not in charge of the finances on the project PEACE Foundation
was. The committee came to stand still at this point. When the committee resumed its
activities, he was not available to take up his previous position. Mr Malu was not

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                    Page 30
personally involved in the actual construction of the centre but her say the community
was. The builders were from the local area.

Now, Mr Malu works with the community through the education centre. He is in the
Ndumo Environment Education Stirring committee. The committee constitutes of
representatives from eight schools that are part of the project. The committee relies
on the centre to do the typing, photocopying, printing and faxes for their activities.
They are involved in educational campaigns on the environment. In addition, the
school where he is teaching relies on the centre to type, print, and photocopy the test
papers and other materials because the school has no facilities to perform these
duties. Both the committee and the school use the community hall to hold their
important events and celebrations.

On the management and maintenance of the centre, Mr Malu is quite happy and
satisfied. The hall is always clean when they come to use. Even if he does not help to
clean the centre, some other members of the community come to help with the

Mr Malu says the community centre plays an important role in the community
because the local councillors and home affairs do their campaign for identities cards
and birth certificates from there. It is the only building in the area that can be used for
such activities. The youth also use it for beauty contests. The community hall is used
by the schools for cultural activities and other events. The Ndumo Environment
Education Stirring committee use it for their celebrations, this year it was their venue
for the World Environment Day. They actually had to do the celebration later because
the community hall was booked for the cultural day on the actual World Environment
Day. They could not find another facility that they could use.

The community has high level of illiteracy and the situation is made worse by the fact
that there are no training facilities in the area. The level of education is generally
grade 10. The rate of unemployment is very high in the area because there are no
job opportunities.

Socially, the youth are involved in soccer, netball and volleyball. The boys and girls
participate in the Indlamu Dance. The food that they eat is a mixture of both western
and traditional food.

The constructional methods are also mixed. There are some buildings and houses
made of conventional cement blocks and bricks. While other buildings, especially
houses are made of traditional materials, which are sticks, reed mats and thatch.
These are normally one roomed so they would be a good number per compound.
There would normally be one for the parents, on e for boys/males children and
another one for girls/female children.

The Zulu culture is being diluted by the influence of the church. Most of the people
only maintain some of the values. There is a general mixture of the western and Zulu
cultures. However, there are people who still maintain Zulu values and culture strictly
especially the old people. See appendix 7.4.3, picture 68.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 31
7.2.9 Meeting with Nduminsani Malwani
 Venue: Ndumo Community Centre
 Time: Morning
 Date: 05/07/2003

Mr Numisani Malwane works on the Integrated Rural Development Programme. The
programme is sponsored by Kewlogg Foundation through the Post Graduate School
of Agriculture of the University of Pretoria. The whole programme includes nine sites
spread in the SADDC countries. The SADDC countries involved include South Africa,
Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Botswana.

The functions of the programme include: Mobilising civic participation in community
meetings, workshop and exposure programmes; help the community with start up
funding and capital for the people with economic potential; to give management skills
and build community capacity; and to establish community structures that can be
used to reinforce community growth.

Their objectives include: to encourage women and the youth to participate in public
administration and decision-making. They achieve this by encouraging the inclusion
of women in community structures; organising meetings to discuss this issue and by
including women in public dialogue and traditional leaders. It is also their objective to
encourage people in the community live a defensive and hygienic life styles as
regards drugs and Aids. The health campaign is achieved by linking the community
with health organisation. They work with Love Life on the programmes of orphans
and home based care for the terminally ill and the old.

To achieve this, they use a number o documents like the Baseline Survey, Strategic
Planning and Indicator Formulation Report. These help to develop guidelines of
target responsibilities.

In their interaction with the community centre, they helped establish the Management
Board structure for the centre with Peace Foundation. He uses the centre quite often
for some facilities like typing. He said it is convenient to use the centre because of its
central location. He is still a member of the management board as ex-official and still
offers advisory help when asked. He always recommends to other people to use the
venue. The only limitation of the centre is that it has no overnight facilities.

He participated in the planning of the community centre and facilitated community
participation by recommending the use of local builders and labour. This created
employment and there was transfer of skills. The blocks that were used in the
building were also made locally on site.

The community was consulted through out the development of the centre and they
took part in the design of the community centre. The community contributed in the life
cycle planning of the building because they were consulted about the materials that
were used in the construction. Community involvement was facilitated by Peace

Mr Ndumisani Malwala feels though that the construction of the building has dragged
for too long. He says it should be finished as soon as possible. He however,

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                          Page 32
 understands why, he says it is because the construction follows the rate at which the
 funding comes in.

 He is happy with the maintenance and contributes by paying for the facilities that he
 utilises from the centre. He sometimes helps with the cleaning when he has time.
 The management is about the best that can be found in a rural setting like Ndumu
 according to Mr N Malwane. He suggested that the management should stop relying
 too much on the donor but that they should start finding other avenues of raising
 funds. The management should create new partners and find alternative means of
 fund raising instead of just waiting for Peace Foundation. He feels that the centre has
 the capacity to sustain itself but it needs active marketing.

 The main challenges of the whole area are:
 A The illiteracy level is very high and the level of education is very low.
 B There is a dependence syndrome on the different grants that are given by the
 government like the child grant. Some people take this for granted so much that they
 just sit back and wait for the money from the government.
 C Party Politics intolerance. People are viewed through political lenses. If one
 belongs to the wrong party then they are marginalized in the provision of services.
 D The poverty. The people are extremely poor, too poor that they are passive. They
 cannot initiate development let alone participate. They are more worried about
 surviving and getting essentials.
 E The area has been over studied; it is high time the academic input showed some
 output. The people are tired of all the academicians going there to study the area but
 nothing seem to come out it.

 I thanked Mr Ndumisani Malwane and asked him if I could get a picture of him. He
 agreed and I got a picture of him next to his car. See appendix 7.4.3, picture 69.

7.2.10 Meeting with Mr Mandla Tembe of Ezemualo KZN Wildlife
 Venue: Ndumu Game Reserve
 Time: Afternoon
 Date: 05/07/2003
 The interview took place in the game reserve. He took us for a drive in the game
 reserve and explained how the reserve started. He said that the people were forcibly
 removed by the government during the apartheid era. On inquiring about whether the
 people have claimed the land, he said yes but according to the government policy on
 such land, the people will be allowed to develop economic activities within the game
 reserve but they will not be resettled on the land.

 It was very interesting to be in the reserve. We saw a huge male giraffe. It was
 amazing because it was very different from seeing one in the zoo. We saw a number
 of different antelopes, monkeys and warthogs. The birds were beautiful. We also
 went to a viewing tower where we were able to have an over of the whole gave
 reserve. Mr Madla Tembe point out Mozambique and Swaziland. The reserve is at
 the border with these countries. The strange thing is that while the reserve is fenced
 on the South African side, it is not fenced on the borders with these countries.
 Sometimes animals go on the other side where the people happily kill them for food
 because there are settlements there.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 33
 Mr Mandla Tembe has a strong opinion about community projects. He is convinced
 that they progress up to a certain point then the projects go down. He attributes this
 to community lack of continued interest in the project over the years. The people who
 do voluntary work on community projects reach a point where they feel like they are
 being used by the working community members. The community-based projects only
 works well in an environment where there are pensioners are economically
 independent. He says the pensioners are normally willing to work on community
 projects because they need something to do. However, in a community where the
 people are just surviving, it is unfair to ask the community to sacrifice their time that
 they could use to find food and means of survival.

 Mr M Tembe feels that the consultants that work on community projects get fat
 accounts for just organising the community’s resources and ideas. He said that the
 consultant goes to the community and consults what they need, puts it together and
 is paid for it. It is not the consultants ideas but the community’s but the community do
 not even get a meal at the meetings. He thinks that the community should be given
 incentives to attend those meetings just as the consultant is paid.

 He appreciates that the community centre has had a positive effect on the community
 though he feels that the community has put in too much for a surviving community.

 Mr M Tembe lives in Ndumu with his family. He has worked on community
 conservation for ten years now. He is running a project on Environmental Education
 in about eight schools in the area. He says he is very happy to live in rural areas. He
 would not like to live in urban areas. The urban areas are expensive because you
 pay for every thing including parking. He does not have to worry about paying for his
 parking space in Ndumu. He also feels that the rural areas are much safer.

7.2.11     Telephone Interview with George Norvall, the Project Manager on the

 Venue: CSIR
 Time: 09:30
 Date: 10/07/2003

 George Norvall was in charge of the construction of the community centre on site. He
 worked on a voluntary basis. He is a lecturer at the University of Natal. See pictures
 Comm centre 3, 2 jpgs, comm. hall jpg and comm. centre.jpg. The pictures show the
 construction stages of the building during the month of October 1998.

 He used to liase with the builders on site. He appointed the builders. The builders
 were appointed on a fixed contract sum. Three builders were used to create more
 jobs for the community. The three builders were apportioned different parts of the
 building, which they built from foundation to roof structure.

 The builders capital input was only labour. The builders paid their own labourers. All
 the materials were acquired by the project manager. In addition, the project manager
 performed all the duties that the quantity surveyor performs on a construction site.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                         Page 34
 These duties included quantifying all the work that has performed and drawing up the
 payment certificates.

 Conventional construction methods have been used. Concrete blocks were used to
 build the walls and the walls were plastered. The main reason for the use of concrete
 blocks is the budget limitations. There was not enough money bring in face brick for
 the walls, which would have been more durable and easy to maintain. The concrete
 blocks were made on site by women from the community. The women had been
 trained prior to the project. This allowed for the transfer of skills and created
 employment for the local community. The area is very remote that the cost of
 transporting bricks was forbidding.

 It was very difficult to design easy maintenance and management into the building
 because of the tight budget. The choices of materials were highly dictated by what
 could be afforded more than what was ideal for the environment and situation.
 Therefore, it was just accepted that maintenance issues would be considered after
 the building has been finished.

 The impact of all the activities of Peace Foundation in the area is phenomena. The
 rural setting of Ndumo has been transformed into a town through the provision of the
 main road. There are formal structures developing alongside the main road. The
 community centre has brought facilities closer to the people. The people of Ndumo
 do not have to travel long distances to access certain facilities that they now access
 from the centre.

 The lack of money has been the main problem on the project. However, Mr G Norvall
 said that the building is due to be finished in August.

7.2.12  Telephone Interview with Mr Rodney Harber, the architect on the
 Venue: My house
 Time: 10:30
 Date: 12/07/2003

 Rodney Harber works for Harber and associates. He was appointed by Peace
 Foundation to design the community centre. He was involved right from the initiation
 of the project. He took part in community facilitation by consulting with the community
 on the design requirements and aesthetics. He said that community involvement was
 designed in the whole project because 40% of the project cost was to remain in the
 community. Therefore, all the labour and builders were sourced from the community.

 The architect did not do any site analysis or asset management in the area because
 the budget did not include that. The architect assumed that Peace Foundation was
 going to do this.

 He said that the community centre is a product of a long-term relationship between
 the community and Peace Foundation. He mentioned that Peace Foundation had
 helped the community improve the schools in the area by constructing teacher’s
 accommodation and classrooms.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                       Page 35
The community involvement was facilitated through the consultant himself, the
volunteers from the University of Natal and the community committee. The builders
were very slow at first until a value for money principal was introduced on the project.
The builders were paid for the performance of a particular task regardless of long it
takes. The tasks would be valued and the builders will be informed how much they
will be paid to perform it. Then it was up to the builders to determine how much time
they want to spend on it. This principle improved the rate of delivery.

The architect is very impressed about the flexibility of the building design because of
how easily the different spaces have been converted to different uses. The
Telecentre was designed to be a workshop for a black smith while the office for love
life was designed to be an office for an induna with a circular courtyard outside.
The project was mainly limited by the lack funds to pay an engineer. When they
started digging foundations, they hit to clay soils. There was a need for an engineer
to design the foundations for that kind of soil. The problem of the foundations led to
escalation in costs. Another limitation was that the community did not have the
capacity to build such a complex building. The architect feels that the building was
too complicated for the community to build. The builders could not read the design
drawings properly that is why the building is not stepped as designed to follow the
site topography.

According to the architect, the project has had a positive impact on the community
because it has brought facilities near to the people. The community has access to
computer training, which is viewed as a means to escape from the area to urban
areas. Through the project, employment was/has been created for the community as
a number to people were/are employed at the community centre. The facilities and
services offered at the telecentre have helped to improve the life of the community.
Through the project and other projects by Peace Foundation, the road network has
been improved as well.

However, Rodney Harber is very critical of the Ndumo Community Centre project.

7.2.13 Meeting with Nora from Peace Foundation, the funder.
 Venue: CSIR FPM Board Room
 Time: 11:00
 Date: 15/07/2003

Nora was kind enough to come to the CSIR offices. She phoned me that she has
arrived and I walked down to meet her. She is a very warm person and she thanked
us for the interest that we have shown in her work. She is a very warm person and
soon we were discussing what a big challenge community work is. Nora talked about
the poor community’s that need our help and how much that help is appreciated.
Nora was accompanied by Aaron who is the one of the people working in the field
with her.
She said her involvement with the ndumo community was a response to a heart
breaking need for the people. Most of the people who visit the game reserve are not
even aware that the people of ndumo were forcibly removed from the game reserve
in 1954. When it was declared a game reserve, people’s houses were burnt down.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                        Page 36
You can still see some fruit trees (mango) in places were the people lived. Though
she could not remember the exact title of the book, she said there is book written by
an Ian Player, which tells the story of the area. The people were moved without
consultation or agreement. It was government policy then.

What makes her sad now about the situation is that the people of the area have no
access to the reserve. She thinks the reserve can became an economic hive for the
community. The community can supply the materials and food that are used in the
reserve. Things like furniture, curtains and vegetables used in the living quarters in
the reserve could be sourced from the local community. The parks board has not
come up with a practical policy that can help the local people. The situation is

Her involvement started when she visited the game reserve with her late husband.
They were asked if a young man of the area could go on the walks in the reserve
with them. The young man’s name is Bheki Mutebo. Bheki needed to learn about the
game reserve so that he could sit entry exams to study to work in the game reserve.
They agreed to this arrangement. Bheki would come in the morning, walk with them
the whole day and then disappear in the evening. On the last day, he asked Nora
and her husband, if they could meet the local principal at the local school. When they
saw the state of the school, Nora husband who was a big man was in tears. They
could not believe the poverty, the little children were sitting is a shed on the cold
floor. There was no furniture of any sort of form.

After this particular visit, Nora and the husband decided to raise funds for the school.
She said that she made it her responsibility to do something about the situation
because she had been exposed to it for a reason. She started a campaign to raise
funds in 1993. She wrote many letters to different individuals and companies asking
for help. He brought many people to visit the area and see for themselves the
situation. For a long time, she could not get any help. Then she developed an
acronym P.E.A.C.E that she explains stands for Planning, Education, Agriculture,
Community and Environment and Ecosystem. Her understanding is that if peace is
can only be achieved if the communities have the above present in them. With the
peace logo, she planned to raise money by advertising it on a product. Through
somebody, she got access to the chairman of Beacon sweats. He though the idea
was good and agreed to work with her. He referred her to the marketing department
so that they could make proper arrangements. After a lot of trouble with the Beacon
sweats marketing department, she was given one of the lowest selling products and
one that does not even reach rural areas like Ndumo.

Now, her husband passed away so she had to look for work. The University of Natal
offered her office space that she could use for her project. She then set up a board of
trustees including some business partners. Nora then managed to convince two of
the board of trustees to visit the area. The community organised some sandwiches
for them. One of the trustees was so touched that he donated one million Rand to the
community development committee. Nora would visit the community to encourage
them even before she could find the money. This was very encouraging to the
community because the community felt that they were not forgotten.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                        Page 37
Nora said that her involvement with Ndumo community has helped her to understand
and appreciate community dynamics. Through the help of donors, Peace Foundation
managed to build 21 classrooms and teacher’s cottages.

The young man Bheki, even if he did not go for the game reserve training, is doing
very well. He is a teacher in one of the neighbouring schools.

According to Nora, government corporation has been lacking in all her activities in
the area. In the case of schools, the people would prefer a local person to run them
but the government keeps bringing people from other places. She gave another
example of a farming project that was hijacked by the government and destroyed.

The community centre and other projects she has been involved in the area have
been of benefit to the community because they have brought development to the
area. The community has access to facilities that they never had before like good
schools, computer training and the telecentre. The centre is a source of economic
activity and information.

Nora would want to see the plight of children receive great attention in future
because they are the future of the nation. She wants to see communities being given
the capacity to be self-sustainable. The communities should be given the life skills
like book keeping, so that they can manage their own affairs. Structures should be
established in the communities like trusts, cooperatives and community drivers
identified to implement development programmes. The communities should be
empowered with the information they need.

Community assets like schools and community centre should be developed into
economic centre by the community. The community should be the one to provide the
requirements for the centre like food for the feeding schemes and uniforms. This will
give the community ways of generating income.

On the Ndumo Community Centre project, the students from University of Natal
helped the builders to tender and thus giving the community the capacity. The
women were also trained to make blocks and these women are making a living
selling blocks.

For the centre to be self-sustainable, a management structure was established. At
the top are Peace Foundation, then Ndumo Trust Board and the Centre Manager.
The centre management manages the daily activities and reports to the Trust Board.
The Trust Board reports to Peace Foundation. However, the centre is owned by the
Trust Board.

The maintenance of the centre is managed by the centre manager. The funding for
maintenance is supposed to come from rentals for the community hall, the pre-
school, and other businesses within the centre. Only the Induna and the Government
offices at the centre are not supposed to pay rent.

Gama, the centre manager has the capacity to manage and maintain the centre
through his tertiary training. Nora is very happy with the job Gama is doing.

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                     Page 38
 She feels that the objectives of the project have been met though at a very slow
 pace. Her colleague, Aaron, thinks that community work is a process that cannot be
 isolated. It cannot be judged easily but if the people are happy and utilising the facility
 then it can be said, the project is contributing to the well being of the community.

 The limiting factors on the project were: Lac of funding, lack of resources like time
 and management skills, lack of marketing and lack of government corporation.

 The project was not cost effective because it was estimated at R450 000.00 and the
 cost is already over one million rands and it is not even finished.

 In terms of time, the project was supposed to finish within a year but now it is over
 our years.
 The quality of the building in terms of finishes was limited by the budget.

 We were running out of time, so Nora and her colleague had to leave for another

7.3   Field notes

7.4   List of illustrations

7.4.1 Site Analysis

 Ndumo Community Centre is located in Ndumo. Ndumo is a rural village in the
 kwaMthanti area in Ingwavuma District, Northern Maputoland. Northern Maputoland
 is in the northern part of KwaZulu-Natal province.

 The soils on site are clay. The soil looked dump and dark grey, they seemed very

 The site has running water supplied by the local authority. The site is also electrified
 by eskom. Although the phones are not working, there are telkom lines on the site.
 The sewerage system is by Aqua Privy, please see drawings for details.

 The site slopes gently down from north to the south but has no hills or sudden
 increase in heights.

 Climatic Data:
 Richards bay is the nearest town to the site with available information on it. Effort is
 being made to find more information on the town.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                           Page 39
7.4.2 Average Climate Statistics for Richards Bay
Position: 28° 48' S         32° 06' E
Height: 47m
Period: 1970-1990

                              Temperature (° C)   Precipitation
                   Average Average          Average Number
           Highest                  Lowest                    24 Hour
   Month             Daily   Daily          Monthly of days
          Recorded                 Recorded                    Rainfall
                   Maximum Minimum           (mm)   with >=
  January    41       29      21      11      172      12        317
  February          39           29           21             13    167         12        145
   March            39           29           20             14    107         10        253
    April           37           27           18             8     109         8         130
     May            35           25           15             7     109         7         88
    June            35           23           12             6      57         6         82
     July           31           23           12             4      60         6         135
   August           37           24           14             5      65         7         62
 September          40           25           16             6      77         9         65
  October           42           25           17             10    105         12        99
 November           43           27           19             11    114         13        135
 December           42           29           20             13     86         11        78
     Year           43           26           17             4    1228        113        317

7.4.3 Photographs

 Image Reference                                Description
 01_ Community grounds.jpg                      This is a picture of the community grounds,
                                                which are used for the grazing of animals and
 02_Builders.jpg                                Picture of the builders during the meeting in the
                                                Building Manger’s Office
 03_Builders.jpg                                Builders in front of the community centre.
 04_Builders.jpg                                Builders in front of the community centre.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                               Page 40
Image Reference                                Description
05_Richard Mthethwa (Builder).jpg              Mr Richard Mthethwa is standing in front of the
                                               porting of the building that he built – business
06_Elvis Gumede (Builder).jpg                  Mr Elvis Gumede is standing in front of the
                                               portion of the building that he constructed – the
                                               community hall and the telecentre
07_Elvis Gumede (Builder).jpg                  Mr Eluis Gumede is standing in front of the
                                               portion of the building that he constructed – the
                                               crèche and more business shops.
08_Elvis Gumede (Builder) –Site                The picture shows how the building does not
topography.jpg                                 follow the site topography.
09_Crack in Building Man office .jpg           The floor in the Building Manager’s Office has a
                                               big crack.
10_Builing Man office2.jpg                     Building manager’s Office
11_Telecentre – Phone booths .jpg              Phone booths in the telecentre
12_Telecentre – Photocopying                   Photo copying and fax machines in the
machine .jpg                                   telecentre
13_Telecentre computers. jpg                   Computers in the telecentre used for training
                                               and typing.
14_Comm hall – Stage .jpg                      The stage in the community hall.
15_Comm hall – entrance .jpg                   The entrance to the community hall
16_Court yard - view.jpg                       View into the courtyard
17_Court yard – waiting area .jpg              View into the courtyard showing the waiting
                                               area in front the office that was meant for the
18_Love life office.jpg                        Equipment and material in Love Life Office
19_Crack in courtyard retaining wall.          The crack in the retaining wall for the courtyard.
20_ Cons toilets.jpg                           Toilets still under construction.
21_Crack in Kitchen wall jpg                   The wall of the kitchen has a crack, which
                                               seems to be characteristic of the whole building
                                               at that level.
22_workshop room1.jpg                          One of the workshops not in use yet.
                                               Suggestion is to convert it in to a computer
                                               centre because the telecentre is small but it is
                                               not yet complete. The sliding doors have not
                                               been installed.
23_workshop room2.jpg                          One of the workshops not in use yet. It is not yet
                                               complete. The sliding doors have not been

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                Page 41
Image Reference                                Description
24_creche verandah.jpg                         Shows the wide veranda in front of the crèche.
25_Behind Comm centre.jpg                      View behind the community centre from the
26_surrounding area.jpg                        The area around the centre is generally like this.
27_pit latrine.jpg                             Since the toilets are not yet finished, the pit
                                               latrine is being used now.
28_Ms Nikita1.jpg                              Nikita from the Environment Education Centre,
                                               Nature Conservation Services

29_Ms Nikita2.jpg                              Nikita from the Environment Education Centre,
                                               Nature Conservation Services

30_. Mr J Thembe(Induna)1jpg                   Mr J Thembe is the induna in charge of the
31_Mr J Thembe(Induna)2.jpg                    Mr J Thembe is the induna in charge of the
32_Recycling group1.jpg                        Nelly and Oberd are members of the Recycling
33_Recycling group2.jpg                        Nelly and Oberd are members of the Recycling
34_Community1.jpg                              Picture of the member of the community who
                                               have to the centre for different businesses.
35_Community2.jpg                              Picture of the member of the community who
                                               have to the centre for different businesses.
36_Community3.jpg                              Picture of the member of the community who
                                               have to the centre for different businesses.
37_Ground Breakers1.jpg                        Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso
                                               Mathe and Bathobile Ntimbane.

38_Ground Breakers2.jpg                        Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso
                                               Mathe and Bathobile Ntimbane.

39_Ground Breakers3.jpg                        Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso
                                               Mathe and Bathobile Ntimbane.

40_Ground Breakers4.jpg                        Groundbreakers for Love Life, S’thembiso
                                               Mathe and Bathobile Ntimbane.

41_Front view.jpg                              The view from the front of the centre, there is a
                                               commercial school there operating as a high

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                Page 42
Image Reference                                Description
42_Comm centre1.jpg                            Different front views of the community centre.
43_Comm centre2.jpg                            Different front views of the community centre.
44_.Comm centre3.jpg                           Different front views of the community centre.
45_Comm centre4.jpg                            Different front views of the community centre.
46_creche view – muddy walls. jpg              Notice the effect of the mud on the walls.
47_.Sewer treatment system.jpg                 Shows the preparations for the construction to
                                               the sewer system.
48_.Sewerage systems.jpg                       Part of the sewerage system.
49_.Comm centre1.jpg                           Different views of the back of the community
50_ Comm centre2.jpg                           Different views of the back of the community
51_Comm centre3.jpg                            Different views of the back of the community
52_Comm centre4.jpg                            Different views of the back of the community
53_Comm centre5.jpg                            Different views of the back of the community
54_Comm centre grounds.jpg                     General surroundings of the centre.
55_Cracks (telecentre)1.jpg                    Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
56_Cracks (telecentre)2.jpg                    Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
57_Cracks comm. hall1jpg                       Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community hall.
58_Cracks comm. hall1jpg 2.jpg                 Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community hall.
59_Cracks comm. hall1jpg 3.jpg                 Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community hall.
60_Cracks comm. hall1jpg 4.jpg                 Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community centre.
61_Cracks comm. hall1jpg 5.jpg                 Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community centre.
62_Cracks comm. hall1jpg 6.jpg                 Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
                                               community centre.
63_Cracks_expansion joint comm.                Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
hall1jpg .jpg                                  community centre, which seem like an

Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                               Page 43
 Image Reference                                Description
                                                expansion joint.
 64_ Cracks halls of the comm.                  Examples of cracks found in the walls of the
 hall7.jpg                                      community centre near the stage..
 65_ Cobwebs in roofing.jpg                     The underneath of the roof has many cobwebs
                                                needing some thorough cleaning.

 66_ Roof structure .jpg                        Showing the roof materials used in the
 67_ Mr T.M Malu1.jpg                           He is a teacher at Ndumo High School.
 68_ Mr T.M Malu2.jpg                           He is a teacher at Ndumo High School.
 69_ Mr T.M Malu3.jpg                           He is a teacher at Ndumo High School.
 Comm Centre 3.jpg                              Different stages of construction of the
                                                community centre in October 1998.
 Comm Centre 2.jpg                              Different stages of construction of the
                                                community centre in October 1998.
 Comm. hall.jpg                                 Different stages of construction of the
                                                community centre in October 1998.
 Comm Centre jpg                                Different stages of construction of the
                                                community centre in October 1998.

7.4.4 Drawings
 See Ndumo Community Centre Drawings Folder.
 image 002.jpg                    Plan drawings for the Ndumo Community
 Image 001.png                                  Plan drawings for the Ndumo Community

7.5   Supporting Documents
      7.5.1 IDP document for area.

 Community Asset Management in Africa – South Africa, 2003                                Page 44

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