Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

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					                           Emotional Development
Live Your Purpose       and the Study of Temperament


Academically Prepared




 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                   1
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
Live Your Purpose
                        Pre-Test -   What do you think…?

Academically Prepared
                        T-F All children are “born” with
                            the same temperament.
 Biblically Rooted




                            Treatment by caregivers
Equipped to Serve
                            determines whether they are
                            difficult or easygoing.
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                       3
Live Your Purpose
                            Emotional Development
                        Emotions Defined:
                         A state of feeling that includes:
Academically Prepared    • Physical responses: rapid heart rate;
                           tense muscles
                         • Situational components: positive/negative
                           responses depends on who is involved
 Biblically Rooted
                           and what is happening
                         • Cognitions: our own perspective and
                           ideas
Equipped to Serve
                         Unclear how many emotions babies have
                         • They cannot tell us how they are feeling.
                         • We must rely on observation of their
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
                           behaviors, including facial expressions.
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                   4
Live Your Purpose
                          Emotional Development
                        Facial expressions
                          • Universally recognized throughout
Academically Prepared
                            world
                          • Have consistent emotional
                            interpretation
 Biblically Rooted



                        2 basic states of infant emotional arousal
                           • Positive attraction
Equipped to Serve             • 2-3 months social smiling is
                                expressed
                              • 3-5 months laughing out loud
 Globally Minded           • Withdrawal from aversive stimulation
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                 5
Live Your Purpose
                          Emotional Development

                        In short…
Academically Prepared
                        • Infants show only a few emotions during
                           first few months.

 Biblically Rooted
                        • Emotional development is linked to
                          cognitive and social experience.

                        No clear agreement of when specific
Equipped to Serve
                        emotions are first present or whether any
                        are present at birth, however…

 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                6
Live Your Purpose
                             Emotional Development

                        The First Year
Academically Prepared    • Distress and contentment = first
                           discernable emotions
                         • Pleasure indicated by social smile
 Biblically Rooted
                         • Anger
                         • Fear
                            • Stranger wariness
                            • Separation anxiety
Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                            7
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
      Interest: brows raised;            Fear: mouth retracted;
      mouth may be                       brows level and drawn
      rounded; lips may be               up and in; eyelids lifted.
      pursed.
           Young infants display a variety of emotional expressions
                    (Carol Izard, University of Delaware).
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
  Disgust: tongue protruding;
  upper lip raised; nose
  wrinkled.
                                Joy: bright eyes;
                                cheeks lifted; mouth
                                forms a smile.
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
                                   Anger: mouth squared at
                                   corners; brows drawn together
                                   and pointing down; eyes fixed
                                   straight ahead.




          Sadness: Corners of
          mouth turned down;
          inner portion of brows
          raised.
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
Live Your Purpose
                               Discussion Questions
                            Share Observing Children, Downey, infancy, V2, 09INF



Academically Prepared
                        1. How does the child express emotion or
                           emotional understanding?
                        2. How might the child’s social experiences
 Biblically Rooted
                           affect his/her emotional expressions?
                        3. What positive features do you notice in
                           the child’s emotional expression?
Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                               12
  Three-month-old infants’ smiling at an unfamiliar adult and three hand puppets
  varying in resemblance to a human face. Although infants spent just as much time
  looking at each of the four stimuli, they spent much more time smiling at the human
  face (Ellsworth, Muir, & Hains, 1993).
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
Live Your Purpose
                                    The Second Year

                        • Fear and anger, laughing
Academically Prepared
                          and crying become more
                          discriminating
                        • New emotions
 Biblically Rooted
                          (self conscious):
                          pride, shame,
                          embarrassment, guilt
                          emerge middle of the
                          second year.
Equipped to Serve
                        • Need adult instruction
                          about when to feel them.

 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                  14
Live Your Purpose
                                   Temperament
                        Temperament = “constitutionally
Academically Prepared
                        based individual differences in emotion,
                        motor, and attentional reactivity and
                        self-regulation” (Rothbart & Bates,
                        1998, p.204).
 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                               15
Live Your Purpose
                          Structure of Temperament
                                Research of Thomas & Chess

                        • Easy – 40%
                        • Difficult – 10%
Academically Prepared




                        • Slow-to-warm-up – 15%
                        • Unclassified – 35%
 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                         16
                                 Types of Temperament




Sources: Chess & Thomas (1991) and Thomas & Chess (1989).
Live Your Purpose
                              Discussion Questions
                         Share Swartwood & Trotter Mod 1. Section 3 Temperament
                        1. Behavioral dimensions of temperament
Academically Prepared
                           tend to cluster into 3 broad temperamental
                           profiles. Based on the description of 4-
                           month-old Abby’s behavior given by her
                           caregiver, how would you characterize her
 Biblically Rooted

                           temperament? Describe specific aspects of
                           Abby’s temperament that support your
                           conclusion.
Equipped to Serve
                        2. Describe two additional temperamental
                          profiles. Use examples from the video to
                          illustrate the typical characteristics of
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350              children who fit these profiles.
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                              18
                                    Biological Basis
Live Your Purpose                  for Temperament
                             Inhibited, Shy    Uninhibited, Sociable
Academically Prepared
                        • React negatively,    • React positively,
                          withdraw from new      approach new stimuli
                          stimuli
                        • High heart rates,    • Low heart rates,
 Biblically Rooted

                          stress hormones        stress hormones,
                                                 and stress symptoms
                          & stress symptoms
Equipped to Serve
                        • Higher right         • Higher left
                          hemisphere frontal     hemisphere frontal
                                                 cortex activity
                          cortex activity.
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                  19
                              Genetics and Environment
Live Your Purpose                 in Temperament
                                       • Responsible for about half of
                           Genetic       individual differences
Academically Prepared
                         Influences
                                       • Ethnicity, gender
                                      • Cultural caregiving styles
 Biblically Rooted
                        Environment • Boys & girls treated differently
                        al Influences • Parents emphasize sibling
                                        differences
Equipped to Serve
                                      • Combines genetics and
                         Goodness
                                        environment
                             Of Fit
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                     20
Live Your Purpose
                               Measuring Temperament
                        New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) in the first
                        days and months babies differ in 9
Academically Prepared   characteristics:

                        1.   Activity level
 Biblically Rooted
                        2.   Rhythmicity
                        3.   Approach-withdrawal
                        4.   Adaptability
                        5.   Intensity of reaction
Equipped to Serve
                        6.   Threshold of responsiveness
                        7.   Quality of mood
                        8.   Distractibility
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
                        9.   Attention span
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                  21
Live Your Purpose
                             Measuring Temperament
                        • Activity level: more active than others

                        • Rhythmicity: Some babies eat, sleep,
Academically Prepared




                          defecate on schedule while others are
                          unpredictable
 Biblically Rooted




                        • Approach-withdrawal: Some babies
                          delight in new situations, others withdraw
Equipped to Serve




                        • Adaptability: Some babies adjust quickly
 Globally Minded
                          and happily to new experiences, others do
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short
                          not                                          22
Live Your Purpose
                               Measuring Temperament
                        • Intensity of reaction: Some babies howl when they
                          cry and chortle when they laugh, others merely
Academically Prepared
                          whimper or smile.
                        • Threshold of responsiveness: Some babies sense
                          every sight, sound and touch and react to it, usually
                          with distress; others are oblivious.
 Biblically Rooted
                        • Quality of mood: Some babies seem happy all the
                          time, while others are always irritable.
                        • Distractibility: Some babies are easily distracted
                          while others cannot be sidetracked.
Equipped to Serve

                        • Attention span: Some babies play happily with one
                          toy for a long time while others flit from one thing to
                          another
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                                23
Live Your Purpose
                            Measuring Temperament
                        Another group of researchers began studying
                        adults and came up with a different list of
Academically Prepared
                        basic traits called the “Big Five” which are a
                        central group of personality traits that seem to
                        be evident in all humans.
 Biblically Rooted




                                 1.   Extroversion
                                 2.   Agreeableness
Equipped to Serve
                                 3.   Conscientiousness
                                 4.   Neuroticism
 Globally Minded
                                 5.   Openness
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                   24
Live Your Purpose
                           Measuring Temperament
                        Extroversion: outgoing, assertive, and
                        active behavior
Academically Prepared



                        Agreeableness: kind, helpful, and
                        easygoing feelings
 Biblically Rooted      Conscientiousness: organized, deliberate,
                        and conforming impulses
                        Neuroticism: anxious, moody, and self-
Equipped to Serve
                        punishing thoughts
                        Openness: imaginative, curious, and artistic
 Globally Minded
                        attitude, welcoming new experiences
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                   25
Live Your Purpose
                          Theories about Caregiving
                        Importance of caregivers and their contribution
Academically Prepared
                                      to emotional growth



 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                  26
Live Your Purpose
                        Temperament and Caregiving

Academically Prepared
                         Match between parent and child
                         • Goodness of fit – a pattern of smooth
                           interaction between the child and the
 Biblically Rooted
                           social milieu, including family, school
                           and community.


Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                 27
Live Your Purpose
                        Temperament and Caregiving
                                   Emotional Regulation:
                                  Keeping on an Even Keel
                        • Ways in which young children control their own
Academically Prepared



                          emotions (learning to self-regulate emotions)
                        • Infants may look away from aversive event or suck
 Biblically Rooted
                          their thumb.
                           • Caregivers help infants learn self-regulation by
                              engaging in a two-way communication system.
                           • Children of secure mothers are more likely to
Equipped to Serve
                              self-regulate in a positive manner.
                           • Adolescents who were secure infants are better
                              able to self-regulate and interact cooperatively
                              in social situations.
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                             28
                        Caregiving       Temperament           Integrative
Live Your Purpose
                        Hypothesis        Hypothesis             Theory
                        Attachments      Attachments are     • Caregiving
                        are made         reflections of        determines
                        based on the     infant                whether
Academically Prepared
                        kind of          temperament           attachments are
                        caregiving the   (Kagan)               secure or not
                        infant has       He believes the     • Child’s
 Biblically Rooted
                        received         Strange situation     temperament
                        (Ainsworth)      measures              influences the
                                         individual            type of
                                         differences in        insecurity
Equipped to Serve                        infant’s              displayed when
                                         temperaments          receiving
                                         rather than the       insensitive care-
                                         quality of their      giving
 Globally Minded
                                         attachments
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                           29
Live Your Purpose
                              Social Referencing
                        Looking to others for cues and
                        referencing Mom
Academically Prepared

                         • Look to her for comfort, and
                           cues (tone and expression)
 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350                         http://www.talaris.org/
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                           30
                                   Social Referencing:
Live Your Purpose                 What Should I Do Now?
                        • Seeking out another person’s perception of a
                          situation to help us form our own view of it
Academically Prepared

                        • Infants engage in social referencing as early as 6
                          months.

 Biblically Rooted
                        • Use facial expressions and tone of voice as cues

                        • Requires 3 components:
Equipped to Serve
                          1. Looking at someone else (usually an elder)
                          2. Associating the other’s response with the
                             situation
                          3. Regulating their own response to match the
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350                 elder
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                           31
Live Your Purpose
                                  Referencing Dad
                        • Look to him for fun and physical play
                                    “rough and tumble play”
Academically Prepared

                        • Shapes later emotions as well as motor skills
                          and muscle control

 Biblically Rooted      • Social referencing
                           • Look for approval
                           • Interest and encouragement (engage)
                           • Fear and prohibition (don’t engage)
Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                      32
Live Your Purpose
                         Emotions in a Social Context
                        • Young infants rely on caregivers to soothe
                          them.
                        • Self-regulation grows over first year, with
Academically Prepared




                          brain development.
                        • Caregivers contribute to child’s self-
 Biblically Rooted
                          regulation style.


Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                    33
ExchangeEveryday Fussy Babies (April 14, 2011)
In 2005, the Erikson Institute established a "Fussy Baby Network," where
experienced infant care teachers could share their ideas about caring for a fussy
baby. In the Exchange article, "Supporting Infant Teachers in their Care of Fussy
Babies," (July 2008), Cindy Jurie and Marsha Baker shared some of the wisdom of
these caregivers. Here are a few examples:

•   The goodness of fit between a primary caregiver and an infant is a connection
    that helps support the hard-to-settle baby by reducing the number of staff that
    baby must adjust to.
•   Primary caregivers also offer a consistent relationship to families that facilitate
    the development of trust, helping to reduce a parent’s stress and concern over
    the transition to care outside of the home.
•   Far and away the most commonly mentioned practice was that of swaddling
    the baby in a blanket (if permitted by licensing).
•   Classical and soft jazz music were also commonly mentioned as well as sound
    relaxers, as they seem to help provide a calmer atmosphere in the baby room.
•   Taking advantage of fresh air and going outside may be helpful as is infant
    massage (although this should not be done when the baby is in the middle of a
    crying spell).
•   Teachers tell us that despite the challenges of dealing with a fussy baby, their
    ability to be consistent in their practice and maintain a positive spirit aids them
    in their work.
In a recent issue of The National Perspective, the newsletter of the
National Association for Family Child Care, Elizabeth Prescott talked
with Sue Williamson, NAFCC President, about her experiences in
observing child care centers and family child care homes for the federal
government...

"What I learned from observing children in homes after our
many months of observing them in excellent centers was that
homes provide a unique physical setting where children learn
in a very immediate and practical way how the world works. I
also learned that the logic of homes has a different twist. The
daily lesson plan for a home is how to weave all the events,
both anticipated and unexpected, into a meaningful pattern.
The actual pieces may seem totally random; how the cookie
dough behaves compared to mud, the Eiffel Tower as a
backyard building project, the neighbor dropping in to complain
about her lilacs not blooming, how to keep the 18 month old
out of the block play, what to have for lunch. Homes are very
rich, complex environment and they offer experiences that help
children develop emotional intelligence, creative problem
solving, and hopefully, a sense of humor about life's
unpredictability."
            Discussion….Show what you know!
TWO EIGHTEEN-MONTH-OLDS, Caryn and Cherry, are each
holding their mother’s hand, patiently awaiting the entrance of a
department store Santa. Upon appearing and seeing these
toddlers, Santa quickly approaches them, bends over, belts out a
deep “HO! HO! HO!” and inquires rather intrusively, “Have you
been good little girls this year?” Cherry, obviously startled and
fearful, whimpers and nearly falls over backward as she turns
away to clutch at her mother. Caryn, too, is cautious, but she’s
highly curious as well. She looks intently at Santa, then at her
mother, who says, “Tell Santa yes, I’ve been good and I’d like a
doll for Christmas this year.” Caryn then turns and approaches
Santa, allowing him to pick her up and place her on his lap.

Clearly, these toddlers had very different emotional reactions on
meeting this loud, bearded stranger in a bright red suit. Cherry,
noticeably upset, sought comfort from her mother, whereas Caryn,
more intrigued than scared, first looked at her mother for
clarification and guidance before exploring the situation for
herself. Why might these two children have reacted so differently
to the same novel experience?
Live Your Purpose
                        Post Test -   What do you think…?

Academically Prepared
                        T-F All children are “born” with
                            the same temperament.
 Biblically Rooted




                            Treatment by caregivers
Equipped to Serve
                            determines whether they are
                            difficult or easygoing.
 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                       37
Live Your Purpose
                                        Summary
                        Early infant response is not predictive of later
                        temperament
Academically Prepared




                        Synchrony = coordinated interaction
                        between caregiver and infant
 Biblically Rooted




Equipped to Serve




 Globally Minded
     ECH 350
Dr. Kathryn A. Short                                                       38

				
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