Evaluating Students for Emotional Behavioral Disorders Fact

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Evaluating Students for Emotional Behavioral Disorders Fact Powered By Docstoc
					    Assessment to Intervention:
     Implications for School
Psychologists Serving Students with
  Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
               Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

              University of Missouri

            OSEP Center on Positive
        Behavioral Intervention & Supports

                    pbis.org
                    Purpose
• Identify issues with evaluation for EBD
• Propose best practices
  –   yes, more forms
• Answer questions

• Pre-Correct: Content = my interpretation of
  law, regulations, & professional literature
                      At Issue
• Definition
• Regulation Interpretation
  – Confusion / misinterpretation
  – Numbers
• “Rule out” issues
• Current process
  – Wait/Fail model
  – Alternatives?
        Being Sane in Insane Places
                                (Rosenhan, 1973)

Study 1
8 pseudo patients called hospital (3 psychologist, 1 psychiatrist, painter, housewife)
   admissions office complained of hearing voices; "empty," "hollow," "thud," everything
   else factual. Upon admission cease complaints, behave normally, & write notes

Goals:
   1 get out on your own
   2 convince staff that sane
   3 cooperate
   4 no abnormal behaviors

Results
• Pseudo patients never detected
• Each diagnosed with "schizophrenia in remission"
• Average stay 19 days (7-52)
• 35 of 118 patients suspicious “You’re not crazy. You’re a journalist, or a professor
    (referring to the continual note taking). You’re checking up on the hospital.”
      Being Sane in Insane Places
                        (Rosenhan, 1973)
Study 2
Staff told pseudo patients to be admitted over next 3 months 193
   ratings obtained from staff on patients
Results
No pseudo patients actually used!!!
41 rated as pseudo patients with “high confidence”
23 “suspect” by one psychiatrist
19 “suspect” by one psychiatrist and one other staff member

It is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in
     psychiatric hospitals. The hospital itself imposes a special
     environment in which the meanings of behavior can easily be
     misunderstood. The consequences to patients hospitalized in such
     an environment - the powerlessness, depersonalization,
     segregation, mortification, and self-labeling -seem undoubtedly
     counter therapeutic (p. 237).
             Myth One

Using the term “Emotional Disturbance” to
replace “Behavior Disorders” necessitates a
            DSM IV diagnoses
           IDEA General Definition
(3) CHILD WITH A DISABILITY-
    (A) IN GENERAL- The term 'child with a disability' means a child --
    (i) with mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness),
    speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness),
    serious emotional disturbance (hereinafter referred to as emotional
    disturbance), orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other
    health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and

          by reason thereof, needs special
   (ii) who,
   education and related services.
       IDEA Definition (SED/ED)
(i) The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following
    characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree, which
    adversely affects educational performance:

         (A) An inability to learn which cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health
            factors;
         (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and
            teachers;
         (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
         (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or
         (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school
            problems.


(ii) The term includes children who are schizophrenic. The term does not include
     children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they are
     seriously emotionally disturbed.
                  Missouri Definition
“Emotional Disturbance” means a condition exhibiting one or more of the
  following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree
  that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
    A. an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or health
       factors;
    B. an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with
       peers and teachers;
    C. inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
    D. a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; and,
    E. a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or
       social problems.
The term includes schizophrenia, but does not apply to children who are
   socially maladjusted unless it is determined they have an emotional
   disturbance.
                     Fact…
Bad news
  – No clear formula
  – No consensus on Standard instruments
  – No consensus in the field
Good News
  – Triangulation of data & confidence in professional
    judgment
  – Label simply provides access to service
           Myth Two

By changing the regulatory language,
 those students most in need will get
               services
                      Numbers
• US prevalence = 0.85% (9.7% of all students on IEP K-12)
• Estimated prevalence = 5-7%
• Implication (5%) = 2,201,943 students who
  could qualify who might not be receiving
  services (456,407 EBD on IEP / 53,167,000 students K-12)
Designing an Evaluation Process
           for EBD
        Multiple Data Points
       Multi-disciplinary Team
                Criteria for Initial
            Determination of Eligibility
A child displays an emotional disturbance when:

A. through evaluation procedures that must include observation of behavior in
   different environments, and an in-depth social history the child displays
   one of the following characteristics:
B. 1) an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory or
   health factors;
     2) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships
        with peers and teachers;
     3) inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances;
     4) a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; and,
     5) a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with
        personal or social problems.
               Criteria for Initial
           Determination of Eligibility
C. the characteristic(s) must have existed to a marked degree and over an
    extended period of time. In most cases, an extended period of time would
    be a range from two (2) through nine (9) months depending upon the age of
    the child and the type of behavior occurring. For example, a shorter
    duration of disturbance that interrupts the learning process in a younger
    student might constitute an extended period of time. Difficulties may have
    occurred prior to the referral for evaluation; and

D. the emotional disturbance adversely affects the child’s educational
   performance.

NOTE: Manifestations of an emotional disturbance can be observed along a
  continuum ranging from normal behavior to severely disordered behavior.
  Children who experience and demonstrate problems of everyday living
  and/or those who develop transient symptoms due to a specific crisis or
  stressful experience are not considered to have an emotional disturbance.
                   Keys…
• Direct observation
• Social History
• 2- 9 month history with behavior (except in
  extremes)
• Impacts Educational Performance

• No definition of “marked degree”
         Educational Performance
•   Achievement
•   Grades
•   Attendance
•   Participation in school-related activities
•   Social interactions with peers and adults
•   Pre-vocational related skills
•   Informed citizen within community
Social History
                      Standard Scales
•   Behavior Rating Profile (Brown & Hammill)
•   Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock)
•   Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (Quay et al)
•   Behavior Assessment Scale for Children
    (Reynolds & Kamphaus)
• Behavior Evaluation Scale (McCarney)
  Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders
    (Walker & Severson)
       Social Competence/Social Skills

• Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliott)
• The Walker-McConnell scale of social
  competence and school adjustment: A social
  skills rating scale for teachers. (Walker & McConnell)
                  Interviews
• First hand knowledge of child
• Repeated measures across multiple sources
  –   Teacher(s)
  –   Parent
  –   Student
  –   Members of community
                  Archival Review
• School Archival Records Search (Walker, Block-Pedego, Todis
  & Severson)
• What to look for:
   –   Lack of intervention / non-responsiveness to intervention
   –   Expressed concerns/ within school referrals for assistance
   –   Out-of-school referrals for assistance
   –   Attendance
   –   Achievement
   –   Discipline contacts
• Making sense of archival data:
   – Red Flags (Tobin)
   – Patterns/ chronicity
              Archival Review
Tobin, T., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (2000, May). Using
  discipline referrals to make decisions. NASSP
  Bulletin, 84(616), 106-117.
Tobin, T. J., & Sugai, G. M. (1999a). Discipline
  problems, placements, and outcomes for students
  with serious emotional disturbance. Behavioral
  Disorders, 24(2), 109-121.
Tobin, T. J., & Sugai, G. M. (1999b). Using sixth-grade
  school records to predict violence, chronic discipline
  problems, and high school outcomes. Journal of
  Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 7(1), 40-53.
            “Rule Out” Issues
• Medical-Health / Cognitive / Other Disability /
  Acute Stressor / Culture
Inappropriate educational accommodations
Inappropriate behavioral intervention
• Social maladjustment
                                 Columbia Public School District

                      Suggested BD/ED Exclusion Data Sources/Questions

Exclusion         Data Source           Questions
Medical            Nurse                Does the student have a medical diagnosis?
                   Archival             Does the student have a physical/health condition that
                   Parents                may impact lear ning?
                   Family               Is the student currently on medication?
                     Physician           Are there known/predictable side effec ts of the
                                           medication?
Stressor             Family             Is the student's behavior significantly different pre/post
                      Interview            event?
                     Teacher            Has the student's behavior improved, with intervention,
                      Interview            over time (6 months)?
                     Child Interview
Education            Archival             Has an individualized educational progra m been
Program              Observations          developed for the student?
                     Interviews           Is the plan content specif ic?
                                           Is the plan based on assessment of the student's present
                                            level of performance and lear ning style?
                                           Was the plan developed with/by expertise in area of
                                            accommodation?
                                           Was the plan modified based on student outcome?

Behavior             Archival             Has an individualized behavior intervention plan been
Intervention         Observations          developed for the student?
                     Interviews           Is the plan specific to the behavior of concern?
                                           Is the plan based on functional assessment outcomes?
                                           Was the plan developed with/by expertise in area of
                                            behavior?
                                           Was the plan implemented for at least 6 weeks?
                                           Was the plan modified based on student outcome?
Culture              Parent ratings       Do significant others in the student's environment view
                     Peer ratings          the behavior as significantly different (e.g., parents, peers,
                     Self ratings          home-school communicators)?
                     Multiple             Do observations indicate significant differences between
                      observations          the student and his/her peers?
                     Archival             Does the behavior of concern significantly violate
                                            school/community norms?
Substance Abuse      Parent reports       Primary reason educational performance suffers?
                     Incident/arrest      Linked to socialization
                      records
                     Self Report
How does SM differ
   from SED?
How is SM similar to SED
      IDEA Characteristics                                            SMA Characteristics


An inability to learn which          (13) often stays out at night despite parental prohibitions, beginning before age 13
cannot be explained by               years
intellectual, sensory, or health     (14) has run away from home overnight at least twice while living in parental or
factors                              parental surrogate home
                                     (15) is often truant from school, beginning before age 13 years
An inability to build or maintain    (1) often bullies, threatens, or intimidates others
satisfactory interpersonal           (2) often initiates physical fights
relationships with peers and         (3) has use a weapon that can cause serious physical harm to others
teachers                             (4) has been physically cruel to people
                                     (6) has stolen while confronting a victim
                                     (7) has forced someone into sexual activity
Inappropriate types of behavior or   (5) has been physically cruel to animals
feelings under normal                (8) has deliberately engaged in fire setting with the intention of causing serious
circumstances                        damage
                                     (9) has deliberately destroyed others' property
                                     (10) has broken into someone else's house, building, or car
                                     (11) often lies to obtain goods or favors or to avoid obligations
                                     (12) has stolen items of nontrivial value without confronting a victim
A general pervasive mood of
unhappiness or depression

A tendency to develop physical
symptoms or fears associated
with personal or school problems.
          Myth Three

We have to identify students the same
       way we always have
         Special Education
         Evaluation Process

• Wait & Fail
• Largest percentage of students identified @
  2nd -4th grade
• Outcomes =
If antisocial behavior is not changed by
   the end of grade 3, it should be
   treated as a chronic condition much
   like diabetes. That is, it cannot be
   cured but managed with the
   appropriate supports and continuing
   intervention (Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995).
       Re-Thinking the Process
• Consensus on data points and process
• Focus on prevention/early intervention
  – Non-response as additional data point
  – Building Capacity
• Continuum of student supports
  – w/ accompanying adult supports
  School-wide Positive Behavior
            Support
PBS is a broad range of systemic
 and individualized strategies for
 achieving important social and
 learning outcomes while
 preventing problem behavior
                      OSEP Center on PBIS
   School-wide Positive Behavioral Support
 Expectations for student behavior are defined by a building based
  team with all staff input
 Effective behavioral support is implemented consistently by staff
  and administration
 Appropriate student behavior is taught
 Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged
 Problem behaviors have clear consequences
 Student behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback
 Effective Behavioral Support strategies are implemented at the
  school-wide, specific setting, classroom, and individual
  student level
 Effective Behavioral Support strategies are designed to meet the
  needs of all students
                  Social Competence &
Positive         Academic Achievement

Behavior
Support           OUTCOMES



                                        Supporting
 Supporting
                                         Decision
Staff Behavior
                                         Making




                  PRACTICES




                     Supporting
                  Student Behavior
                                            Tertiary Prevention:
  CONTINUUM OF                                  Specialized
   SCHOOL-WIDE                                 Individualized
 INSTRUCTIONAL &                           Systems for Students
POSITIVE BEHAVIOR           ~5%           with High-Risk Behavior
     SUPPORT
                                          Secondary Prevention:
                            ~15%
                                            Specialized Group
                                          Systems for Students
                                          with At-Risk Behavior
 Primary Prevention:
 School-/Classroom-
  Wide Systems for
    All Students,
  Staff, & Settings




                       ~80% of Students
             Universal Strategies:
                 School-Wide
Essential Features
•   Statement of purpose
•   Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)
•   Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors
•   Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors
•   Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors
•   Procedures for record-keeping and decision making
I am….     All Settings    Classroom      Hallways
                                                  Benton Cafeteria         Bathrooms               Playground          Assemblies


Safe       •Keep bodies    Maintain     Walk          •Walk          Wash hands with        Use equipment for     •Walk
           calm in line    personal      Stay to       •Push in       soap and water          intended purpose       •Enter and exit
           •Report any     space         the right on   chairs         Keep water in the      Wood chips are for    gym in an
           problems                      stairs         •Place trash   sink                    the ground             orderly manner
           •Ask                          Banisters     in trash can   One person per         Participate in
           permission to                 are for                       stall                   school approved
           leave any                     hands                                                 games only
           setting                                                                             Stay in approved
                                                                                               areas
                                                                                               Keep body to self
Respect-   •Treat others   Be honest    Walk          Eat only      Allow for privacy of   •Line up at first      Be an active
ful        the way you     Take care    quietly so     your food      others                  signal                 listener
           want to be      of yourself   others can     Use a         Clean up after self    •Invite others who     Applaud
           treated                       continue       peaceful                               want to join in        appropriately to
           •Be an active                 learning       voice                                  •Enter and exit        show
           listener                                                                            building peacefully    appreciation
           •Follow adult                                                                       •Share materials
           direction(s)                                                                        •Use polite language
           •Use polite
           language
           •Help keep
           the school
           orderly
A          •Be an active   •Be a risk    Return to     •Use proper    •Follow bathroom        •Be a problem solver   •Raise your
Learner    participant     taker         class          manners        procedures              •Learn new games       hand to share
           •Give full      •Be           promptly       •Leave when    •Return to class        and activities         •Keep
           effort          prepared                     adult          promptly                                       comments and
           •Be a team      •Make                        excuses                                                       questions on
           player          good                                                                                       topic
           •Do your job    choices
      Universal Strategies:
     Non- Classroom Settings
• Identify Setting Specific Behaviors
• Develop Teaching Strategies
• Develop Practice Opportunities and
  Consequences
• Assess the Physical Characteristics
• Establish Setting Routines
• Identify Needed Support Structures
• Data collection strategies
        Universal Strategies:
            Classroom

Needed at the classroom level...
• Use of school-wide expectations/rules
• Effective Classroom Management
   – Behavior management
   – Instructional management
   – Environmental management
• Support for teachers who deal with students
  who display high rates of problem behavior
    Why build strong universal
      systems of support?
• We can’t “make” students learn or behave
• We can create environments to increase
  the likelihood students learn and behave
• Environments that increase the likelihood
  are guided by a core curriculum and
  implemented with consistency and fidelity
  across all learning environments
                              Process for Disseminating Practice
         SAT Process
         Teacher Training and                   SAT
         Support                               Team
         Targeted Interventions             Administrator
         Individual Student Plans            Counselor
                                          Behavior Specialist

   Core Team/Classrooms                      STAT Team
   Implement AIS                      Core Team Representative
   Monitor Progress                         SAT Partner
   Refer to SAT                         Core Team Teachers

                                           *Meets Weekly

School-Wide Systems                       RRKS Team
Matrix
Lesson Plans                        Core Team Representative
School-Wide Data                      District PBS Support
Acknowledgement
                                    Building Administrator and
Communication
                                            Counselors

                                         *Meets Monthly
                                    Pyramid to Success for All

                                              Office Issues
                     Bus referrals, Truancy, Chronic offender, Threatening student or adult,
                  Fighting, Refusal to go to or Disruptive in Buddy Room, Sexual harassment,
                    Weapons, Drug/cigarettes/ tobacco/alcohol, Assault – physical or verbal
                       Teacher Method for handling student behaviors
                             Referral Form – send student to office with completed form
                Process with student before re-entry
                        Office Method for handling student behaviors
                                 Proactive: RRKS Review, Parent Contact
                    Corrective: Loss of Privilege, Saturday detention, Opportunity Center,
                                               Suspension, etc.



                                              Team Issues
 Repeated minor & major disruptions in multiple classrooms, Throwing things, Hallway/Lockers problems,
Attendance, Repeated disrespect to peers or adults, Cheating, Inappropriate to substitute, Insubordination,
                                          Chronic Disruptions
                             Method for handling student behaviors
Proactive: Parent contact (mandatory), RRKS review, Team conference, Team conference with student,
 Team conference with Parents, Team conference with Administrator/Counselor, Triage in the AM with the
                       student, Triage at lunch with the student, Team Focus, etc.
           Corrective: Removal of privilege on team, Recovery Study Hall, Buddy Room, etc.


                                      Classroom Teacher Issues
  Out of seat, Talking to classmates, Talking out, Off-task, Violation of class rules, Inappropriate language,
            Lack of materials, Gum, Disrespect, Cheating, Tardies, Minor destruction of property
                              Method for handling student behaviors
   Proactive: Positive call to parents, Use praise, Use Rewards, Daily/Weekly Goal sheets, Proximity to
 instructor, Provide choices, One-to-One assistance, Pre-correct for transitions/trouble situations, Regular
               breaks for exercise, Give a job, RRKS Review, Reward lunch with teacher, etc.
 Corrective: One and only one REDIRECT, RRKS Review, Safe-seat, Buddy Room, Think Sheet, Parent
         Phone call, Lunch Detention, Recovery Study Hall, Removal of privilege in classroom, etc.
         Serving Students with EBD
All facets of programming should include:
•   Systematic, data based interventions
•   Continuous assessment and monitoring of progress
•   Provision for practice of new skills
•   Treatment matched to problem
•   Multi-component treatment
•   Programming for transfer & maintenance
•   Commitment to sustained intervention

(Peacock Hill Working Group, 1991)
             Level of Supports
           within EBD Programs
For All Students, pre-school – Grade 12
Prevention – prior to identification / pre-referral /
  universal supports for all students – the intent of
  universal support is three-fold: a) prevention of EBD,
  b) early intervention for high risk students (across all
  grade levels), and c) supportive environments for
  those students identified as EBD.

(see www.pbismissouri.org)
   Level of Supports within EBD Programs
Intermittent – Support on an “as needed basis.” Characterized by
  episodic nature, person not always needing the support(s), or
  short term supports needed during life span transitions.
  Intermittent supports may be a high or low-level intensity
  when provided.
Examples
Academic
     – Consult with general education teacher
     – Specific event accommodations (e.g., test reader, more time, quiet room)
Behavior
     – Targeted social skills
     – Quiet room
     – Check in
     – Self management/monitoring
Related Supports
     – On-call counseling / social worker
     – Receives meds at school
   Level of Supports within EBD Programs
Limited – An intensity of supports characterized by constancy
  over time, time limited but not of an intermittent nature, may
  require fewer staff members and less cost than more intensive
  levels of support
Examples
Academic
     – Consistent accommodations in one or more academic domains (IEP goals)
     – Regular contact with special educator (scheduled pull out time)
Behavior
     – Targeted social skill IEP goals
     – FBA- BIP
Related Supports
     – Counseling services on a regular basis (e.g., weekly)
     – Need for on-going medication monitoring with physician
     – Social work monitoring
     – Juvenile officer monitoring
          Level of Supports within EBD Programs
Extensive – Supports characterized by regular involvement
  (daily) in at least some (work, or home) environments and not
  time limited (long term).
Examples
Academic
       – Special education curriculum or general education curriculum delivered in pull out special education placement for
           majority of day
Behavior
       – Behavior supports delivered by or with daily support of a special educator
       – Requires frequent intensive behavior supports outside of typical scheduled activities across the day or school week
           (e.g., removal from classroom due to behavioral concerns)
       – Behavior intervention plans reflect implementation by specialized personnel and or specialized strategies
Related Supports
       – Behavior consultant
       – One-on-one paraprofessional
       – Daily or multi-modal counseling
              • Outpatient
              • Family involvement
       – Active Community case worker (e.g., social worker, family services, health)
       – Active juvenile justice involvement
       – Multiple medications requiring close monitoring
         Level of Supports within EBD Programs
Pervasive - Supports characterized by their constancy, high
  intensity; provided across environments; potential life
  sustaining nature. Pervasive supports typically involve more
  staff members and intrusiveness than do extensive or time
  limited supports.
Examples
Academic
      – Requires highly individual and specialized instruction to benefit within curriculum
Behavior
      – History of requiring in-patient
      – History of home-bound placement
      – On-going and intensive behavioral supports implemented by specialized personnel required across the
          school day
      – Requires environment with continual monitoring and immediate intervention by specialized personnel
Related Supports
      – Requires intensive mental health services (frequent counseling with access for on-the-spot assistance
          across the school day)
      – Medications must be monitored on an on-going basis
      – Frequent and active involvement with community case workers
             Research-Based
• Related Supports*
  – Comprehensive case management / wrap
    around
  – Family supports/ parent training




  *limited empirical support
             Research-Based
• Academic
  – “Effective instruction” (see nwrel.org)
  – Antecedent / setting modifications
  – Peer tutoring
  – Direct Instruction
  – Self-management targeting academic related
    skills
  – Opportunities to Respond
             Research-Based
• Behavior
  – Environmental modifications and supports
  – Contingent positive performance based
    feedback
  – Self Management
  – Social Skill Instruction (with maintenance and
    generalization strategies)


  FBA-PBS
Why Conduct a Functional
 Behavioral Assessment
                                                                        FBA
                                                                              Non-Function
                                                         Baseline             Based Intervention                        Function Based Intervention
                                                 1 0 0


                                                  9 0


                                                  8 0


                                                  7 0


                                                  6 0


                                                  5 0


                                                  4 0


                                                  3 0


                                                  2 0


                                                  1 0
                                                                                                                                                                              Matthew
                                                    0
Percentage of Intervals Inappropriate Behavior




                                                 10 0


                                                  90


                                                  80


                                                  70


                                                  60


                                                  50


                                                  40


                                                  30


                                                  20
                                                                                                                                                                                     Jerrod
                                                  10


                                                    0



                                                 1 00


                                                   9 0


                                                   8 0


                                                   7 0


                                                   6 0


                                                   5 0


                                                   4 0


                                                   3 0


                                                   2 0
                                                                                                                                                                                          Emma
                                                   1 0


                                                     0
                                                         1   3      5     7    9   1 1   1 3   1 5   1 7    1 9   2 1   2 3   2 5   2 7   2 9   3 1   3 3   3 5   3 7   3 9   4 1   4 3    4 5   4 7   4 9




                                                                                                           Daily Sessions
    FBA – PBS Plan Process
Success requires:
1. Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
2. Fluency with a clear process among all
   staff whereby roles are clearly defined
3. A basic understanding of Applied
   Behavior Analysis (Behavior is
   functionally related to the teaching
   environment) among all school staff
     Essential Steps to Individual PBS
                   Plans
1.    Request for assistance
2.    Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
3.    Background/archival data/ data
      collection/Environmental Assessment
4.    Functional Behavioral Assessment
        Indirect measures
        Direct observation
5.    Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem
      behavior
6.    Develop a PBS plan
        Social skill instruction
        Self management
        Environmental modifications
7.    Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress
                Basics
• Focus on observable behavior
  – Label free approach
  – Acknowledgement of other factors
• Instructional approach
• Emphasis on understanding the
  principles of behavior not specific forms
  or “cook book” strategies
                Basics
• Best Practice vs. Discipline
• Process vs. a set of Forms
• Rule out explanations
• Move from personal experience with
  “discipline”
• Repeated practice to build fluency
• Teach - Practice
          The Key



Behavior is functionally
 related to the teaching
 environment
           The Basics

Behavior is learned
• Do not assume children know
  your rules, expectations, or social
  skills
• Every social interaction you have
  with a child teaches him/her
  something
             The Basics

Behavior communicates need
• Children engage in behavior(s) to "get"
  what they find reinforcing or to "avoid"
  what they find aversive
• Need is determined by observing what
  happens prior to and immediately after
  behavior
           The Basics

• FBA leads to hypotheses about the
  functional relationships between
  BEHAVIOR and the TEACHING
  ENVIRONMENT
• “Functional Relationships”
   –When “X” happens, high degree of
    likelihood “Y” will result
Functional relationships with the
    Teaching Environment

Events that follow behavior
• Following a student behavior the
  environment “gives” something to
  the student and student behavior
  maintains or increases -- what
  ever was given is reinforcing to
  that individual
  Functional relationships with the
      Teaching Environment
Events that follow behavior
• Following a behavior the environment
  allows the student to stop an activity
  or is removed from the situation and
  the student behavior maintains or
  increases -- the event the student is
  avoiding is aversive to that individual
Functional relationships with the
    Teaching Environment

Events that precede behavior
• Events in the environment can “trigger”
  challenging behavior - they serve as
  cues for the student to perform a
  behavior because the student can
  predict the outcome when the cue is
  present
      Functional Assessment

Pre-Assessment
• Interviews
• Rating Scales
• Student Guided
Direct Observation
• A-B-C
• Checklists
     Outcome = Hypothesis
Hypothesis statement regarding
 the likely functions of the
 problem behavior and the
 context (social and
 environmental conditions) in
 which it is most likely to occur.
            Hypothesis
• When this occurs….

• The student does….

• To get/avoid...
   Functional Assessment : Common
              Hypotheses
• Receive attention from adults & peers
• Receive tangible objects or access to
  preferred activities
• Avoids interaction with adults & peers
• Avoids tasks or responsibilities
Competing Behavior                Desired       Maintaining
Pathways Model                   Alternative   Consequences

  Setting        Triggering       Problem       Maintaining
  Events         Antecedents      Behavior     Consequences


                                 Acceptable
                                 Alternative



    Setting
    Event         Antecedent       Behavior     Consequence
 Manipulations   Manipulations     Teaching     Manipulations



                                                  Sugai, Lewis-Palmer & Hagan, 1999
                                                                                                                Work




      Ar gum ent on Play gr ound
                                                                             On Tas k                        Comple tion /
                                                                                                                Grades


                                            Reading
                                                                                                                  Peer
                                            Class /                          Off Tas k
                                                                                                               Attentio n
                                             Peer s


                                                                            On Tas k
                                                                            Working
                                                                            w/Pe ers




Setting Predictors                                          Behavior                                         Consequences
Events

• Playgroun                        • Change seating         • Set up cooperative peer groups.                • Verbal praise when on-
d monitor                          arrangement during       • Identify appropriate peers and teach           task (VI 3 minutes).
debriefs                           reading class.           cooperative strategies.                          • Error correction for off-
student                            • Pre-correct class RE   • Teach rules and skills of cooperative groups   task.
prior to                           rules of cooperative     to target student.                               • Free time with peers for
coming                             groups.                  • Role play cooperative learning with peers      meeting established daily
into                                                        and target student.                              criteria.
building.                                                   • Monitor progress (momentary time sampling)
Creating a Sustainable System
                 Essential Steps to
               Individual PBS Plans
1. Request for assistance
2. Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
3. Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental
   Assessment
4. Functional Behavioral Assessment
   – Indirect measures
   – Direct observation
5. Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior
6. Develop a PBS plan
   – Social skill instruction
   – Self management
   – Environmental modifications
7. Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress
               Key Steps
• FBA process example
• Plan development
       FBA – PBS Plan Process
Success requires:
1. Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
2. Fluency with a clear process among all staff
   whereby their role is clearly defined
3. A basic understanding of Applied Behavior
   Analysis = Behavior is functionally related to
   the teaching environment across all school
   staff
Step    Document                                   Who is responsible for           Completed document should
                                                       completing document?            be given to:


One     Request for Assistance (A)                 Referring Teacher                Case Manager

Two     Archival Review (B)                        Teacher w/ Office Staff          Case Manager
                                                        assistance

Three   Problem Behavior Questionnaire (C)         Referring Teacher                Case Manager



Four    FACTS –Teacher Interviews (D)              Referring teacher and Case       Case Manager
                                                        Manager complete together


Five    Environmental Inventory (E)                Case Manager


Six                                          Intervention development meeting

Seven   Optional Additional Interviews                 Case Manager
           a) AVAF (F)
           b) CVAF (G)
           c) IVAF (H)
           d) Student (I)

Eight   Optional Observations                          MU & Case Manager



Nine    Intervention development meeting
  FBA Student Plan Development
Context Summary
When/during

                        there is an increase
 in problem behavior.
   FBA Student Plan Development
• Possible Function of Problem Behavior [5 minutes]

  Data Source      Hypothesized Function   Team Confidence in Hypothesized Function
  PBQ (Form C)          Get / Avoid            Low        Medium          High
  FACTS (Form D)        Get / Avoid            Low        Medium          High




3. Summarize Data
   1. Data sources not clearly pointing toward function or
   confidence is low – conduct direct observation and
   reconvene planning meeting with additional information
   (See below)
   2. Data sources pointing toward a clear function and
   confidence is high – develop a hypothesis(es)
      FBA Student Plan Development
Hypothesis One
• When/during (condition)
                    student (behavior)
                     to (get/avoid)


Data Source (form #)    Hypothesized Function   Team Confidence in Hypothesized Function



Additional Teacher               Get / Avoid          Low       Medium          High
Interview (F,G,H)

Student Interview (I)            Get / Avoid          Low       Medium          High


A-B-C observation                Get / Avoid          Low       Medium          High
FA test protocol                 Get / Avoid          Low       Medium          High
   FBA Student Plan Development
4. Develop Plan Based on Assessment [15 minutes]
   A) Define Replacement behavior (observable & measurable):
       • Detail strategies to teach replacement behavior:

   B) Context alteration to support use of replacement behavior:
       • Prompts prior to “trouble spots”
       • Changes in environment (e.g., routines, grouping, work difficulty)

   C) Outcomes when student uses replacement behavior (matched to
     function) & scheduled delivery {GET = teacher attention, earn
     free time with peers, special privileges; AVOID = task choice,
     ask for assistance, peer tutor, “take-a-break,” re-seated}:
  FBA Student Plan Development
5. Share Plan with Family/External Agency
  [1 minute]
     Check appropriate actions
6. Plan Review Schedule [1 minute]
    a. Copy one page plan and distribute
    b. Prior to next meeting (check appropriate actions)
    C. Team meeting review date
         Evaluating the Process
• FBA checklist
• Social Validity Scale
            More Information
• OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral
  Interventions and Supports
  – http://pbis.org
• What Works Clearinghouse
  http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc
• IDEAs that Work
  http://www.osepideasthatwork.org

				
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