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					Oracle
Architecture
Tom Hamilton – America’s
Channel Database CSE




                           1
Common Oracle Versions

 Oracle 8i
 Oracle 9i
 Oracle 10g
 Oracle 11g




                         2
Oracle Components

 Database files
 Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
 Real Application Cluster (RAC)
 Protocols
 Disaster Recovery




                                       3
Oracle Database Files

 Binaries
 Configuration files
 Datafiles
 Temporary database files
 Redo log files
 Archive redo log files
 Cluster-related files




                             4
 What’s a Block?
 The basic unit Oracle uses to manage data.
 Typically 8k in size.
 Some data warehouses or any other
  database with a lot of long sequential reads
  will have 16k or 32k.
 You can have a database with mixed block
  sizes, but it is very rare




                                                 5
 Block Structure.
 It has a header that
  contains a database
  address, SCN number,
  checksum, etc.
 It has a tail with more
  metadata about the
  block.
 Not a good candidate
  for deduplication.




                            6
Block Structure: Deduplication
 The header should
  be globally unique in
  the whole database,
  meaning that first 4k
 WAFL block will have
      no duplicates.
 The tail is not 100%
 unique, but it’s highly
 variant, meaning that
  final 4k WAFL block
    will have very few
         duplicates.


                                 7
  NetApp Deduplication and Data
  Compression
  Sample Use Cases and Space Savings
     Geosiesmic                                                                 Primary
                                                                                Backup

Engineering Data                                                                Primary
                                                                                Backup

 Exchange 2010                  Primary
                                                    Backup

 Exchange 2007                                  Primary
                                                Backup

     SQL Server                     Primary
                                                                          Backup

      Oracle DW                 Primary
                                                                          Backup

   Oracle OLTP                                                        Primary
                                                                      Backup

    Virtualization                                                        Primary
                                                                          Backup

   File Services                                                      Primary
                                                                      Backup

Legend               0%   10%    20%      30%    40%      50%   60%    70%       80%

   Compression             Deduplication        Compression &           Neither
      Only                    Only               Deduplication
                                                                                          8
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery
 Backup and recovery
 – Archivelog mode
      Control files
      Redo logs
      Archive logs
      SCN
      Benefits
      Consequences
 – Non-Archivelog mode
      Control files
      Redo logs
      Benefits
      Consequences
                                      9
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery




                                      10
Automatic Storage Manager
  What is it?
  Features
      Mirroring and Striping
      Dynamic Storage Configuration
      Interoperability with non-ASM databases
      RAC and single instance
  Components
      Disk Groups
      Disks
      Failure groups
      Files
      Templates
  NetApp interoperability
                                                 11
           NetApp Adds Value to Oracle ASM

                                      Oracle ASM   NetApp   Oracle ASM + NetApp
Data Resilience
Protect against Single Disk Failure   Yes          Yes      Yes

Protect against Double Disk failure   No           Yes      Yes

Passive Block corruption detection    Yes          Yes      Yes

Active Block corruption detection     Yes          Yes      Yes

Lost disk write detection             No           Yes      Yes

Performance
Stripe data across ASM Disks          Yes          No       Yes

Balance I/O across ASM Disks          Yes          No       Yes

Stripe data across Physical Disks     No           Yes      Yes

Balance I/O across Physical Disks     No           Yes      Yes

I/O prioritization                    No           Yes      Yes

Storage Utilization
Free space management across          No           Yes      Yes
physical disks

Thin provisioning of ASM Disks        No           Yes      Yes
Space efficient Cloning               No           Yes      Yes

Data Protection
Storage Snapshot based Backups        No           Yes      Yes

Storage Snapshot based Restores       No           Yes      Yes

                                                                                  12
ASM versus FC: IO Layers




                           13
Real Application Cluster

 Shared database
 Cluster-aware storage
 –   ASM
 –   Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS)
 –   NFS
 –   Raw devices
 Distance between RAC nodes




                                         14
Oracle RAC




             15
RAC – Logical View




                     16
 Introducing Oracle dNFS

      What is Direct NFS client?
 Collaborative solution from NetApp & Oracle
 NFSv3 client within Oracle RDBMS server
 NFS files accessed directly from Oracle
 Eliminates extra O/S NFS client code path
 Optimized NFS code path for database I/O
  patterns via direct I/O and asynchronous I/O
  support


                                                 17
 Introducing Oracle dNFS

     What is Direct NFS client?
 Eliminates the need for NFS mount options
 Standard NFS client implementation across all
  platforms supported by the Oracle Database,
  even Windows.
 No infrastructure changes are required to
  change from kNFS to dNFS.




                                                  18
         dNFS Optimizes Oracle I/O Traffic
                        Traditional NFS I/O              Direct NFS I/O




                                              Database
                                                           dNFS



1   Extra layers                    2
                              FS layer                    TCP / IP layer
2   Not optimized   1




                                              OS
      for Oracle                    3
                             NFS client                  Driver + NIC HW
3   Extra network
        traffic             TCP / IP layer                 Storage

                           Driver + NIC HW

    19                                                                     19
 Oracle dNFS Innovation

dNFS is scalable, reliable, & easy to use!
 Scales across 4 separate network paths
  between DB host & NFS server
 Load balances across available paths
 Scales linearly with number of paths
 High Availability across paths
 Tested with NetApp VIF technology
 No configuring O/S LACP bonding


                                             22
                     Improved Scalability with dNFS
              Performs on par with blocks protocols
              Higher concurrent access to NFS server
                         Network Throughput versus Host CPU Utilization Using dNFS
                                  Large Full Table Scan - 150 Million Rows
                                         Degree of Parallelism = 8
                     500                                                          100
                                                                       380
                     400
Network Throughput




                                                          328                    75




                                                                                        CPU Utilization
  (Avg. MB/sec)




                     300




                                                                                          (Avg. %)
                                            224                                  50
                     200
                                                          26            34
                               112                                               25
                     100                     16

                       0       7                                                 0
                                1           2          3             4
                                        Number of GbE Connections
                               Network Throughput      Host CPU Utilization
                                                                                                23
Protocols

 FCP
 iSCSI
 Native NFS
 Direct NFS (DNFS)
 DO NOT USE CIFS




                      24
Performance Considerations

 FCP
 iSCSI
 Native NFS
 Direct NFS (DNFS)
 Which one do you choose?
 –   The customer is always right
 –   Current infrastructure
 –   Expertise level
 –   Requirements
 –   DO NOT GET IN A PROTOCOL WAR!
                                     25
Performance Considerations – TR3700




                                      26
 10gigabit Ethernet
 http://media.netapp.com/documents/tr-3628.pdf
  Oracle Disaster Recovery Methods: Data
  Guard

Data availability, data protection and disaster recovery solution
What:
•Replicates Oracle databases from one data center to another
•Ability to perform backups from the standby database instead of the production database
•Both physical and logical versions




                                       Image from
                                       Oracle Corp

				
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