U.S. History EOC Review Study Guide: Part 1 Name ______________________
l. The Judiciary Act of 1789(G. Washington) established our federal _______________ & appeals court
2. Jay’s Treaty with Great Britain and Pinckney's Treaty with Spain were both attempts by Washington to
avoid ______. Pinckney’s Treaty gave the U.S. the right to use the ____________ River and the port at _____
_____________. Washington issued the Proclamation of _________________ to avoid war with either France
or Great Britain. They were violating our neutrality by seizing U.S. _________ & hurting our ____________.
3. In his Farewell Address Washington warned against (1) s____________________,(2) p_______________
_______________________ and (3) foreign ____________________________.
4. The disagreements between Hamilton (Sec. of the Treasury) and Jefferson (Sec. of State)----especially
over the National ______________ led to the first two political parties. ________________________ and
5. Thomas Jefferson believed the federal government should pass laws only if it is expressly given in the
Constitution: __________ constructionist. Alexander Hamilton believed the elastic clause in Article I, section
8 of the Constitution gave the federal government __________ powers. He was a __________ constructionist.
6. Alexander Hamilton felt the government should be controlled by the educated and _______________.
Thomas Jefferson felt the common man should have a voice in the government and that gov’t. should be
influenced more by an ____________________ (farmers) society.
7. Hamilton believed the national government should (1.) pay off states' debts (assumption), (2) establish protective
import taxes called _____________________, and (3) establish a national ________________. To get
Southerners to agree to his program, Hamilton agreed to move the capital from New York City to __________.
8. During Washington’s presidency the farmers in western PA revolted against a tax on _______________. In
the Whiskey Rebellion the power of the _________________ gov’t. over the _________________ was proven.
9. John Adams was the second president (Federalist). A one term president, he also tried to avoid war with
France & Great Britain. In his term, French agents tried to bribe U.S. envoys to France in the _____________
which almost cost us a war with France called the _____________ War. To quell Republican opposition,
Congress passed the _________________________________ Act, which made it illegal to criticize the
President, as well as increasing the length of time it took for ______________________ to become citizens.
10. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison felt the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional, so the
___________________ Resolutions were passed which stated that states could __________________ a
federal law. This laid the foundation for _____________________________.
11. Thomas Jefferson was elected in 1800. This election is called the Revolution of 1800 because power was
transferred __________________________ from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans.
12. Thomas Jefferson's greatest achievement as President was his purchase of the _____________________.
_____________________. He hesitated to buy it because it wasn’t a power granted by the _______________.
13. Jefferson sent the ______________________________ Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory.
The 2 goals of the trip: (1)Find an all water route to the _________________ and (2)to map and discover the
14. Thomas Jefferson also wanted to avoid war with Great Britain and France. Both France & Great Britain
continued to disrupt trade by seizing U.S. ships. Britain however began the practice of kidnapping U.S.
sailors: _____________________, (Chesapeake-Leopard incident). Jefferson, then issued the ____________
_________ which ended up hurting our country as much as Britain and France.
15. The War of 1812 was fought during James Madison's presidency. Critics from New England called it Mr.
Madison’s War and talked about secession at the _____________________ Convention.(states’ rights) What
country were we fighting? _____________________
16. Causes of the War of l 812 were: 1.) the British practice of kidnapping U.S. sailors or ______________,
2.) the seizing of U.S. ____________ and, 3.) the incitement of American ________________ against settlers on
17. The two most famous “War Hawks” in Congress were Henry ____________ & John C. ______________.
18. Who was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans and later became President? ____________________. The
irony of this battle was that the Treaty of _______________ had already been signed. The Battle of New
Orleans increased ______________________________ in the nation.
19. At Fort McHenry near Baltimore, Francis Scott Key wrote the________________________________.
What happened to the White House and the Capitol during the war?________________ What Native American
wanted to unite the Native Americans against the U.S. and helped the British? _________________________
20. What was the outcome of the War of 1812? Although no boundaries were changed, there was a strong
growth of ________________________ and the U.S. gained world ___________________.
21. In the early years of our country (Federalist period) who was allowed to vote? _______________________.
22. Henry Clay’s American System included the (1.) re-creation of a national _______________, (2) a high
______________ and (3) internal _________________________ like roads & canals. In the early years of our
country the main way in which the federal government obtained revenue was by collecting ____________.
However this only increased __________________________. The South felt that only the ___________
benefited from tariffs.
23. Prior to 1815 the U.S. was a nation at risk. Americans were arguing over how the country should be run and
who would be in control. After the War of 1812, what political party disappeared? _____________________.
24. James Monroe’s presidency, was "known as the Era of ______________________________. Monroe
warned European countries that the western hemisphere was NOT open to European colonization. This was
called the _____________________________.
25. Strongest Supreme Court Chief Justice during the early years of our country was John ______________.
The court cases that were decided in the early 1800's strengthened the power of the ____________________
government over the __________________ governments. Some of these were:
a. the right of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional (judicial review) ___________
b. the right of the national government to control interstate commerce _____________________
c. the constitutionality of the national bank and that the federal government’s power over the states
26. The inventor and invention which increased the need for slave labor. _____________________________
27. As new states begin to enter the Union, the big controversial question was whether or not to allow slavery to
28. One of the first tests of growing sectionalism was the Missouri ___________________________. (1820)
Missouri came into the union as a ______________ state while Maine came in as a _____________ state. A
line was drawn at ___________________ which was the boundary of slavery expansion. The Missouri
Compromise ended the Era of Good Feelings!
29. In the election of 1824, Andrew Jackson was angry because he had won the ____________________ vote,
but John Quincy Adams became the President in what Jackson called a corrupt ____________________ .
30. The 1828 election ushered in Jacksonian Democracy: a. National Nominating ___________________ to
select party candidates for President: spoils ______________; & dropped ______________ requirement to vote.
31. Jackson's policy toward Native Americans led to the _______________________________ (Cherokees).
Sequoyah was a Cherokee who developed an ______________________________.
32. Jackson vetoed the National Bank and the result was a depression called the ___________ of 1837.
33. The Tariff of 1828 was called the “Tariff of ______________________________________” by many
southerners especially John C._________________ from S.C. He proposed _________________________ of
the tariff. The famous _______________________________ debate in the Senate followed over ___________
_______________. Webster said, "Liberty and Union now and forever, one and inseparable." President Jackson sent
troops to S.C. (Force Bill) to stop any ideas of secession. Eventually a compromise was worked out by the
Great Compromiser: ____________________________.
34. By the early to mid 1800's the first Industrial Revolution had taken place.
a. metal plow __________________________ d. telegraph ___________________________
b. steamboat __________________________ e. steam engine locomotive ____________________
c. factory system ________________________. f. sewing machine __________________________
35. Reforms were advocated by many during the 1840's. A new religious revival called the Second
_________________________________________________ advocated spiritual ______________________.
The founder of modern revivalism was Charles Grandison _____________________.
36. The Mormons led by ________________________ fled West after being persecuted for their religious
beliefs. They settled in present day ________________ near the Great Salt Lake.
37. In the mid 1800's a new literary movement called Romanticism emerged. From that the idea of
___________________________________ advocated self- _________________, __________________, and
closeness to _____________. People should rely on their intuition. Some writers and their works were:
a. Ralph Waldo ______________________ wrote an essay Nature.
b. Henry David ________________ who wrote Walden’s Pond & Civil ______________________.
c. James Fennimore ________________ who wrote The Last of the Mohicans.
Art, like the literature of this period expressed nationalism. The Hudson River School was a movement that
depicted the beauty of the American ________________________. Noah Webster’s ____________________
helped promote nationalism- words that were unique to the U.S.
38. The beginning of the Women's Movement was the 1848 ___________________________ Convention.
There the delegates issued the Declaration of _________________________. Leaders of this early movement
were Elizabeth Cady_______________________ and Lucretia ____________. Women had few legal rights
during this period, but were greatly involved in the reform movements of the early to mid 1800s. One of the
few legal rights they gained was the right to inherit _____________________________.
39. Who led the reform movement in better treatment of prisoners and the mentally ill? ________________.
40. The leader in the education movement who advocated free public education? _______________________.
41. The abolitionist movement’s early leaders included William Lloyd _________________________ who
was the publisher of The _____________________________. He felt slavery was immoral. Sarah and
Angelina _________________ were abolitionists from SC. The most famous African American abolitionist
was Frederick ___________________. An advocate for the abolitionist and the women’s movement was the
great speaker Sojourner ____________. (The greatest influence on the abolitionist movement in the 1830s
and 1840s was the 2nd _____________________________________________.
42. What was the name of the series of routes that allowed African Americans to escape from slavery and
gain their freedom in the North or Canada? _____________________________________. Who was known as
the Moses of her people? ________________________________________
43. The belief that the United States was meant to expand westward from ocean to ocean _______________
__________________. The most famous trail for people moving westward in the 1830s and 1840s was
44. In 1836 Texas fought & won independence from _______________. Santa Anna was captured at the
Battle of San ______________. Texas was the Lone Star Republic & its President was Sam ____________
45. Why did it take so long for Texas to be annexed by the U.S.? __________________________________
46. The "expansionist President" was James K. _____________________.
47. The Mexican War (1846-1848) was mainly caused by the belief in _______________________________.
The land gained from Mexico after the U.S. victory was called the Mexican _________________________.
48. President Polk’s campaign slogan concerning the Oregon territory was ___________________________
49. The short-lived Bear Flag Republic referred to ___________.
50. What caused massive numbers of Americans to head west to California in 1849? _________. These people
were called ___________.