The Course of World War II by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									              World War II
The Course ofof WWII
  The Course                 EUROPE
                              1939
Victory and Stalemate
• Blitzkrieg- “lighting war”
• Europe was stunned with
    the speed and efficiency
    of German attack
•   Poland: Armored columns
    or panzer divisions (strike
    force of 300 tanks and
    accompanying forces and
    supplies) and airplanes
    encircled the Polish
    troops
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939




   Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
    Victory and Stalemate
• After the invasion, regular
    infantry units moved in to
    hold the conquered territory
•   Within four weeks Poland
    surrendered
•   Sept. 28, 1939- Soviet Union
    and Germany divided Poland
    between them
•   Although, Hitler didn’t want
    to go to war with the West,
    France and Britain declared
    war. However, Hitler was
    confident enough he could
    take on the situation
    Victory and Stalemate
• Expecting another war of
    attrition and economic
    blockade, Britain and France
    refused to go on the offensive
•   Between 1930-1935, France
    had built a series of concrete
    and steel fortifications armed
    with heavy artillery (Maginot
    Line) along its border with
    Germany
•   France was happy to remain in
    its defensive shell
•   After a winter of waiting “phony
    war,” Hitler resumed the war on
    April 9, 1940, with another
    “lightning war”
• Blitzkrieg- was against
  Denmark and Norway              Victory and
• May 10- Germans launched
  their attack on the             Stalemate
  Netherlands, Belgium, and
  France
• This main assault through
  Luxemburg and the
  Ardennes forest was
  completely unexpected by
  the French and British forces
• Panzer divisions broke
  through weak French
  defensive positions there,
  outflanking the Maginot Line
  and raced across northern
  France
Victory and Stalemate
• This maneuver split the
  Allied armies and trapped
  troops and the entire
  British army on the
  beaches of Dunkirk
• A rescue effort ensued
  with hundreds of ships
  and small boats ferrying
  troops from the French
  port to Britain
• Evacuated 330,000 Allied
  troops
Dunkirk Evacuated
  June 4, 1940
Victory and Stalemate
• June 5th- Germans launched another offensive
    into southern France
•   Five days later-Mussolini, believing that the war
    was over and eager to grab some of the spoils,
    declared war in France and invaded from the
    south
•   Dazed by the speed of the German offensive,
    the French were never able to mount an
    adequate resistance and surrendered on June 22
France Surrenders June, 1940

                   But not all give up



                            Henri Petain
    Victory and Stalemate
• German armies occupied
    about 3/5 of France while the
    French hero of World War I,
    Marshal Henri Petain,
    established an authoritarian
    regime over the remainder
    (Vichy France)
•   Allies regarded the Petain
    government as a Nazi puppet
    state
•   The government-in-exile took
    up residence in Britain
•   Germany now controlled
    western and central Europe,
    but Britain was not defeated
    yet
 The French Resistance




The Free French




                  General Charles
                     DeGaulle
  The Maquis
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis:
The Tripartite Pact
September, 1940
Victory and Stalemate
• German victories in
    Denmark and Norway
    coincided with a change of
    government in Great
    Britain
•   May 10th 1940- Winston
    Churchill replaced the
    apostle of appeasement,
    Neville Chamberlain
•   Churchill was a strong
    advocate for hard-line
    policy toward Nazi
    Germany
Victory and Stalemate
• Churchill was confident he
    could guide Britain to
    ultimate victory
•   Proved to be an inspiring
    leader who rallied the
    British people in his many
    stirring speeches
•   Hitler hoped that the
    British could be persuaded
    to make peace so that he
    could fulfill his long-
    awaited opportunity to
    gain living space in the
    east
Victory and Stalemate
• Stubborn Churchill refused this plan of peace
• Hitler was prepared to invade Britain with little
    confidence
•   Hitler realized that this plan would be disastrous,
    unless Germany controlled the air
•   Aug 1940-The German air force (Luftwaffe)
    launched a major offensive against British air
    and naval bases, harbors, communication
    centers, and war industries
Battle of Britain:
       The “Blitz”
    The London “Tube”:
Air Raid Shelters during the Blitz
The Royal Air Force
Victory and Stalemate
• The British fought back,
    supported by an effective
    radar system that gave them
    early warnings of German
    attacks
•   The Ultra intelligence
    operation, which had broken
    German military codes, gave
    the British air force
    information about the specific
    targets of German air attacks
•   Nevertheless, British air force
    suffered critical losses by the
    end of August and was
    probably saved due to Hitler’s
    change in strategy
   Victory and Stalemate
• September- in retaliation for a
  British attack on Berlin, Hitler
  ordered a shift from military
  targets to massive bombing of
  cities to break British morale
• British rebuilt their air
  strength quickly and were
  soon inflicting major losses of
  Luftwaffe bombers
• End of Sept- Germany had
  lost the Battle of Britain, and
  the invasion of Britain had to
  be postponed
The Atlantic Charter
         Roosevelt and
          Churchill sign
          treaty of friendship
          in August 1941.
         Solidifies alliance.
         Fashioned after
          Wilson’s 14 Points.
         Calls for League of
          Nations type
          organization.
U. S. Lend-Lease Act,1941

 Great Britain.........................$31 billion
 Soviet Union...........................$11 billion
 France......................................$ 3 billion
 China.......................................$1.5 billion
 Other European.................$500 million
 South America...................$400 million

 The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
Operation Barbarossa:
Hitler’s Biggest Mistake
Operation Barbarossa:
      June 22, 1941




  3,000,000 German soldiers.
  3,400 tanks.
Axis Powers in 1942
Victory and Stalemate
• At this point Hitler pursued the possibility of
  Mediterranean strategy, which would involve capturing
  Egypt and the Suez canal and closing the Mediterranean
  to British ships
• This would lead to shutting off Britain’s oil supply
• Hitler’s commitment to the Mediterranean was never
  wholehearted
• Hitler’s initial plan was to let the Italians, whose role was
  to secure the Balkan and Mediterranean flanks, defeat
  the British in North Africa
Victory and Stalemate
• This strategy failed when the British routed the
    Italian army
•   Although Hitler then sent German troops to the
    North African front of the war, his primary
    concern lay elsewhere
•   July 1940-Hitler told his army leaders to begin
    preparations for the invasion of the Soviet Union
•   Hitler thought the only reason why the British
    were still in the war was because they were
    looking for Soviet support
 The North Africa Campaign:
     The Battle of El Alamein, 1942


                  Gen. Ernst Rommel,
                   The “Desert Fox”



Gen. Bernard
    Law
Montgomery
 (“Monty”)
Victory and Stalemate
• If the Soviets were smashed, Britain's last hope
    would be eliminated
•   Hitler convinced himself that the Soviet Union,
    with its Jewish-Bolshevik leadership and pitiful
    army, could be defeated quickly
•   Although the invasion of the Soviet Union was
    scheduled for spring 1941, the attack was
    delayed because of problems in the Balkans
•   Hitler had already obtained political cooperation
    of Hungry, Bulgaria, and Romania
    Victory and Stalemate
• Mussolini has a disastrous
    invasion of Greece in
    October 1940
•   This exposed Hitler’s
    southern flank to British air
    bases in Greece
•   To secure his Balkan flank,
    German troops seized both
    Yugoslavia and Greece in
    April
•   Now reassured, Hitler turned
    to the East and invaded the
    Soviet Union on June 22,
    1941
•   He believed they could be
    defeated by winter
Victory and Stalemate
• This massive attack stretched out along an
  1,800 mile front
• German troops advanced rapidly,
  capturing two million Soviet soldiers
• By November, one German army group
  had swept through the Ukraine while a
  second was besieging Leningrad
• A third approached 25 miles of Moscow
Victory and Stalemate
• An early winter and an unexpected Soviet resistance,
  brought the German advance to a halt
• For the first time since the beginning of the war, German
  armies had been stopped
• After the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, on December
  7, 1941, Stalin concluded that the Japanese would not
  strike at the Soviet Union and transferred troops from
  eastern Siberia to the Moscow front
• A counter attack in December 1941 by a Soviet army
  supposedly exhausted by Nazi victories brought an
  ending to the year for the Germans
         Battle of Stalingrad:
             Winter of 1942-1943




  German Army             Russian Army

  1,011,500 men           1,000,500 men

10,290 artillery guns   13,541 artillery guns

     675 tanks               894 tanks

    1,216 planes            1,115 planes
Victory and Stalemate
• By this time another
  of Hitler’s decisions-
  the declaration of war
  on the United States-
  had probably made
  his defeat inevitable

								
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