Global Warming

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					Global Warming: The Global

Biology 2201
           Global Warming

                                      Presentation Layout

                                       Global Perspective

  What is Global Warming?      The World Effect of Global Warming   The Solutions to Global Warming
The Causes of Global Warming
What is Global Warming?
 Global Warming is defined as the increase
  in earth’s temperature due to the use of
  fossil fuels and other industrial processes
  leading to a buildup of “greenhouse gases”
  in the atmosphere.
 These gases include carbon dioxide,
  methane, nitrous oxide, and
  chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s).
Gas Increases
 We have observed the following gases
 Carbon dioxide: 30%
 Methane: 145%
 Nitrous oxide: 15%
What is Global Warming
 Since 1896, it has been known that these
 gases help stop the sun’s infrared radiation
 from escaping into space and thus function
 to maintain the earth’s relatively warm
 This process is called the greenhouse
The Greenhouse Effect
 The greenhouse effect is the role the
  atmosphere plays in insulating and
  warming the earth’s surface.
 The atmosphere is largely transparent to
  incoming short-wave solar radiation, which
  is absorbed by the earth’s surface.
The Greenhouse Effect
 Much of this radiation is then remitted from
  the earth at infrared wavelengths, but is
  reflected back to the earth by the
  greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
 The reflected radiation maintains the
  temperature of the earth in a range that is
  hospitable to life.
The Greenhouse Effect
 This heating effect is the basis of the
  theories concerning global warming.
The Greenhouse Effect
The Problem
 The problem of this issue is whether the
  measurably increasing levels of carbon
  dioxide in the atmosphere over the last
  century will lead to elevated global
  temperatures which could result in coastal
  flooding and major climatic changes and
  have serious implications for agricultural
The Depletion of Our Ozone Layer
 The ozone layer, a region of the atmosphere
  above the earth’s surface, is directly
  effected by greenhouse gases and CFC’s
 Human Contribution of CFC’s and
 Greenhouse Gases (%)


                        North America
25                      South America
20                      Asia
15                      Australia


Human Contribution of CFC’s and
Greenhouse Gases
 North America (34%)-  Mainly caused by the
 former industry of refrigerants and aerosol
 spray propellants. Even though the US
 administration has banned CFC’s for more
 suitable substitutions in 1978, that damage
 has already been done.
Human Contribution of CFC’s and
Greenhouse Gases
 South America (36%)-   Caused by the
  massive burning of rain forests, releasing
  massive doses of carbon dioxide in the air.
 Europe (5%)- Caused by the total ban of CFC
  and the environmental movement of the
  European Union
 Africa (7%)- Caused by the burning of some
  forestry, and the overall environmental
Human Contribution of CFC’s and
Greenhouse Gases
 Asia (16%)- Caused by overall pollution and
  the burning of some forestry
 Australia (2%)- Caused by the small
  percentage of forestry burning.
 Antarctica (0%)- The very few inhabitants of
  the continent contribute 0.01% to global
The Demise of CFC’s
 Presently, a total ban of the use of CFC’s is
  almost impossible due to scientific
  confusion and the US influence left behind
  of the antienvironmental Reagan
The Demise of CFC’s
 Another problem that is realized is that for
  example if a total ban of CFC’s is achieved
  by the year 2005, the atmosphere would
  still contain more CFC’s in the year 2005
  than it does today, and 90% of the CFC’s in
  the air will still be there by there year 2015.
Antarctic Ozone Hole
   Beginning in the late
    1970’s, research
    scientists working in
    Antarctica have
    detected a periodic
    loss of ozone in the
    atmosphere high
    above that continent,
    due to the effect of
Further Ozone Holes
 The World Meteorological Organization
 observed a 45% depletion of the ozone
 layer over one-third of the northern
 hemisphere, from Greenland to western
 Siberia, for several days during the winter
 of 1995-1996.
Indirect Implications
 Destruction of the ozone layer has
  indirectly caused increases in skin cancer
  and cataracts, damage to certain crops and
  to plankton and the marine food web, an
  increase in carbon dioxide due to the
  decrease in plants, polar ice- cap melting,
  and other global problems.
Temperature Anomalies
 Since 1850 there has been a mean rise in
  global temperature of approximately 1OC.
 A United Nations panel of scientists
  attributed the warming to human influence
  and predicted that if greenhouse-gas
  emissions are not reduced, the average
  global temperature will rise by 1 degree to
  3.5OC, with a best estimate of 2 OC by 2100.
Temperature Anomalies
 This would cause sea level to rise by 20
  inches; further warming a sea-level rise
  would follow.
Global Effects of Planet Earth
Legend to World Map and Global
  Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather

  Sea level rise and coastal flooding

  Glaciers melting

  Arctic and Antarctic warming
Legend to World Map and Global
  Spreading diseases
  Earlier spring arrival
  Plant and animal range shifts and population
  Coral reef bleaching
  Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding

  Droughts and fires
Central America
Europe and Russia
North America *
South America
“ Hot Spots ” of The World
The Solutions to Global Warming
 Eliminate CFC’s, fossil fuels, and
  greenhouse gases
 Better environmental precautions to take
  care of pollution
 Alternative energy uses that do not require
  exothermic reactions and any other gas
 The creation of safe methods engineered to
  stop global warming.
Eliminating CFC’s and Other
 Eliminate all use of CFC’s: includes
  achieving a total world ban among all
  nations, eliminating the CFC industry, and
  coming up with suitable substitutes.
 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC’s),causes
  less damage to the ozone layer, and can be
  used instead.
Eliminating CFC’s and Other
 United Nations must convince all world
  nations to agree to cooperate in the
  protection of our ozone layer.
 In 1987, the Montreal Protocol, a treaty for
  the protection of the ozone layer, was
  signed and later ratified by 36 nations.
  More countries must be added to the list.
Eliminating CFC’s and Other
 The main cause to the usage   of fossil fuels
  is the automobile. Alternative energy uses
  such as the battery or solar energy must be
  incorporated in the automobile industry to
  stop the use of fossil fuels.
 Other methods include immediate action
  and prevention to forests fires worldwide,
  and to help stop natural emissions of
  carbon dioxide in the air.
Eliminating CFC’s and Other
 To eliminate natural emissions of methane,
  and carbon dioxide, the UN must convince
  farmers to stop methane emissions from
 The elimination of forestry cutting and the
  plantation of more trees, stops carbon
  dioxide emissions as plants consume
  those gases.
Take Care of Pollution !
 Pollution has an indirect but powerful
  impact on the ozone layer.
 Every nation must promote and endorse
  their country to Reduce, Re-use, and
 Taking care of pollution involves cleanup at
  home to cleanup worldwide.
Alternative Energy
 Although it is highly impossible to change,
  alternative energies must be found.
 Gases emitted from exothermic reactions
  of energy plants, such as smog, directly
  deplete the ozone layer.
 Alternative energy usage must start at
Total Estimates of Costs to
Combat Global Warming

         $ 100 Billion
Support Is Needed!
 In conclusion, our planet must realize the
  grave reality of global warming.
  Organizations such as NASA and
  Greenpeace have already taken action into
  the extensive research of the problem. The
  role that is proposed to the UN is that the
  support of the world government is the last
  piece of the puzzle in international
  cooperation against global warming.
        Directed by Michael Parcon
       Produced by Michael Parcon
        Written by Michael Parcon
      Screenplay by Michael Parcon
  Technical Equipment provided by C. Lake
 Angie                   Angela Gorman
 Mike                    Michael Gough
 The Scientific Genius   Michael Parcon

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