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Macular Degeneration

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					    Age-Related
Macular Degeneration

 By Tom Boyles, Dustin Broadus,
  Lori Buckle, Constance Marsh,
        and April Seybold
What is Macular Degeneration?
Macular Degeneration is a group
of progressive eye conditions
which involve deterioration of the
macula, the central region of the
retina.
     Partial list of types of
     Macular Degeneration:
    • Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    • Juvenile Macular Degeneration or
      Macular Dystrophy
    • Stargardt’s Disease, a type of
      Juvenile Macular Degeneration
    RISK FACTORS
          for
MACULAR DEGENERATION
  •   Smoking
  •   Family history of the disease
  •   Obesity
  •   High blood pressure
  •   Having a lighter eye color
  •   Possible side effect of some drugs
       SOCIETAL IMPACT
• Age-Related Macular Degeneration
  (ARMD or AMD) is the most common
  cause of irreversible vision loss in
  Americans over the age of 60.
• Estimations say 10 million Americans
  will experience ARMD during their
  lifetime.
  There are two general types of
Age-Related Macular Degeneration:
   • “Dry” (non-neovascular or atrophic)
     – Early stage, less severe
     – 85%-95% of cases
     – Most common symptom is burry vision
     – 3 Stages: Early, Intermediate, & Advanced

   • “Wet” (neovascular or exudative)
     – More severe than “Dry” ARMD
     – Early symptom: Straight lines appear wavy
     – Central vision blind spots develop
     – Two sub-types: Occult & Classic
How is it diagnosed?

             If retinal damage
             is suspected, an
             ophthalmologist
             will perform a
             retinal exam.
Fluorescein angiography is used to
 examine the retinal blood vessels.




In “Dry” ARMD yellowish      In “Wet” ARMD unwanted,
waste deposits, called       proliferating blood vessels
drusen form on the retina.   leak blood & fluid causing
                             permanent damage to light-
                             sensitive retinal cells.
             An Amsler grid
          assists with diagnosis
An Amsler grid
is a tool that
eye doctors use to
detect vision
problems resulting
from damage to
the macula.
                        Small blind spots may
The lines may look      appear in your vision as
wavy if you have        dry macular degeneration
Early “Dry” ARMD.       progresses.
CHANGES IN THE MACULA
What impact does ARMD
  have on the vision?

• Distorted Vision
• Loss of sharp, central
  vision needed for
  reading, driving, etc.
• Difficulty seeing fine
  detail
• Difficulty seeing color
  clearly
Common Treatments
        • There is no cure for
          “Dry” or “Wet” ARMD at
          this point in time.
        • No FDA-approved
          treatments exist for
          “Dry” ARMD.
        • Studies indicate taking
          vitamins A, C, and E,
          zinc, lutein, antioxidants,
          & Omega-3 oils may help
          prevent or slow “Dry”
          Macular Degeneration.
Common Treatments

Various FDA approved drugs are
used to slow down the
progression of “Wet” ARMD.
• Lucentis, Macugen
• Visudyne used with
  Photodynamic Therapy or PDT
What will improve the lives of
 individuals with ARMD?

               • Low vision aids such as
                 magnifiers
               • UV protected
                 sunglasses
               • Proper lighting for near
                 tasks
               • Regular visits to your
                 ophthalmologist or
                 optometrist
                                   References
•   1. About AMD. Retrieved July 25, 2009, from http://www.eyeonamd.com/EyeOnAMD/about-amd.html
•   2. Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retrieved July 25, 2009, from
         http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts.asp
•   3. American Macular Degeneration Foundation. Stargardt’s Disease. Retrieved on July 26, 2009, from
         http://www.macular.org/stargardts.html
•   4. Dictionary of Eye Terminology 5th Edition. Barbara Cassin and Melin L. Rubin, Editor. 2006.
         Gainesville, Fl, pg 167.
•   5. Ken Moses, Ph. D. The Impact of Childhood Disability: The Parent’s Struggle. Retrieved July 26, 2009 from
         http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache:FVUA1bWMnmAJ:www.dsact.com/images/docs/thei
         mpact08.pdf+ken+moses+disabled&hl=en&gl=us
•   6. Liz Segre. Amsler Grid: Test for Macular Degeneration or Other Vision Problems. Retrieved July 25, 2009,
         from http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amsler-grid.htm
•   7. Marika Veisson. Depression Symptoms and Emotional States in Parents of Disabled and Non-Disabled
         Children. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3852/is_199901/ai_n8851290/
•   8. Marilyn Maddrill. Macular Degeneration. Retrieved July 25, 2009, from
         http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/amd.htm
•   9. Marilyn Maddrill. Stargardt's Disease (Fundus Flavimaculatus).
         Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/stargardts.htm
•   10. Richard L. Windsor, O.D., F.A.A.O. and Laura K. Windsor, O.D., F.A.A.O. Understanding
         Stargardt’s Disease. Retrieved July 26, 2009, from http://www.lowvision.org/stargardts.htm

				
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