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					Southern Gulf Islands
  Marine Protected
        Area
         Federal Level
   Canada National Marine Conservation Areas Act
   Proposed Sites in BC
   Southern Gulf Islands National Park
National Marine Conservation
          Areas Act
     National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCA)
     Provides for Marine Protected Areas (MPA)
                          NMCA
   Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS)-
    Proposal for Bill C-10 Canada National Marine
    Conservation Areas Act, October 2000.
   Provide Canadians with special places to connect with
    the rich and diverse environments on our shores, and
    ensure lasting benefits to our coastal communities and
    the ecological integrity and healthy proliferation of the
    valuable marine environments.
   Each marine conservation area shall be divided into
    zones, which must include at least one zone that fosters
    and encourages ecologically sustainable use of marine
    resources and at least one zone that fully protects special
    features or sensitive elements of ecosystems, and may
    include other types of zones (NMCA Act 2002, c. 18 - 4.4).
                             MPA
   Marine Protected Areas (MPA) would protect all or a portion of the
    elements within a particular marine environment prohibiting: ocean
    dumping, dredging, exploration for, or development of, non-
    renewable resources.
   Existing marine areas under some form of legislaion comprise only
    2% of BC's marine environment.
   In 1994, the federal and provincial government created a committee
    to develop a Marine Protected Area Strategy for BC
   Canada is committed to the completion of a system of marine
    protected areas on the Pacific coast by 2010.
   In 1998, a draft MPA strategy for the Pacific Coast was released.
   In June 2002, the National Marine Conservation Area Act was
    passed, providing Parks Canada with the legislation to establish
    MPAs.
   Gwaii Haanas and Southern Strait of Georgia are poised to be BC's
    first national marine conservation areas.
   In 2000, Race Rocks was announced to be Canada's first Marine
    Protected Area under the Oceans Act but the Endeavour Hot Vents
    were established as the country's first Oceans Act MPA.
 Proposed MPA Sites
1. Southern Gulf Islands
2. Gwaii Haanas
3. Scott Islands
4. Queen Charlotte Strait
5. Hakai
6. Gabriola
7. Race Rocks
8. Bowie Seamounts
9. Endeavour Hot Vents
            Oceans Act
 MPA Criteria:           S. Gulf Islands:
 (1) High biodiversiy    (1) Nutrients upflow
 (2) Fish and habitat    (2)Rockfish,lingcod
 (3) Threatened          (3) Killer whales
 (4) Unique habitat      (4) Sponges, sea
                               anenomes
Southern Gulf
   Islands
Map
      Size of No-Take
       Zones (MPA)
 Small  areas - few kilometers wide, for small
  animals (Roberts and Haukins 2000)
 Large areas - tens of kilometers wide, for
  larger animals and bird colonies (Mosquera
  et al. 2000)
 Bufferzones - to protect core not-take zone
  (NTZ) centers
    MPA Connections
 Distance - No take zones should be 10 to
  50 km apart to maximize biodiversity
  protection
 Currents - link no take zones
 Upstream - need to be protected to
  conserve downstream areas
 Arrange - to maximize links between no
  take zones
MPA LINKS



            Square = No
             Take Zone
                  (NTZ)

             Line = links
            (connection
                between
                  zones)
  As the number
       of no take
zones increase,
 the conections
      double and
  triple between
these protected
            areas
      The overall
  protected area
increases in size
  because of the
      substantial
increase of links
   between sites
         Representational
         Areas - types of MPAs
   Percentage
        20-50% of each
         ecosystem type
         should be
         protected for long-
         term viability
   Ecosystem
    Identification
        Topography /
         ocean features
   Exposure
        High and low tidal
         exposed areas
         consist of different
         species
  Biodiversity Protection
        Summary
 Small - few kilometers for non-moving
          species
 Large - 10-20 kilometers for mobile
           animals
 20% - of each habitat type
 Research - a survey over time to
              identify best design for
              maximum biodiversity
             People Benefit
   First Nations
       Culture preservation
       The establishment of MPAs in British
        Columbia will be without prejudice to
        First Nations treaty processes and the
        Constitutional rights of First Nation
        governments.
   Public
       Participation and Education
   Economic benefits
       Fisheries
       Ecotourism
              Stake-holders
   Study on local involvement in Mediterranean
    (Badalamenti, 2000)


       Success is proportional to the involvement of the local
        community
Kelp bed ecology
            Fisheries

 Adult Recruitment
 Species Recovery
 Life Stage Protection
 Genetic Reservoirs
 Insurance Against Uncertainty
       Adjacent Fishing
            Areas
 Florida (Taylor et al. 2000)
      Tagged fish left MPA to enter fishing grounds
      Several world records set near MPA

 Caribbean (Taylor et al. 2000)
      Greater abundance, size, and biomass near MPA

 California (Thompson 1997)
      Median catch close to MPA significantly greater than median catch far
       from MPA

 Gulf      of Mexico (Jones 1998)
      No increase in yield, but compliance by fishers only 65%
              MPAs in BC
 Whytecliff        Park:
       Above average lingcod spawning in MPA
       Large coppers, quillbacks, and lingcod in MPA

 Porteau       Cove:
       Greater lingcod spawning than in controls
      Southern Gulf
     Island Fisheries
 Migration route for salmon
 Bottom fishery for halibut
 Shellfish
 Crabs and prawns
 Rockfish
           Conclusions
 NMCA   in Southern Gulf Islands will
 benefit:
    Biodiversity
    Culture
    Ecotourism
    Fisheries

				
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posted:9/8/2012
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