1920 Haiyuan earthquake by pc10201


									1920 Haiyuan earthquake
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1920 Haiyuan earthquake (Chinese: 海原大地震; pinyin: Hǎiyuán dà dìzhèn),                             1920 Haiyuan earthquake
was an earthquake that occurred on December 16, 1920. The epicenter was
36.50°N 105.70°E, [2] in Haiyuan County, Ningxia Province, Republic of China.
It was also called the 1920 Gansu earthquake [1] because Ningxia was a part
of Gansu Province when the earthquake occurred.

The earthquake hit at local time 20:06:53 (GMT 12:06:53), reportedly 7.8 on the
Richter magnitude scale, followed by a series of aftershocks for three years.
Today's Chinese media claim the earthquake as of magnitude 8.5, although the
scale is not specified. It caused total destruction (XII - the maximum intensity on
the Mercalli scale) in the Lijunbu-Haiyuan-Ganyanchi area.
Over 73,000 people were killed in Haiyuan County. A landslide buried the                  Date           December 16, 1920
village of Sujiahe in Xiji County. More than 30,000 people were killed in Guyuan                         (Gansu-Sichuan Time)

County. Nearly all the houses collapsed in the cities of Longde and Huining.              Magnitude      7.8 M L [1 ] 8.5 [2 ]
Damage (VI-X) occurred in 7 provinces and regions, including the major cities             Epicenter      36.50°N 105.70°E
of Lanzhou, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Xining and Yinchuan. It was felt from the Yellow                             (Haiyuan, Ningxia)
Sea to Qinghai (Tsinghai) Province and from Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia) south             Countries or   Republic of China
to central Sichuan Province.                                                              regions

About 200 km (125 mi) of surface faulting was seen from Lijunbu through                   Max.           XII (Catastrophic)
Ganyanchi to Jingtai. There were large numbers of landslides and ground                   intensity

cracks throughout the epicentral area. Some rivers were dammed, others                    Casualties     235,502[3 ] (5th deadliest
changed course. Seiches from this earthquake were observed in 2 lakes and 3                              earthquake of all time)

fjords in western Norway. [1]
Total casualty was reported as 200,000 in a summary published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS),[1] 240,000
according to Ningxia Daily, a Chinese publication in the current administrative area., [2] and 235,502 according to the Catalog
of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2008) maintained by the International Institute of Seismology and
Earthquake Engineering.[3]

See also
   List of earthquakes

   1. ^ a b c d "Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World"     . Earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
   2. ^ abc   "10 Greatest Earthquakes in China in 20th Century"    (in Chinese). Ningxia Daily website. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-
   3. ^ a b Utsu, T.. "Search Page"     . Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2008). Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  This article incorporates public domain material        from websites or documents of the United States Geological Survey.

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