Introduction to Psychology and behavioral science

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					INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE



         Mrs. Mona Higazy Idrees
         Clinical Psychologist
whenever our mind is opened to
 something new, we are always curious
 about it. It is nature of human mind to
 absorb knowledge and explore new
 things. But before exploring new things,
 a question always comes in our mind
 that….
what it is related to? What is the meaning
 of that particular subject?
 COURSE Objectives

 The major goals to be achieved by students taking this
  introductory course include cognitive goals (academic or
  intellectual objectives) and affective goals (personal goals
  involving your feelings and behavior). By the end of the course,
  you should be able to:
 Cognitive Goals
 - Define psychology and explain how the focus of psychology is
  different from that of other social and biological sciences.
 - Define basic psychological terminology and explain important
  features of major psychological concepts and theories.
 - Identify leading contributors to the field of psychology and
  describe their work.
COURSE Objectives

 - Explain how biological, psychological, and social
  factors can affect behavior.
 - Identify and describe specific psychological principles
  in real-life situations.
 - Critically analyze information about human behavior
  and distinguish between conclusions supported by
  scientific evidence and conclusions based on
  nonscientific ways of knowing.
 - Recognize real-life situations that may call for
  professional psychological help and know how to use
  community resources to find help when needed.
COURSE Objectives
 Affective Goals
 - Develop a positive attitude toward the discipline of
  psychology.
 - Appreciate how psychology can enrich and help to explain
  individual experience and social interaction.
 - Appreciate similarities and differences between individuals.
 - Appreciate how culture, gender, and other group identities
  can influence self-awareness and interactions between people.
COURSE Objectives
-  Appreciate the impact of prejudices on
  attitudes and behaviors.
 - Appreciate that our understanding of
  human behavior has evolved and
  changed over the years, and that
  increasingly refined psychological theories
  have developed.
 Help you to develop your own way to deal
  with your patients.
OBJECTIVE OF THIS LECTURE:

    What we will discuss…
1.    History and origin of science of psychology.
2.    Areas of Psychology
3.    Definitions of psychology.
4.    What are the Goals of Psychology?
5.    Branches OF psychology.
6.    What do we hope to gain from studying psychology?
7.    Do we need in medicine field to study psychology?
THE FIRST ‘PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT”

 An  ancient King of Egypt, as far back as the
  seventh century B.C., can be considered the
  first psychology experiment.
 The king wanted to test whether or not
  Egyptian was the oldest civilization on earth.
 His idea was that, if children were raised in
  isolation from infancy and were given no
  instruction in language of any kind, then the
  language they spontaneously spoke would be of
  the original civilization of man – hopefully,
  Egyptian.
LIFE BEFORE PSYCHOLOGY

  Philosophy asks questions about the mind:
  Does perception accurately reflect reality?
  How is sensation turned into perception?
                                                     René Descartes
                                                      (1596-1650)

   Problem - No “scientific” way
      of studying problems                          SCIENTIFIC
                                                     METHOD
                                                 Predict what will
                                                 happen
The roots of psychology can be traced            Systematically
to the ancient philosopher based on              observe events.
                                                 Do events support
their early records to understand                predictions
psychology.
EARLY PHILOSOPHERS AND PHYSIOLOGIST
Early philosophers were most concerned with nature of knowledge
or epistemology.
 In epistemology you ask such questions as: What is knowledge? What are
the origins of knowledge? What does it mean to know?



    Physiology asks similar questions about
                   the mind
   Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.), known as the father of modern
    medicine.
   Plato (427-347 B.C.) view that the mind and body were
    separate and the mind was located in the brain.
   Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) who was Plato’s student
   Ibn Sina (980-1037), a Muslim philosopher famous for his
    works on medicine.
    HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF SCIENCE OF
               PSYCHOLOGY


 So we can Say……..
 The roots of psychology can be traced to the ancient
  philosopher based on their early records to understand
  psychology.
 The earliest roots of modern psychology can be traced to
  two different approaches to human behavior:
 (1)philosophy and (2)physiology .
         PHILOSOPHER         +       PHYSIOLOGIST

          Philosopher                        Physiologist
   Philosophy explores and            Physiology is the study of
    attempts to explain human           the human body .through
    nature through introspection
    or self-examination of one’s        observation.
    experiences. Through a process     early Greek scholars
    of self-questioning and asking      attempted to understand
    others questions.
                                        the workings of the human
   philosophers have attempted
                                        body.
    to unravel how we think, how
    we learn, how we gain
    knowledge and how we use
    our experiences.
Philosophy




             psychology

Physiology
              Psychology is
              interested in the
              nature of humans
psychology    and how human
              beings function.
 PSYCHOLOGY IS BORN
                                          Focuses on the scientific
                                           study of the mind.
                                          Wundt focused his
                                           experiments as conscious
                                           experiences and he
                                           replaced the concept of
                                           mind with consciousness.
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)
Physiologist & Perceptual Psychologist
Founder of Psychology as a Science



Edward Titchner (1867-1927)                  First Experimental
Student of Wundt
Formed Y at Cornell
                                             Psych Lab (1879)
William James (1842-1910)
Philosopher & Psychologist
Formed Y at Harvard
                                      Modern psychology developed from
                                      several conflicting traditions,
                                      including structuralism,
    AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY               functionalism, Gestalt psychology,
                                      behaviorism, and psychoanalysis

   Psychology quickly diversified from the late 19th century, leading to a
    number of distinct schools:
       Structuralism, which investigated the structure of the mind
       Functionalism, which investigated the adaptive functions of
        the mind
       Behaviourism, which emphasized the role of the environment
        in guiding behavior
       Gestalt, which emphasized holistic aspects of mental
        processing
       Psychoanalysis, which emphasized the role of unconscious
        forces in shaping behavior.
WHY DO YOU THINK THERE IS DIFFERENT APPROACHES
OF PSYCHOLOGY ?
 Different approaches exist because there are
  different ways of explaining phenomena.
 For example, emotions can be explained in               emotions
  terms of the thoughts associated with them or
  the physiological changes they produce.
 Psychologists try to explain psychological
                                                     thoughts
  phenomena from a range of different
  perspectives, and so use different approaches.   physiological changes
 As an example, what are some different ways
  in which we might explain shaking hands?
 STRUCTURALISM
    Major Structuralist Thinkers:
                                       Wilhelm Wundt
    Wilhelm Wundt                       (1832-1920)
    Edward Titchner
 Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on
  breaking down mental processes into the most basic
  components.
 Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of
  consciousness using a method known as introspection.
 Wilhelm Wundt known as "the father of psychology ,"founded
  the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological
  research in Leipzig, Germany.
 The use of introspection: the direct observation of one's own
  heart, mind and/or soul and its processes.
 Wundt Focuses on the scientific study of the mind.

 Wundt insists that Psychology’s methods be as rigorous as the
  methods of chemistry & physics.
FUNCTIONALISM
 Functionalism formed as a reaction to the
  structuralism and was heavily influenced by the              William James
  work of William James and the evolutionary                   (1842-1910)

  theory of Charles Darwin.
 They focused on the purpose of consciousness                Major
  and behavior.                                               Functionalist
                                                              Thinkers:
 Functionalism investigated functions of mental              William James
  processes in adapting to the environment.                   John Dewey
                                                              Harvey Carr
       Understand mental processes by understanding
                                                              John Angell
        the goal or purpose of those processes
           Example: What is the goal or purpose of memory?
        STRUCTURALISM VS                        FUNCTIONALISM
   Wilhelm Wundt                                    •William James




   Analyze consciousness into basic          Investigate the function, or purpose
    elements and study how they are            of consciousness rather than its
    related.                                   structure.
   It focused on sensations and              Functionalists believed that
    perceptual experiences.                    psychology should study the
   The goal of structuralism was to           function of consciousness, not
    break consciousness down into its          analyze its parts.
    basic parts so it could be analyzed.       Functionalists began studying
   Structuralisms tended to work in           intelligence, child development, sex
    labs, using techniques like                roles, and other aspects of the real
    introspection.                             world.

   Structure of the mind                     Function of the mind
QUIZ   TIME……

    Task 1: Answer the following questions.

1.   The most prominent difference between
     Structuralism and Functionalism is.. One is
     applied science one is a pure science.
2.   The main questions that structuralism
     ask…What are the main principles that
     govern the way the human mind works?
                                     Stimulus
                         BEHAVIORISM Response
                                     Psycholo
Ivan Pavlov
                                        gy
     Scientific Psychology should focus on observable John Watson
                                                            (1878-1958)
      behavior.
     Mental Processes cannot be studied directly

     Problems with introspection: Cannot directly observe mental
      events.
    • Subjective, varies by individual.
             Solution: Focus only on objective, observable and measurable
              behaviors in carefully controlled experiments.
    •   How we learn from observable responses.
    •   How to best study, assess and treat troubled people.
SKINNER & BEHAVIORISM

   BF Skinner argued that
    organisms tend to repeat
    responses that lead to positive
    outcomes and tend not to
    repeat responses that lead to
    negative outcomes.
   In other words, all behavior
    can be understood and
    modified by examining the
    patterns of rewards and
    punishments.
                                               NATURE OR NURTURE?

John B. Watson argued that consciousness      Behaviorism led to one of the
couldn’t be studied, but behavior could.       fundamental questions in
Watson wanted psychology to be the             psychology:
   "science of behavior.”
                                               Is behavior determined by
                                               heredity (nature) or by
                                               environment & experience
                                               (nurture)?

                                              How big a role does each play
Behaviorism focuses on relating a
                                               in determining a certain
  behavior (a response) to the
                                               behavior?
  environment (a stimulus).
QUIZ   TIME……

             Task 2: complete the sentences.........
         1.    Watson wanted psychology to be the
               "science of behavior.”
         2.    Behaviorism focuses on relating a
               behavior (a response) to the
               environment (a stimulus).
         3.    BF Skinner argued that organisms
               tend to learn behavior by rewards and
               punishments.
    FREUD & PSYCHOANALYSIS
Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to explain      Sigmund Freud
personality, mental disorders & motivation in     (1856-1939)

terms of unconscious determinants of behavior.
 Unconscious expressed in dreams & “slips of the
  tongue”
   The unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and
    desires of which we are not consciously aware but still
    influence behavior.
   Many conflicts and problems arise from childhood
    experiences.
FREUD’S APPROACH WAS CONTROVERSIAL BECAUSE
………….
 1) it is antithetical to
  behaviorism.
                  and
 2) it often has an emphasis on
  sex, a topic which scientists were
  uncomfortable studying at the
  time.
HUMANISM
   Humanism developed as a reaction
    to behaviorism and psychoanalytic
    theory.
   Humanism holds that humans are
    fundamentally different than
    animals.
   Humanism argues that people are
    governed by a self concept and
    grow toward their potential.
   Carl Rogers was one of the early
    humanists. He developed client-
    centered therapy and the idea of
    the self-concept.
            COGNITION & BIOLOGY
  Also a reaction to behaviorism, cognitive
   psychologists argued that behavior can’t be
   understood without understanding the underlying
   mental processes that control behavior.
  Biological psychologists insist that we also have to
   understand the physical structures and
   biochemistry that allow cognition.
  Focus…… How the body and brain create emotions,
    memories, and sensory experiences?

New emphasis on linking brain, mind, and behavior

Sample Issues
• How do evolution and heredity influence behavior?
• How are messages transmitted within the body?
• How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives?
                                         Cognition
                                         The mental processes involved
COGNITIVE                                in acquiring, processing,
PSYCHOLOGY                               storing & using information

   Cognitive Psychologists return to the study of
    learning, memory, perception, language,                         Noam Chomsky
    development & problem solving.                                   “Language”
   Focus                                                       Advent of
•    Focuses on mental function and reasoning (e.g; Piaget,     computers
    Ellis)
                                                                (late 1950s)
•    How we process, store and retrieve information.
                                                                provides a
    Sample Issues                                               new model
    • How do we use info in remembering and reasoning?          for thinking
    • How do our senses govern the nature of perception?        about the
                                                                mind
•    1950s: Shift away from behaviorism, back to interest in
    internal mental processes.
•    Better research techniques allowed more objective
    observation of mental processes
•    Computers became a new way to understand how the
    mind works.
                                                                         Piage
GESTALT                    “The whole is
PSYCHOLOGY                 different than
                           the sum of its
                           parts.”

Gestalt psychology is a   Major Gestalt
                           Thinkers:
 school of thought that    Max Wertheimer
                           Kurt Koffka
 looks at the human mind   Wolfgang Kohler

 and behavior as a

 whole.
                                          Psychology has been primarily a western European
SOCIAL-CULTURAL                           and North American science.
                                          In the last 25 years, more effort has gone into
PERSPECTIVE                               studying the behavior and mental processes of
                                          people from other cultures.

 Focus…..
•      How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
•     New emphasis on how culture shapes the mind and behavior
               Culture = shared values, customs, beliefs of a group
     Example: According to Vygotsky
•     How children think depends on social, cultural environment around them




    Sample Issues
    • How are we, as members of different races and nationalities, alike   as
    members of one human family?
    • How do we differ, as products of different social contexts?
    • Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than when alone?
BUSS & EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY

   The newest approach to psychology
    examines behavior and mental
    processes in terms of their adaptive
    value to the species.

   “Behaviors that help the species
    survive become dominant over
    many generations.”


   David Buss is the leading expert
    in this field.
AREAS OF PSYCHOLOGY

•   Clinical – psychotherapy, assessment, diagnosis
•   Developmental – how do we develop across life?
•   Social – how do people behave in groups?
•   Biopsychology – what is the brain basis of behavior?
•   Cognitive – how do we think and perceive?
•   Personality – what basic traits make up a
                  person’s personality?
QUIZ
TIME……

    1.   Psychoanalytic Theory attempts to
         explain personality, mental disorders &
         motivation in terms of unconscious
         determinants of behavior.
    2.   Biological psychologists insist that we also have
         to understand the physical structures and
         biochemistry that allow cognition.
    3.   Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that
         looks at the human mind and behavior as a


         whole.
HAD   ENOUGH...FEELING BURNT OUT??
From the Greek:                         psychology is The science
Psyche: spirit or breath of life        or study of individual
Logos: knowledge or study of            mental activity and
                                        behavior


 Focuses on processes occurring within the individual..
 Focuses on connections between mind and body..

 Is a philosophical science.. Has its roots in philosophy..

 Is a science.. Has its roots in biology,, medicine and physics..

 Is systematic and scientific (is structured,, has a methodology,
  and is empirical)..
 Is concerned with human and animal development..
DEFINITIONS:

"Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental
processes and how they are affected by an organism's
physical state, mental state, and external environment."
(Wade and Tarvis, 1990)

"Psychology is an interdisciplinary approach to the study
of animal and human processes and behavior.
Psychology examines the impact of proper or improper
physical and mental functioning on behavior; and, the
effects of the external environment on behavior." (R.
King, 1996)
?????????????????????????????????????????

What is Behavior?          What are mental processes ?


 Any action that others      Emotion
  can                         – Behavior or mental
                               process
 observe and measures:
                               Feelings
 –Walking
                               Thoughts
 –Talking                    Dreams
 –Physical movements         – Brain waves or privates
                               thoughts
                               Perception
                              Memories
WHAT ARE THE GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY?
 To describe, explain, predict, and control
  behavior and mental processes
 Describe: tell what occurred

 Explain: tells the why

 Predict: under what conditions is the
  behavior/event likely to occur
 Control: how is the principle applied or what
  change in condition is necessary to prevent
  unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired
  outcome
WHY PSYCHOLOGY IS CONSIDERED A SCIENCE?

 Social Science
 – Study the structure, of human society and the nature
  of the individual in the society.
 • anthropology, history, sociology, & economics

 Natural Science

 – Study the nature of the physical world (Brain or mind)
  must follow scientific research:
 hypothesis conducting experiment, collecting and
  analyzing data, draw conclusion.
BRANCHES OF PSYSCHOLOGY

  psychology “is the scientific study of behavior and
  mental processes”.
 Psychology as a discipline aims to describe behavior,
  explain behavior, predict behavior and control or
  modify some behavior.
 Psychology does not have a single unifying theoretical
  perspective. Rather, it is a discipline comprising various
  theoretical viewpoints.
 Sometimes it seems that these perspectives are
  competing with each other, but many psychologists tend
  to agree that the various perspectives complement each
  other.
         BRANCHES OF PSYSCHOLOGY

 Developmental             Clinical & Counseling
  Psychology                 Psychology
 Physiological
                            (Applied Psychology)
  Psychology
                            Evolutionary Psychology
 Experimental
  Psychology                Cognitive Psychology
 Personality Psychology    Educational Psychology
 Social Psychology         Abnormal Psychology
 Industrial &
  Organizational
  Psychology
    THREE MAIN LEVELS OF ANALYSIS

   1- Biological
   Natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors
   Genetic predispositions responding to environment
   Brain mechanisms
   Hormonal influences
   2-Psychological:
   Learned fears and other learned expectations
   Emotional responses
   Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations.
   3-Social -cultural
   Presence of others Cultural, societal and family expectations
   Peer and other group influences
   Compelling models (such as in the media).
BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL APPROACH




            Psychological        Biological




                        Social
WHAT DO WE HOPE TO GAIN FROM STUDYING PSYCHOLOGY?




 Gain insight into the mind
 Understanding of people

 Understanding yourself
DO WE NEED IN MEDICINE FIELD TO STUDY PSYCHOLOGY?
 In the first place, there is a department of medicine which
  deals with nervous diseases, such as insanity, double
  personality, severe nervous shock, hallucination, etc. This
  entire aspect of medicine is wholly psychological. But
  psychology can be of service to the general practitioner both
  in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
 A thorough psychological knowledge of human nature will
  assist a physician in diagnosis. Often the best way to find out
  what ails a patient's body is through the patient's mind, and
  the doctor must know how to get the truth from the patient's
  mind even in those cases in which the patient is actually trying
  to conceal the truth.
 A profound practical knowledge of human nature is
  necessary, - a knowledge which can be obtained only by long
  and careful technical study as well as practice and experience.
 Psychology can be of service in the treatment of disease. The
  physician must understand the peculiar mental
  characteristics of his patient in order to know how to deal
  with him.
 In some cases, hypnotism is a valuable aid in treatment, and
  in many cases, ordinary normal suggestion can be of
  considerable service.
 The state of mind of a sick person has much to do with his
  recovery. The physician must know this and must know how
  to induce the desired state of mind. Indeed, a patient's
  trouble is often imaginary, exists in the mind only; in such
  cases, the treatment should be wholly mental, i.e. through
  suggestion. Of course, the best physicians know these facts
  and make use of them in their practice, but preparation for
  this aspect of their work should be a regular part of their
  medical education. They should not be left to learn these
  facts from their practice as best they may, any more than
  they should be expected to learn their physiology and
  anatomy in this way.
PSYCHOLOGY IN MEDICAL CURRICULA:
“NEED TO KNOW” OR “NICE TO KNOW”?
The past
 The struggle to entrench psychology within medical
  curricula has been long (Litva & Peters, 2008).
For example, the Flexner report (1910) recommended that
  doctors develop a socially-oriented perspective of medical
  practice.
 However, it was acknowledged that it was unlikely that
  psychology would be accepted in medical education unless
  its relevance to clinical practice could be demonstrated.
 As evidence of the importance of psychological factors in
  health, illness, and medical consultations accrued, the
  arguments for the inclusion of psychology in medical curricula
  should have become stronger.
 However, psychology did not become a core component of all
  medical curricula.
The present
 In recent decades there has been a desire to change the
  perception of psychology from something that is "nice to
  know” - an interesting, but not essential component of
  medical education - to “need to know” -an indispensable
  component of medical education (Peters & Litva, 2006).

				
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