The Truth of the War Conspiracy of 1861 In this presentation you will be given the true facts that led to the war between the states 1861-1865! Powers of the President As outlined in the US Constitution Article. II. Section. 2. Clause 1: The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. Clause 2: He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. Clause 3: The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session. Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States. The Election of 1860 Although William Seward was the pre-convention favorite for the Republican Presidential nomination in 1860, Lincoln won on the 3rd ballot. With Hannibal Hamlin as his running mate, Lincoln was elected the 16th President on November 6, 1860, defeating Stephen Douglas, John Bell, and John C. Breckinridge. Statement made March 4 in Lincoln’s inaugural address“ In your hands, my dissatisfied countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. ‘The Government will not assail you; you can have no conflict without yourselves being the aggressors” Senator Stephen A. Douglas On March 15th 1861 introduced a resolution in the US Senate to withdraw all US troops from Forts in the seceded states except Key West and Tortugus (were isolated and were international in scope) and Clearly Defined the limit of Presidential Powers! Also made a plea for Peace and Justice Senator John C.Breckenridge Introduced Similar resolutions to that of Stephen Douglas Secretary of War for President Jeff Davis CSA Was Appointed Major General in 1862 Senator Clingham Introduced Similar resolutions to that of Stephen Douglas Solemn Agreement “ARMISTICE” Special Agreement Both filed in the US war Existed at Charleston and Navy departments by Entered into by the US which the US agreed not Government and the State to attempt to reinforce of South Carolina Major Anderson (Fort Officials on December Sumter), nor Fort Pickens 6,1860; and a special South Carolina,Florida agreement, armistice at and Confederate Pensacola entered into by Authorities agreed to the US and Florida make no attack on them authorities on January 29th while these solemn 1861 agreements were observed US Navy Reports on the Armistice Captain Barron reports good faith being observed by both parties existing at Pensacola Captain Poor reported the the Powhaten attempted to force an entrance to Pensacola Harbor flying English Colors Dispatches captured at Charleston which divulged that captain Fox acted the part of a spy and so deceived Governor Pickens William H.Seward Appointed Secretary of State by Lincoln Gave untrue assurances to Judge Campbell that there were no plans to violate the armistice to Southern Delegation Salmon P. Chase Appointed by Lincoln- Secretary of Treasury Lincoln’s Spokes person Was appointed to the Supreme Court as Chief Justice following the death of Justice Taney Made statement “Sumter will be supplied peaceably if allowed” Confederate Peace Commission The South went in peace openly March 12,1861 Was assured by Seward and Lincoln that Sumter was to be evacuated March 15,1861 Was waiting in Washington to divert war and presented their request for Federal forces to evacuate the southern territory. Was involved in Peace talks with Judge Campbell Lincoln drafted war order-in secret Judge Campbell Selected by Secretary Seward to serve as intermediary between Confederate Commissioners Assured the commissioners that there was no intent to reinforce Sumter. This assurance was repeated on March 20,1861. US Supreme Court Judge Nelson Was involved with Judge Campbell in negotiations with the Confederate Commissioners January 1861 Florida Timeline of Early 1861 (6) Jan. 6 – State troops seize the Arsenal at Apalachicola Jan. 7 – State troops seize Fort Marion at St. Augustine Jan. 8 – Lt. Slemmer's troops repel insurgents from Fort Barrancas Jan. 10 – Florida passes its Ordinance of Secession; Lt. Adam Slemmer transfers Union troops from Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens Jan. 12 – State troops seize the Pensacola Navy Yard, Fort Barrancas, Fort McRee, and Barrancas Barracks. Confederate officials demand the surrender of Fort Pickens Jan. 14 – U.S. forces garrison Fort Taylor Jan. 18 – Confederate officials again demand the surrender of Fort Pickens Jan. 18 – Union troops garrison Fort Jefferson in the Dry Tortugas General Braxton Bragg Brigadier General, CSA (March 7, 1861); commanding Pensacola, Florida (March 11 - October 29, 1861); major general, CSA (September 12, 1861); commanding Department of Alabama and West Florida (October 14, 1861 February 28, 1862); also commanding Army of Pensacola (October 29 - December 22, 1861; later commanded the west Fort Pickens-Pensacola Florida Fort Pickens was designed by the French military engineer Simon Bernard, who had been hired by the United States as a consultant. In 1816 he was appointed to the board of engineers which was placed in charge of fortification. Although influenced by the French school of design, the unique considerations of harbor defense made U.S. coastal fortification uniquely American. Admiral Semmes CSN Was captured at the mouth of the Mississippi river by federal authorities and were referred to as pirates and were being threatened with execution. They were spared only because major Vogdes was spared. Lincoln’s Attack on Virginia Convention Met February 13th 1861 It voted down several secession resolutions 3 to 1 it was for Constitutional Union Remained in session waiting on Lincoln to put into actual practice his peace and union intent and purpose But Convention remained on guard ready to protect Virginia from any unconstitutional acts Lincoln attempts to have it dissolved April 2nd (same day he approved secret act of war to reinforce Fort Pickens) he and Seward select confidential union messenger a constitutional and Virginian Allen B Macgruder at time Judge Advocate of US Naval Court Martial Was sent to find in Richmond Judge G.W.Summers and urge him to come to Washington by the next Friday and confer with Lincoln on matters of great importance if he could not make it to select another pro-union man (Summers was unable to leave) John B Baldwin was selected and was in secret conference with Lincoln on April 4 th Baldwin urged Lincoln to call a conference with the states and to issue a peaceful union proclamation giving official assurance of what Lincoln had so broadly preached of “yearning for peace Lincoln Stated “I fear you are too late” Lincoln knew he had four expeditions moving Lincoln appealed to Baldwin “Why don’t you adjourn the convention?” Baldwin refused Lincoln was afraid of that Convention Baldwin warned Lincoln that if a gun is fired Virginia will secede in 48 hours Baldwin received no assurance from Lincoln whose object was to adjourn the Convention As Baldwin left he met seven Governors waiting in Lincoln’s rooms who Lincoln claimed urged him to use force They Voted to secede 88 to 55 within 48 hours just as Baldwin warned both men Summers and Baldwin voting for secession Winfield Scott No man believes that General Scott ordered Captain Vogdes to commit an act of war without the order or approval of the commander in Chief Abraham Lincoln He was known to have opposed war Advised against it Made public statement to“Let the wayward sisters go in peace” The Beginning of War 8 days after the inauguration of Lincoln with his approval and the same day clearly demonstrated his intent and purpose to bring on war. Lincoln ordered Vogue and armed men on the USS Brooklyn to occupy Fort Pickens knowing full well of the armistice! They were stopped by the ‘armistice’ Order given by Lincoln to violate armistice issued as soon as he became Commander in chief. It is well known that General Scott was opposed to war; but he obeyed the commander in Chief Abraham Lincoln Major Vogdes On or about July 1st 1861 was captured at Fort Pickens (near Pensacola Florida) by the 5th Georgia CSA under the command of Captain S.W. Mangham. Was made Confederate Prisoner of war designated by the Confederate War Department to suffer the same fate as the federals threatened to execute on the officers and men of Admiral Semmes command. Statement made 20 years after the war at Fort Adams,Rhode Island he remembered the incident and discussed it. Vogdes stated “he had reinforced Fort Pickens before Fort Sumter was attacked; but that his act was overshadowed by the clamor and furor about Fort Sumter” Vogdes was sent by Lincoln’s orders. THE FIRST ACT OF WAR! Official Order to Reinforce Fort Pickens Florida Notice date January 21,1861 Lincoln had not even been inaugurated yet Clearly Requests Copy of Presidents Orders to Re-enforce Fort Pickens Addresses instructions to DD Porter (Naval Officer) to re-enforce Fort Pickens and for other officers to assist him 1st Act of War Revealed Exposes President as Author of orders Official Orders unable to be located Executive Revealed As Author Reinforces the notion that the war was organized and initiated at the White House Denotes the fact that the war was an Executive Act and no copies of the plans exist. Reveals no one knew of it except those engaged therein Major Vogdes pictured with Official Record of Civil War An Act of War The Secrecy Emphasizes the Treachery Had secret orders been obeyed or other like orders not miscarried, war would have been openly inaugurated at a point 500 miles from Fort Sumter, long before Fort Sumter was fired on. The first open clash was an accident caused by a misfit in Lincoln’s schemes to force war at any risk or cost The Secret Messenger Lieutenant J.L. Worden USN was sent by rail via Richmond, Augusta, Atlanta opened the dispatches and committed them to memory and then destroyed them (An Act of A Spy) Arrived in Pensacola on April 10th midnight On the 11th of April was met by Bragg and assured General Brag he only had a specific verbal message for Captain Adams Worden was allowed to proceed under assurance of the existing armistice The message delivered His action became suspicious and he was followed and later arrested in Montgomery. By some means he escaped a spy’s fate and became a prisoner of war. He escaped by making a statement to L.P.Walker Confederate States Secretary of War on April 16th,1861 John L. Worden U.S Navy As the secession crisis moved toward civil war in early 1861, Lieutenant Worden was sent to Pensacola with secret instructions for the local Naval commander. While returning to Washington, D.C., by rail he was arrested by Southern authorities and held as a prisoner of war for several months, an experience that badly damaged his health. In February 1862, upon resuming active duty, he was given command of the revolutionary ironclad Monitor and took her into a historic battle with CSS Virginia on 9 March 1862. Receiving serious eye injuries in the action, he had to relinquish command. However, this battle made him a major war hero in the North. Gideon Welles Secretary of Navy REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. REPORTS FROM OFFICERS. Captain H. A. Adams's report of the re-enforcing of Fort Pickens, April 14. UNITED STATES FRIGATE SABINE, Off Pensacola, April 14, 1861. SIR: I have the honor to inform you that immediately on the receipt of your order by Lieutenant Worden, on the 12th instant, I prepared to re-enforce Fort Pickens. It was successfully performed, on the same night, by landing the troops under Captain Vogdes, and the marines of the squadron under Lieutenant Cash. No opposition was made, nor do I believe the movement was known on shore until it was accomplished. A strong party of officers and seamen were sent to assist in case of resistance, who afterwards returned to their ships. The marines remained in the fort at the request of Captain Vogdes, a copy of which I enclose. The whole expedition was under the charge of Commander Charles H. Poor, assisted by Lieutenant Smith, of the Brooklyn, Lieutenants Lewis and Newman, of the Sabine, and Lieutenant Belknap, of the St. Louis; and it is highly creditable to these officers that this service was performed without accident or disorder under unfavorable circumstances. The Brooklyn, Captain Walker, and the Wyandotte, Lieutenant Commanding Mullany, were very skillfully managed. They carried the landing party to the designated spot with accuracy, in spite of the darkness of the night, and not having the lighthouse to guide them, the light having been extinguished early in the evening. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, H. A. ADAMS, Captain, Senior Officer present Hon. GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy, Washington. Lincoln Suspends Habeas Corpus Lincoln's Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus Relating to the Events in Baltimore HEADQUARTERS OF THE ARMY, Washington, April 27, 1861. The undersigned, General-in-Chief of the Army, has received from the President of the United States the following communication: COMMANDING GENERAL ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES: You are engaged in repressing an insurrection against the laws of the United States. If at any point on or in the vicinity of the military line which is now used between the city of Philadelphia via Perryville, Annapolis City and Annapolis Junction you find resistance which renders it necessary to suspend the writ of habeas corpus for the public safety, you personally or through the officer in command at the point where resistance occurs are authorized to suspend that writ. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. In accordance with the foregoing warrant the undersigned devolves on Major-General Patterson, commanding the Department of Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland; Brigadier-General Butler, commanding the Department of Annapolis, and Colonel Mansfield, commanding the Washington Department, a like authority each within the limits of his command to execute in all proper cases the instructions of the President. WINFIELD SCOTT. Lincoln's Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus Relating to the Events in Missouri Maj. Gen. H. W. HALLECK, Commanding in the Department of Missouri: GENERAL: AS an insurrection exists in the United States and is in arms in the State of Missouri, you are hereby authorized and empowered to suspend the writ of habeas corpus within the limits of the military division under your command, and to exercise martial law as you find it necessary, in your discretion, to secure the public safety and the authority of the United States. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed, at Washington, this second day of December, A.D. 1861. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. By the President: WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State. Source: "Official Records of the War of the Rebellion Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (US Supreme Court) 1777-1864 Heard case of Maryland Citizen who was arrested and imprisoned in a military stronghold Orders parties to appear before him Military Officer refused to supply the court with a copy of the order of arrest and refused to obey the writ Excuse was it was authorized by the President to suspend the writ of Habeas Corpus at his discretion Rendered the decision Pronounced Every phase of act Unconstitutional Null and Void In a letter dated March 1,1861 G.V. Fox writes to Fort Sumter Montgomery Blair that the object of his plans was to reinforce Fort Sumter. In Fox’s statement in 1865 he says on February 6th he met with Lt. Norman J. Hall who had been sent by Major Anderson. This can only mean that Anderson was in collusion with Fox, Hall, Blair, Lincoln and others to reinforce Sumter and inaugurate war. Anderson was now scheming with Fox, Hall, Blair, Lincoln on a plan to reinforce Sumter They knew it meant “War” and not one word, not an act in their ‘plans’ could be twisted into a yearning for peace and union Operations in Charlston, S.C. January 5, 1861-First expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor. April 11, 1861-Surrender of Fort Sumter demanded of Major Anderson by the governor of South Carolina and refused.* April 10, 1861-Second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter sails from New York Harbor. April 11, 1861-Evacuations of fort Sumter demanded by General Beauregard. Operations at Fort Sumpter 2 January 13, 1861. COLONEL: Pursuant to instructions, dated Headquarters of the Army, January 5, 1861, I embarked on the evening of Saturday, 5th instant, from Governor's Island, at 6 o'clock p.m., on a steam-tug, which transferred us to the steamer Star of the West. My command consisted of two hundred men, recruits from the depot, fifty of whom were of the permanent party. My officers were First Lieutenant W. A. Webb, Fifth Infantry; Second Lieutenant C. W. Thomas, First Infantry, and Assist. Surg. P. G. S. Ten Broeck, Medical Department. On Tuesday afternoon, 8th instant, arms and ammunition were issued to all the men. About midnight same evening we arrived off Charleston Harbor, and remained groping in the dark until nearly day, when we discovered the light on Fort Sumter, which told us where we were. The other coast light marking the approaches to the harbor had been extinguished, and the outer buoy marking the channel across the bar gone. During the night we saw what we supposed to be the light of a steamer cruising off the harbor, but she did not discover us, as our lights were all out. Just before day we discovered a steamer lying off the main ship channel. As soon as they made us out they burned one blue light and two red lights, and, receiving no response from us, immediately Numbers 5. Report of Captain G. V. Fox, U. S. agent, of second expedition for the relief of Fort Sumter. STEAMER BALTIC, New York, April 19, 1861. SIR: I sailed from New York in this vessel Tuesday morning, the 10th instant, having dispatched one steam-tug, the Uncle Ben, the evening previous to rendezvous off Charleston. The Yankee, another chartered tug, followed us to the Hook, and I left instructions to send on the Freeborn . We arrived off Charleston the 12th instant, at 3 a.m., and found only the Harriet Lane. Weather during the whole time a gale. At 7 a.m. the Pawnee arrived, and, according to his orders, Captain Rowan anchored twelve miles east of the light, to await the arrival of the Powhatan. I stood in with the Baltic to execute my orders by offering, in the first place, to carry provisions to Fort Sumter. Nearing the bar it was observed that was had commenced, and, therefore, the peaceful offer of provisions was void. The Pawnee and Lane immediately anchored close to the bar, notwithstanding the heavy sea, and though neither tugs or Powhatan or Pocahontas had arrived, it was believed a couple of boats of provisions might be got in. The attempt was to be made in the morning, because the heavy sea and absence of the Powhatan's gunboats crippled the night movement. All night and the morning of the 13th instant it blew strong, with a heavy sea. The Baltie stood off and on, looking for the Powhatan, and in running in during the thick weather struck on Rattlesnake Shoal, but soon got off. The heavy sea, and not having the sailors (three hundred) asked for, rendered any attempt from the Baltic absurd. I only felt anxious to get in a few days' provisions to last the fort until the Powhatan's arrival. The Pawnee and Lane were both short of men, and were only intended to afford a base of operations whilst the tugs and three hundred sailors fought their way in. However, the Powhatan and tugs not coming, Captain Rowan seized an ice schooner and offered her to me, which I accepted, and Lieutenant Hudson, of the Army, several Navy officers, and plenty of volunteers agreed to man the vessel, and go in with me the night of the 13th. The events of that day, so glorious to Major Anderson and his command, are known to you. As I anticipated the guns from Sumter dispersed their naval preparations excepting small guard-boats, so that with the Powhatan a re-enforcement would have been easy. The Government did not anticipate that the fort was so badly constructed as the event has shown. I learned on the 13th instant that the Powhatan was withdrawn from duty off Charleston on the 7th instant, yet I was permitted to sail on the 9th, the Pawnee on the 9th, and the Pocahontas on the 10th, without intimation that the main portion-the fighting portion- of our expedition was taken away. In justice to itself as well as an acknowledgment of my earnest efforts, I trust the Government has sufficient reasons for putting me in the position they have placed me. I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, G. V. FOX. The Baltic has been chartered for one month. Honorable SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington. General G. T. BEAUREGARD, 1.] HEADQUARTERS PROVISIONAL ARMY, C. S. A., Charleston, S. C., April 1, 1861. Begs for Reason and Peace! SIR: The Government of the Confederate States has hitherto forborne from any hostile demonstration against Fort Sumter, in the hope that the Government of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two Government, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it. There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States, and under that impression my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort. But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defense and security. I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aides, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authorized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select. The flag which you have upheld so long as with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down. Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, G. T. BEAUREGARD, Brigadier-General, Commanding. Official Record - Order to Reinforce Fort Sumter This Official Record Outlines the plan to Reinforce Sumter Asks Anderson to hold out until arrival of the Expedition Capt. Fox revealed as leader of expedition authored by War Dept. Washington DC Senate Adjourns March 28th 1861 Without action on either resolution Does any one believe that the Senate would have adjourned if they had any suspicion of Lincoln’s secret acts of treachery? The Senate was deceived by the hierocracy of the conspirators led by Lincoln and Seward The crucial period in which the premeditated schemes took place was from March 4,1961 to July 4, 1861 Lincoln Convenes Congress July 4,1861 Months after Lincoln had the war actively inaugurated July 10th joint resolution introduced legalizing war Lincoln called for 75,000 men on April 15th 1861 Lincoln proclaims blockade April 19th 1861 Lincoln proclaims second blockade April 27th 1861 Authorizes military officer to suspend habeas corpus in Maryland and Pennsylvania April 27th 1861 Lincoln called for 35,000 volunteers May 3rd 1861 Be it resolved that the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled; that all the extra ordinary acts, proclamations and orders hereinbefore mentioned be and the same are hereby approved and declared to be in all respects legal and valid, to the same and with the same affect as if they had been issued and done under the previous express authority and direction of the Congress of The United States In this clause congress itself brads Lincoln’s acts illegal, invalid and unconstitutional Note: Lincoln raised an Army in 10 days why did he wait months to Convene Congress? Chronological Order of Events January 29- captain Vogdes arrives in Florida and is stopped April 12th lt. J.L. Worden officially by armistice and remained there delivers verbally from memory his April 1st captain Adams averts secret orders then leaves Florida war by refusing to follow after delivering Lincoln’s secret Winfield Scott's order to order to reinforce fort Pickens reinforce Pickens Ship log reveals reinforcements sent before order due to Vogdes Order issued March 12,1861 to impatience inaugurate war was the “Wish April 14th Bragg reports his and Intention of the US suspicions about Worden Government to begin war! April 12,1861 Fort Sumter fired March 14,1861 Intelligence is upon sent throughout the country that Neither Fort Sumter nor Fort Fort Sumter is to be evacuated. Pickens knew of the events that April 11th lt. J.L. Worden arrives to deliver secret order to violate had occurred at the other as armistice they were 500 miles apart. April 11th at 9PM started landing A week passed before the troops to reinforce fort Pickens events at either became known In Summary Lincoln ordered two expeditions to reinforce fort Pickens, Vogdes and Brown V. Fox expedition to to reinforce fort Sumter April 1st 1861 Seward assured judge Campbell there was no plan to change the current standing and if so he would have notice Lincoln Addresses Congress 1864 “I simply mean to say that the war will cease, on the part of the government whenever it shall cease on the part of those who began it” Closing No document exists Had Lincoln died a natural showing Lincoln death that cunning which was genius would have entertained peace destroyed the evidence of No authority showing his secret, private Lincoln entertained for treacherous acts of war peace which he covered by complaining of his soul Facts and his actions being burdened and his prove his words were heart yearning for peace utterly false and and union while he intended to deceive secretly, viciously and mislead remorselessly inaugurated war against the south! Drudge Report column A president who breaks the law is a threat to the very structure of our government. Our Founding Fathers were adamant that they had established a government of laws and not men. Indeed, they recognized that the structure of government they had enshrined in our Constitution - our system of checks and balances - was designed with a central purpose of ensuring that it would govern through the rule of law. As John Adams said: "The executive shall never exercise the legislative and judicial powers, or either of them, to the end that it may be a government of laws and not of men." An executive who arrogates to himself the power to ignore the legitimate legislative directives of the Congress or to act free of the check of the judiciary becomes the central threat that the Founders sought to nullify in the Constitution - an all-powerful executive too reminiscent of the King from whom they had broken free. In the words of James Madison, "the accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of Tyranny. Once violated, the rule of law is in danger. Unless stopped, lawlessness grows. The greater the power of the executive grows, the more difficult it becomes for the other branches to perform their constitutional roles. As the executive acts outside its constitutionally prescribed role and is able to control access to information that would expose its actions, it becomes increasingly difficult for the other branches to police it. Once that ability is lost, democracy itself is threatened and we become a government of men and not laws.
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