Food for Healthy Mother and Baby

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                                        A rw
                                           po a
                                           INter or r
                                             s ll
Food for

                                              SI to hefri
                                                D an ge
                                                   E: g rat
a Healthy

                                                          on o
and Baby
Your baby is counting
on you to eat healthy

Inside are general
guidelines for pregnant
and breastfeeding

          DH 150-15, 8/05
 Stock Number: 5730-015-0150-8
WIC is an equal opportunity provider.
Weight Gain During Pregnancy
■     Your chances of having a healthy baby are better when you gain enough
      weight during pregnancy.

■     You should gain weight at a steady rate throughout your pregnancy.

■     Pregnancy is not a time to lose weight.

■     Talk with your nutritionist or health care provider about how much weight
      you should gain.

How much total weight should you gain during pregnancy?
        Women               Women                 Women              Women
       who were            who were              who were           expecting
 Normal Weight          Underweight             Overweight           Twins
    before pregnancy    before pregnancy    before pregnancy         should
      should gain:        should gain:        should gain:            gain:

       25 to 35            28 to 40              15 to 25           35 to 45
       pounds              pounds                pounds             pounds

                            Here’s an example of how weight
                            gain is distributed:
                                7 to 8 pounds     baby
                               3 to 4 pounds      placenta and amniotic fluid
                                2 to 3 pounds     increased size of uterus (womb)
                               8 to 10 pounds     increased blood and other
                                                  body fluids
                               5 to 10 pounds     mother’s stored fat

                            Total Pregnancy
                               Weight Gain:       25 to 35 pounds
          Physical Activity
          Exercise is important. It can be very relaxing and help you feel good all
          over. Be sure to talk to your health care provider about what type of
          exercise you are able to do.

          Vitamins and Minerals
          In some cases, the food you eat does not give you all the vitamins and
          minerals you need. Your health care provider may tell you to take a
          prenatal vitamin and mineral supplement. If you have problems taking
          this supplement, tell your health care provider.

          It is not known if coffee and other drinks with caffeine harm your
          unborn baby. Therefore, it is best to cut down on drinks with caffeine
          in them. Coffee, tea, and many sodas, like colas, have caffeine. Look
          for labels that say “decaffeinated” or “caffeine free.”

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
When you are pregnant, alcohol, tobacco, and other
drugs can harm your unborn baby.
■   Don’t use street drugs.
■   Don’t drink beer, wine, wine coolers, liquor, or
    other alcoholic drinks.
■   Don’t take prescription drugs, over-the-counter
    medicine, or herbal remedies unless it is okay with
    your health care provider.
■   Don’t smoke cigarettes.

After birth, keep your baby away from tobacco
smoke. Babies and children who are around tobacco smoke have more chance
of getting colds, coughs, and ear infections.

If you need help to stop using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs,
talk to your WIC nutritionist or other health care or social service worker. For
“stop smoking” information, counseling, and self-help materials, call the Quit-for-
Life Line at 1-877-822-6669.

What changes will you make in your eating or health habits?
♥ Breastfeeding is rewarding and enjoyable. It
    helps you build a close and loving bond with
    your baby.
♥ Breastfed babies have fewer illnesses.
♥ Breastmilk has just the right amount of vitamins,
    minerals, and other nutrients that your baby
    needs to grow well.
♥ Pediatricians recommend that babies be given
    only breastmilk for the first 6 months of life. Solid
    foods should be offered at about 6 months and
    breastfeeding should continue until the baby is 1 year of age or older.
♥ Call the WIC staff if you need help with breastfeeding. They know of other
    breastfeeding mothers and experts you can talk with.
ALL pregnant women should know their HIV status and should ask their health care
provider for an HIV test. In the United States, it is recommended that women with HIV
or AIDS not breastfeed as the virus can be passed to their baby through breastmilk.

             Health Advisory for Mercury in Fish
Fish can be an important part of a balanced diet. However, some fish contain high
levels of mercury. Too much mercury can harm unborn babies, infants, and young
children. Therefore, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, women who may
become pregnant, and young children (under 10 years of age) should follow
these guidelines:

Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel, and Tilefish (also known as
Golden Snapper or White Snapper) because they contain high levels of mercury.

Eat no more than 2 meals per week of a variety of fish and shellfish that
are lower in mercury. (One adult-size meal is 6 ounces or less of cooked fish;
one child-size meal is about 3 ounces of cooked fish.) Some of the most commonly
eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock,
and catfish. White albacore tuna is higher in mercury, therefore, eat no more than
one serving per week of white albacore tuna.

Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends
in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Information about Florida Fish
Consumption Advisories are available at this website:
Foods for you while you are                                                                                     These are general guidelines for pregnant
                                                                                                                and breastfeeding women. Teens and very
                                                                                                                active women may need additional amounts.

Pregnant or Breastfeeding                                                                                       Talk with your nutritionist or health care
                                                                                                                provider (such as a doctor or midwife) for
                                                                                                                more information about your specific needs.

Meat & Beans                                                                        One ounce of meat or             Eat 6 to 7 ounces        Here are some
Group                                                                                  beans equals:                  of meat or beans        important
These foods have protein,                                                           1 ounce cooked lean meat,         every day.              nutrients and
iron, B vitamins, and                                                                    poultry, or fish*                                    how they work
other minerals. Dry                                                                 1 egg                            Note: 3 ounces of        for you and
beans and peas, peanut                                                              1 tablespoon peanut butter       cooked meat is           your baby:
                                                                                    1/4 cup cooked dry beans or      about the size of a
butter, and nuts are good
sources of dietary fiber.                                                                dry peas                    deck of cards.           Carbohydrates provide the
                                                                                    1/2 ounce nuts or seeds
Choose lean meat and                                                                                                                            body with energy.
                                                                                    1/4 cup tuna fish*
poultry. Vary your choices
by eating fish, beans, peas,                                                        * See Health Advisory for Mercury in Fish                 Protein helps with growth
eggs, nuts, and seeds.                                                                on the back of this pamphlet.                             and repair of tissue and
                                                                                                                                                helps the body fight

Milk Group                                                                         One cup of milk equals:           Eat or drink 3 to        Fat provides energy and is
These foods have protein,                                                          1 cup milk or yogurt               4 cups of milk            needed for healthy skin.
calcium, vitamin A, and                                                            11/2 ounces natural cheese         or milk
vitamin D. Choose fat free                                                         2 ounces processed cheese          products every          Dietary Fiber helps keep the
or lowfat milk or milk                                                             1 cup pudding                      day.                      digestive tract healthy and
products most often. For a                                                         11/2 cups ice cream, ice milk,                               prevents constipation.
                                                                                       or frozen yogurt               Women ages 19
non-dairy option, you may
                                                                                                                      to 50 need
choose a calcium-fortified                                                                                                                    Calcium helps build and
                                                                                                                      about 3 cups.
soy beverage.                                                                                                                                   maintain strong bones
                                                                                                                      Women younger
                                                                                                                                                and teeth.
                                                                                                                      than 19 need
                                                                                                                      about 4 cups.
                                                                                                                                              Iron helps form and maintain
                                                                                                                                                 blood cells and helps the
                                                                                                                                                 body fight infections.

Fruits Group                                                                        One cup of fruit equals:         Eat 2 to 21/2 cups       These vitamins help with
These foods have                                                                    1 cup fruit                       of fruits every           growth and
carbohydrates,                                                                      1 cup fruit juice                 day.                      development:
dietary fiber,                                                                      1/2 cup dried fruit such as
                                                                                                                     Note: 1 cup of fruit     Vitamin A foods should be
vitamins, and                                                                            raisins or prunes
                                                                                                                     is about the size of a     eaten at least a few times a
minerals. Most of your
                                                                                                                     baseball.                  week. Good sources of
choices should be fruit,
not juice.                                                                                                                                      vitamin A are dark green,
                                                                                                                                                deep yellow, or orange fruits
                                                                                                                                                and vegetables such as
                                                                                                                                                spinach, collard greens,
                                                                                                                                                broccoli, sweet potatoes,
                                                                                                                                                carrots, and cantaloupe.

                                                                                                                                              Folate (Folic Acid) is an
                                                                                                                                                important B vitamin. Good
Vegetables                                                                          One cup of vegetables            Eat 3 to / cups
                                                                                                                               31 2
                                                                                                                                                sources of folic acid are
Group                                                                                   equals:                       of vegetables
                                                                                                                                                breakfast cereals fortified
These foods have                                                                    1 cup raw or cooked               every day.
                                                                                                                                                with folic acid, dry beans
carbohydrates,                                                                          vegetables
                                                                                                                     Note: 1 cup of             and peas, liver, dark green
dietary fiber,                                                                      2 cups leafy salad greens
                                                                                                                     vegetables is about        leafy vegetables, oranges,
vitamins, and                                                                       1 cup vegetable juice
                                                                                                                     the size of a              orange juice, pineapple
minerals. Try to have
                                                                                                                     baseball.                  juice, asparagus, broccoli,
a variety of vegetables
                                                                                                                                                green peas, beets, breads,
each day.
                                                                                                                                                rice, and pasta.

                                                                                                                                              Vitamin C helps your body
                                                                                                                                                use the iron in grains and
                                                                                                                                                vegetables. Choose a good
                                                                                                                                                source of vitamin C daily.
Grains Group                                                                        One ounce of grains               Eat 7 to 10               The following are good
These foods have                                                                         equals:                        ounces of grains        sources of vitamin C: fruit
carbohydrates, iron,                                                                1 slice of bread                    every day.              and vegetable juices with at
and B vitamins.                                                                     1 6-inch tortilla                                           least 100% Daily Value of
Whole grains such as                                                                1 small bran muffin                                         vitamin C; broccoli;
whole wheat bread                                                                   1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, pasta, or grits                grapefruit; kiwi; mangos;
and whole grain                                                                     1 cup (or 1 ounce) ready-to-eat cereal                      melons; oranges; raw
cereals are good                                                                    5 to 6 whole grain crackers                                 cabbage; papaya;
sources of dietary                                                                  1 4-inch waffle or pancake                                  tomatoes; and
fiber. At least half of                                                             1/2 of a hamburger bun                                      strawberries.
your grains should be                                                               1/2 of an English muffin

whole grains.                                                                       1/2 of a bagel
                                                                                    3 cups popped popcorn

Fats & Sugars                                                Oils                                                    Eat 6 to 8
Limit solid fats like butter, margarine, shortening, and     Oils include fat from many plants and from fish.         teaspoons of
lard, as well as foods that contain these ingredients.       These oils are liquid at room temperature. They          oils every day.
                                                                                                                                                   Drink water
                                                             include vegetable oils such as canola, corn, olive,
Check the Nutrition Facts label to keep saturated fats                                                                                             to quench
                                                             soybean, and sunflower oil. The fat in fish, nuts,
and trans fat low.                                                                                                                                 thirst. Add a
                                                             and vegetable oils contains “essential fatty acids”                                   slice of lemon
Choose food and beverages low in added sugars.               and vitamin E.                                                                        or lime for flavor.
Added sugars contain calories with few, if any, nutrients.
                                                                                                                                                   Drink sodas,
If you are underweight or not gaining enough                 One teaspoon (5 grams) of oil equals:                                                 coffee, and tea in
weight during pregnancy, you may need to eat some            1 teaspoon liquid vegetable oil                                                       moderation.
additional amounts of foods that have added fat and sugar.   1 teaspoon margarine with zero trans fat
Check with your nutritionist or health care provider.        1 tablespoon low-fat mayonnaise
                                                             2 tablespoons light salad dressing

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