VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 39 POSTED ON: 9/8/2012
Municipal Association of Victoria Submission to the Inquiry into Sustainable Communities JULY 2004 INTRODUCTION The Municipal Association of Victoria (MAV) is the peak representative and lobbying body for Victoria's 79 councils. The MAV was formed in 1879 and the Municipal Association Act 1907 anointed the MAV the official voice of local government in Victoria. Today, the MAV is a driving and influential force behind a strong and strategically positioned local government sector. Our role, broadly speaking, is to represent and advocate the interests of local government, lobby for a 'fairer deal' for councils, raise the sector's profile, ensure its long-term security and provide policy advice, strategic advice and insurance services to local government. This submission is made by the MAV as part of its ongoing commitment to supporting the development of the effective role of Victorian local government authorities in environmental management. The MAV places particular emphasis in the management of local environmental issues on: The need for local government to be adequately represented on key decision-making fora; The need for equitable resources for local government undertaking an increasingly large share of environment management responsibilities; and The recognition by other levels of government and stakeholders of local government’s role and responsibilities in the environment management area. This submission seeks to address the Terms of Reference below by: Describing the role of local government in environmental sustainability including the role of the MAV in developing programs to assist council, and the communities they represent, become more environmentally sustainable; Describing the structural and legislative framework in which local government acts on community environment programs, with suggestions for improving and enhancing that framework; Outlining a range of case studies that describe the breadth and type of programs and projects undertaken by Victorian local government that seek to achieve community and household action on environmental sustainability; and Identifying opportunities and barriers to the work of local government in developing sustainable communities. Terms of Reference for Inquiry The Environment and Natural Resource Committee of the Victorian Parliament is conducting an inquiry into opportunities to promote changes in the ways we use energy, water and other natural resources at the local community (not including industries) and household level to reduce environmental impacts. According to the Terms of Reference the Committee is required to: 1. Examine what practical low-cost initiatives State or local governments can encourage that will: a. Promote efficiency of water use and supply and use of energy b. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions c. Increase the rate of recycling d. Foster renewable energy use e. Improve energy efficiency 2. Identify the barriers to increasing the rate of participation by individuals and households in recycling and conserving water, energy and other resources and improving energy efficiency 3. Identify other low cost opportunities for communities to participate in promoting and encouraging environmental sustainability MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................................................................................2 TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................................................3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..................................................................................................................................................4 2. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNTIES................................................................................6 3. MAV, STATE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER SUPPORTING PROGRAMS ..........................................................13 4. CASE STUDIES ...............................................................................................................................................................18 5. OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS FOR LOCAL GOVENRMENT ......................................................................36 6. REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................39 MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 3 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Local government plays an important role in community sustainability and environmental management. The environmental activities of councils include both traditional infrastructure and service functions such as stormwater management, litter and waste management, and parks and gardens. The role increasingly involves developing functions in community environmental education, greenhouse abatement and energy conservation, natural resource management and broader sustainability planning. Operating at a level so close to the community it serves, gives local government a unique capacity to make a difference. This submission details the policy and legislative basis for local government’s role in local sustainability. It documents 29 case studies that indicate the wide range of ways that councils can work with individuals, households and communities to effect change in the use of water, energy, recycling and greenhouse gas abatement. 1.1 Local Government and Community Sustainability Most local government environment or sustainability programs engage with or work through individuals, households and community to some degree. In working with households, councils combine regulatory approaches such as statutory planning and local laws with community and educative approaches. It is useful for councils to combine approaches, as this is usually more effective than using one approach in isolation. The four categories below are useful to describe the broad approaches which local government often undertakes action in the environmental area. Strategic (generally associated with the early steps of the pathway, as policy development and plans establish the framework and extent of a council's commitment); Leadership and incentives (demonstrating to the public the importance the council attaches to a program, and depending sometimes on partnership with State or Commonwealth Governments or a business sponsor); Education and information; and Regulatory (appropriate for issues such as urban form and design as these are already regulated via planning and development controls). Councils usually develop a strategic approach to the range of environment issues it is dealing with. There are at least 23 different types of issue specific or general environmental strategies that councils across Victoria may have in place. The issue of core funding for environmental officers is an identified barrier for many rural councils 1.2 Barriers This submission identifies some of the issues facing local government in its role with community sustainability such as: Limited funds and resources available to run effective wide scale education/awareness campaigns, and budgets compete with other demands (welfare, infrastructure). MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 4 Community is socially, economically and culturally diverse - a range of campaigns targeting different parts of communities are often needed. Councils are often the first point of contact on a wide range of environment issues but may not have the technical skill in-house to answer. 1.3 Opportunities This submission identifies that local government is well placed to work with communities and households on sustainability because: Councils already know and work closely with their community and are already leading by example in many areas such as water, energy and waste management. Council support messages at a local level and in a local context. Councils have pre-existing community linkages through a range of environment, health, welfare and community development programs. 1.4 Improving Community Environment Programs This submission identifies several important avenues for improving community environmental programs, including: Recognition of the role of local government State agencies need to engage fully with local government when delivering environment initiatives at the community or household level. Improve local government resources and capacity Ongoing funding or opportunities for local government to raise its own funds are important for the long-term success of community environment programs managed through local government. Develop integrative programs that combine action on energy, water, waste etc Household or business based programs that are integrative, i.e. consider a number of issues concurrently are increasingly becoming popular. Develop improved Behaviour Change programs, not just information programs A strong trend in community environment programs is to develop programs around community based social marketing (CBSM). This approach emphasises programs that target long lasting behaviour change rather than just providing information. Develop strong evaluation and monitoring approaches to measure effectiveness. Another strong emphasis in many community and local government environment programs is to develop strong evaluation and monitoring approaches to measure the effectiveness of programs. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 5 2. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND SUSTAINABLE COMMUNTIES 2.1 Legislative and Policy Context Local government plays an important role in community sustainability and environmental management. The environmental activities of councils include both traditional infrastructure and service functions such as stormwater management, litter and waste management and, parks and gardens. The role increasingly involves developing functions in community environmental education, greenhouse abatement and energy conservation, natural resource management and broader sustainability planning. Local government legislation in Victoria does not define a role for local government in environmental management, rather the Local Government Act 1989 is an enabling act, which allows a broad and varied response by local government to the environmental challenges in their area. Councils are also affected by and have various responsibilities under the provisions of the Planning and Environment Act 1987, the Environment Protection Act 1970 and a range of State Environment Protection Policies (SEPP) under that Act, and the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994. Additionally councils are increasingly involved at a regional level with a range of natural resource management strategies and programs. Given this legislative approach, a broad number of council functional areas can impact on and make up a council’s environmental management role. This makes it difficult to draw a firm line or definition around local government’s core ‘environmental’ management role. As well as the more obvious ‘environmental’ function areas, such as asset management, infrastructure and roads development, and community health can also be seen to have important ‘environmental’ aspects. Operating at a level so close to the community it serves, gives local government a unique capacity to make a difference. International Sustainable communities can be described in terms of environmental, social and economic outcomes (the “Three Pillars of Sustainability”). The particular challenges, and their priorities, will be different for different local communities. Local government has a recognised integrative role in community sustainability and has traditionally addressed local sustainability through the Local Agenda 21 model. Local Agenda 21 encourages all local authorities to enter into dialogue with their communities on developing an action plan for sustainability that seeks to integrate social, environmental and economic sustainability. This approach was recently re-endorsed by local government representatives at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development and new action badged as the ‘Local Action 21’. For more information on this see the Local Government Declaration presented to the World Summit1. The MAV has established a statewide partnership of councils involved in environmental sustainable development (ESD) /Triple Bottom Line/Local Agenda and Local Action 21 initiatives. The Partnership aims to promote and assist councils undertaking programs and initiatives in environmental sustainable development and Local Agenda and Action 212. Partnerships In considering local government and community level programs and approaches to waste management, energy, greenhouse, water and other resource areas, partnerships between State Government and its agencies are very important. Partnerships avoid duplication and confusion over roles and messages to householders and communities. State Government and its agencies are better resourced and often have the overarching responsibility to undertake community education and information programs. For example recent statewide campaigns on water conservation. 1 http://www.iula.org, World Summit on Sustainable Development, Local Government Declaration 2 http://mav.asn.au/environment/environment.htm MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 6 For household and community sustainability, local government often plays a supporting role in modeling and conveying coordinated statewide messages at a local level. Associations such as the MAV play a facilitation, co-ordination and advocacy role, often linking councils and state authorities together. Industry also has an important role at the household and community level in working with local government. For example, industry associations, developers, plumbers, appliance retailers, hardware stores, nurseries. 2.2 Local Sustainability - Approaches of Victorian Local Government Most local government environment or sustainability programs engage with or work through individuals, households and community to some degree. In working with households, councils combine regulatory approaches such as statutory planning and local laws with community and educative approaches. It is useful for councils to combine approaches that are usually more effective than using one approach in isolation. The four categories below are useful to describe the broad approaches which local government often undertakes action in the environmental area. Strategic (generally associated with the early steps of the pathway, as policy development and plans establish the framework and extent of a council's commitment); Leadership and incentives (demonstrating to the public the importance the council attaches to a program, and depending sometimes on partnership with State or Commonwealth governments or a business sponsor); Education and information; and Regulatory (appropriate for issues such as urban form and design as these are already regulated via planning and development controls). Diagram 1. on the following page is a representation of the range of issues and strategies that councils often address in environmental sustainability. It shows that councils combine individual strategies into integrated strategies such as Agenda 21 or Greenhouse. It also shows that councils address the issues across the spectrum from regulation to community. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 7 Diagram 1. Sustainability and environment approaches in Victorian local government Council as elected government – representing local community interest in transport, forest issues, water pricing, GMOs, toxics, biodiversity..…. COMMUNITY COUNCIL Planning Community REGULATION Scheme Approaches Advocacy Municipal Public Health Council Plan/Corporate Plan Municipal Strategic Plan, Community Safety Statement (MSS) Plan, Township/place Education strategies Zones Leadership Integrative sustainability strategies: Overlays Service provision Local Sustainability/Local Agenda 21, Permits Green Purchasing, Greenhouse Strategies, Transport Strategies, conditions Information enforcement Community Waste Water Biodiversity / Energy and Coastal and Environment engagement native vegetation greenhouse foreshore issues in built form Citizenship Open Waste Stormwater Greenhouse Coastal action Local Laws, space/parks Management Management strategies plans fees, fines management Plan – garbage, plans/drainage recycling, management Energy Audits Foreshore and permits Native greenwaste, hard strategies vegetation waste Household Public permits wastewater Lighting Litter strategies plans (septics) Weed management Landfill /transfer station Water management conservation plans 2.3 Strategic Approaches Councils usually develop a strategic approach to the range of environment issues they are dealing with. There are at least 23 different types of issue specific or general environmental strategies that councils across Victoria may have in place3 (see Table 2.). The most widespread environmental strategies in place in Victorian local government are waste management plans, litter minimisation plans, roadside conservation plans and stormwater management plans. The next most common strategies are local conservation strategies, native vegetation mapping, open space plans, greenhouse strategies and environmental or buy recycled purchasing plans. The least common strategies, occurring in 10% or fewer councils include EMS (ISO 14001), SOE reports, wetlands policies, Domestic Wastewater Plans, Salinity Plans and Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plans (NEIPs). Metropolitan councils are much more likely to have developed an environmental or local conservation strategy. For example, 63% of metropolitan and 50% of interface councils have developed an environmental or local conservation strategy. This compares to only 15% of rural councils. The issue of core funding for environmental officers is an identified barrier for many rural councils. Councils may also develop other integrative strategies that focus on aspects of community sustainability. For example Municipal Public Health Plans under the Health Act 1958 incorporate strong links to environment issues, community building and transport for example 4. Councils also work closely with community on strategies such as Community Safety Plans, Township and Place Strategies, often which involve environmental aspects. 3 2002 Victorian Local Government Environment Management Survey: Programs, Resources and Management Approaches. Main Report. Dec 2002, MAV. Response rate 76/78 councils (97%) 4 Municipal Public Health Planning Framework. For further information see the Department of Human Services website www.dhs.vic.gov/au MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 9 Table 2. Issues Based Environment strategies in Victorian local government EXISTING IN PROGRESS TOTAL Strategy # of % of # of % of % of councils councils councils councils councils WASTE MINIMISATION 49 66 11 15 81 STORMWATER MANGEMENT PLAN 33 43 27 36 79 FIRE PREVENTION 47 63 5 7 70 LITTER MINIMISATION 36 47 9 12 59 NATIVE VEGETATION MAPPING 26 34 18 24 58 ROADSIDE MANAGEMENT PLAN 32 42 11 15 57 BUY RECYCLED ACTION PLAN/ ENVIRONMENTAL PURCHASING 25 33 18 24 57 CODE OPEN SPACE PLAN 26 34 11 15 49 LOCAL CONSERVATION STRATEGY 27 36 6 8 44 NATURAL & CULTURAL HERITAGE PLAN 21 28 10 13 41 WEED MANAGEMENT PLAN 15 20 15 20 40 NEIGHBOURHOOD CHARACTER STUDY 14 18 12 16 34 GREENHOUSE STRATEGY 12 16 12 16 32 DRAINAGE STUDY 17 22 6 8 30 INTEGRATED TRANSPORT STRATEGY 12 16 6 8 24 LOCAL AGENDA 21/SUSTAINABILITY PLAN 14 18 2 3 21 COASTAL MANAGEMENT/FORESHORE PLAN 11 15 5 7 22 ENERGY CONSERVATION 9 12 7 9 21 EMS (ISO 14001) 8 11 4 5 16 SOE REPORT 4 5 7 9 14 WETLANDS POLICY 4 5 3 4 9 DOMESTIC WASTEWATER PLAN 3 4 4 5 9 SALINITY MANAGEMENT PLAN 3 4 4 5 9 NEIP (Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plans)* 0 0 4 5 5 2.4 Resources The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 5 estimated that Victorian local government spent approximately $598.6m in 2000-01 on environmental management. The ABS estimates that the major expenditure area for environmental protection was waste management $237.2m, land management $169.8m and water management $33.4m (probably stormwater infrastructure). MAV survey data indicates that State and Federal grants made up only 9% of local government spending on environmental and sustainability activities. This is similar to the ABS estimate of 7%. 5 Commonwealth of Australia (2002), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Report No. 4611.0 Environmental Expenditure, Local Government, Australia, 2000-2001. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 10 80% of councils stated that resources were required for on-ground activities and actions, and over 50% specified that resources were needed for strategic planning and to fund environment officer positions. 73% of councils have at least one officer who is a dedicated environment officer or environment manager. This figure drops to 57% for rural councils with at least one officer who is dedicated to environmental management. 2.5 Strategic Sustainable Development Models Agenda 21 is the global framework which guides us along the pathways to sustainable development. Agenda 21 emerged from the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Chapter 28 of Agenda 21 sets out a clear role for local government in sustainable development through a Local Agenda 21 approach. A Local Agenda 21 plan usually takes the form of an overarching strategic plan where a local government, through a process of dialogue with its community, sets out priority actions to achieve sustainable development outcomes. 29% of all Victorian councils consider sustainable development and Local Agenda 21 a ‘high’ priority issue for their council to be involved with. It was rated ‘high’ by 52% of metro councils but only 10% of rural councils. 2.6 Innovation in Local Sustainability Continues Victorian local government has considerable experience, and a strong community profile, in the development and implementation of local sustainability strategies and programs. A third of all councils and over 60% of metropolitan councils have, or are developing, an overarching sustainability strategy. Many councils are directly involved in sector programs addressing environmental challenges including greenhouse gas emissions, water quality, water resource management and “green” purchasing. Leading innovators include Shire of Yarra Ranges, Mornington Peninsula Shire Council, City of Melbourne, City of Port Phillip, City of Bayside, City of Moreland plus many others (see case studies in chapter 4). 16 councils (21%) in Victoria have developed an overarching Local Sustainability or Local Agenda 21 Strategic Plan. Six of these plans were developed in 2002. The rest were developed over the last four years. A further nine councils (12%) indicated that they were in the process of developing or intending to develop a local sustainability plan in the next few years. Once completed 33% councils in Victoria will have an overarching Local Sustainability or Local Agenda 21 Strategic Plan. The metropolitan region had the highest number of councils 14 (61%) with, or developing, an overarching Local Sustainability or Local Agenda 21 Strategic Plan. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 11 2.7 Community Engagement in Sustainability As well as specific programs to work with community (see case studies in this submission), councils often establish more formal approaches and ongoing structures such as committees to engage with community. Of those councils who have or are developing a sustainability plan 64% have sought to engage their community in the plan’s development. This has occurred by a variety of mechanisms. For example, 56% of councils set up working groups, 44% utilised surveys and 41% adopted community visioning exercises. Of those councils that have or are developing a sustainability plan almost three-quarters (72%) have set up ongoing processes or structures to specifically engage the community in sustainability. 2.8 Working with Households When local government works with households it is important to consider the range of tools available to councils to impact on sustainability in the home or with individuals. Local government is often not the regulator or the level of government with primary carriage of regulation for issue areas specific to households. For example, with water conservation, many measures are managed by state agencies or water authorities. An example is appliance labelling or water pricing which are regulated by the State. Another example is building or plumbing regulations which are often not the direct responsibility of local government. However, local government can work effectively with their local communities, in partnership with state agencies to deliver effective community level programs and effective information dissemination. See the discussion in Chapter 5 about suggestions to improve the impact of local government’s role in community sustainability. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 12 3. MAV, STATE GOVERNMENT AND OTHER SUPPORTING PROGRAMS This chapter describes the range of State, regional and corporate support programs that interface between local government, local communities and households. It also describes the MAV programs designed to assist local government in their environmental management role. There is a great diversity of programs, either targeting different issues (water, energy, waste etc) or offering an integrated approach. Most programs are Australian or Victorian based programs and solutions. However, some are international models such as the Natural Step, Water Campaign™ (ICLEI), Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). Councils work in partnership with program providers, often pooling experience. Some programs, particularly those developed by State Government, often offer councils funding support while others require councils to join on a membership basis. However, programs can sometimes duplicate existing resources and or not align with Victorian statutory or local government planning processes. In looking at cost effective programs in Victoria and in developing its own programs to support councils, the MAV has sought to address councils concerns about support programs. Councils report that: They prefer programs which take account of Victorian circumstances and statutory requirements to avoid unnecessary additional work by councils. Programs should be developed through partnership with councils in Victoria to ensure that the implementation is effective and reflects the reality of local government in this state. Program funding for councils needs to be realistic and sustained. Councils are reporting weariness with short-term, once-off funding programs. Programs that duplicate existing approaches or that do not work in partnership with State approaches add a level of unnecessary confusion in the local government sector. Councils often report being overwhelmed by the choice of different programs available to them. Effective programs offer opportunities for collegiate learning and knowledge sharing by the local government sector. Strategic programs have been beneficial to councils in pursuing and developing innovative approaches to community environmental management. 3.1 MAV Programs to Support Sustainable Communities The MAV conducts a range of activities to develop local government's role in effective environmental management. Some of the activities it undertakes include lobbying for adequate resourcing and funding, representing the sector in key decision-making forums, and ensuring that the sector's responsibilities in environmental management are duly recognised. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 13 The MAV also manages projects and programs such as: The Eco-Buy™ Program - (formerly the Local Government Buy Recycled Alliance) ECO-Buy is Victoria's local government green purchasing program. The program works with Victorian councils to increase their purchasing of recycled, greenhouse friendly and environmentally preferred products. The program is a joint initiative of the MAV, EcoRecycle Victoria, the State authority responsible for waste and litter management and the Victorian Greenhouse Strategy, Victoria's plan to reduce greenhouse emissions. ECO-Buy is an expansion of the Local Government Buy Recycled Alliance (LGBRA), which was established in April 2000. The change of name occurred late 2002 to reflect the expanded focus of the program brought about by the additional funds provided through Victoria's Greenhouse Strategy. The Local Government Buy Recycled Alliance focused solely on purchasing products with recycled content. ECO-Buy has expanded this focus to also include greenhouse friendly and environmentally preferred products. The Clearwater Program - the Stormwater Information Exchange The Clearwater Program is a joint initiative of the MAV and the Stormwater Industry Association of Victoria (SIAV). Clearwater (formerly the Stormwater Capacity Building Program) began in October 2002, assisted by funding through EPA Victoria as part of the Victorian Stormwater Action Program (VSAP). The Clearwater Program aims to effectively create an environment that facilitates cultural change in the adoption of sustainable environmental management practices for urban stormwater by local government and industry professionals across Victoria. The Integrating Local Land-use Planning and Regional Catchment Planning Project The MAV and the Victorian Catchment Management Council (VCMC) initiated the Integrating Local Land Use Planning and Regional Catchment Planning Project for the 10 catchment management and land protection regions of Victoria. The project was commenced as a joint initiative in 2000, with a steering committee established of representatives from local government, state agencies and catchment management authorities, the Victorian Catchment Management Council (VCMC) and the MAV. The overall aim of the project has been to achieve greater integration of regional catchment management planning and local land use planning by consistent interpretation of Regional Catchment Strategies in municipal planning schemes across Victoria. Sustainable Water Use Plans The Sustainable Water Use Plans Program is a partnership between the MAV and Melbourne Water. The Program aims to facilitate water conservation by making available to councils a simple, consistent and integrated planning framework, called Sustainable Water Use Plans. These plans provide a straightforward and flexible template that enables councils to conserve water and allow them to promote water conservation within their communities. Implementing a Sustainable Water Use Plan also allows councils to demonstrate efficient water management practices to their communities. The Sustainable Water Use Plan approach fully integrates with current Victorian local government planning responsibilities such as stormwater and septics management (see SEPP Water of Victoria), rather than duplicate or require councils to embark on a complex new program. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 14 Domestic Wastewater Management Project and Smart Septics Program Over the last number of years, the MAV has been working closely with the EPA and a range of partner organisations to improve local government capacity to address the significant risks posed by stormwater contamination to our waterways and to public health through the management of domestic wastewater (septics). With funding assistance from the EPA’s Victorian Stormwater Action Program (VSAP), this collaboration will continue throughout 2004 with Smart Septics Program to be managed by the MAV. This program will, over the next year, explore and develop a number of planning and management tools that will further enhance and complement previous initiatives in this important area of capacity building within local government. 3.2 State Local Sustainability Accord The MAV is working with the State Government and other environment and local government groups to develop a State-local government Sustainability Accord, which will examine ways to develop further recognition of local government’s role in sustainability. The Accord will also examine measures to streamline partnerships between the two spheres of government and avoid duplication. 3.3 Other MAV Initiatives Major policy issues of interest to the MAV and Victorian local government include water, catchment management, waste management and sustainable development. MAV information services for member councils include a monthly environment e-bulletin and regular newsletters - 'Your Local Environment', 'Water Ways' and 'What Goes Around Comes Around'. The MAV has an ongoing commitment to supporting the development of the effective role of Victorian local government authorities in environmental management. The MAV co-funds with the Commonwealth, the Local Government Natural Resource Management Facilitator, whose role it is to facilitate engagement of local government in regional NRM programs and agencies such as catchment management authorities. MAV Environment Programs have been recognised for their achievements United Nations Association World Environment Day Award Winner 2004 ECO-Buy is the 2004 winner of the United Nations World Environment Day National Award in the Local Government Awards category for Best Specific Environmental Initiative. Banksia Award Finalist Clearwater, the innovative stormwater capacity building program run by the MAV in partnership with the Stormwater Industry Association of Victoria (SIAV) and the EPA was a national finalist in the 2004 Banksia Awards, in the government leading by example category. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 15 3.4 Other Environment and Sustainability Capacity Building Programs The list below demonstrates the range of support and capacity building programs that target community level environmental sustainability, and often work with local government. Airwatch Victoria - Environment Protection Authority Best Practice Composting Green Organics - EcoRecycle Victoria Best Practice Kerbside Recycling Program - EcoRecycle Victoria Breathe the Benefits - Department of Environment and Heritage Cities for Climate Protection- International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, Australian Greenhouse Office Clear the Air- Department of Environment and Heritage Clearwater- Municipal Association of Victoria, Stormwater Industry Association of Victoria Community Action Fund - Australian Greenhouse Office Cool Communities - Australian Greenhouse Office, Environment Victoria ECO-Buy - Municipal Association of Victoria, EcoRecycle Victoria, Department of Sustainability and Environment Ecological Footprint - Environment Protection Authority Environment Management Systems - Environment Protection Authority, Department of Sustainability and Environment, Department of Treasury and Finance Green Gardeners - Sustainable Gardening Australia Green Plumbers - Master Plumbers and Mechanical Services Association of Australia Green Streets - Village Green Greenhouse Calculator - Environment Protection Authority Greenhouse Program - Environment Protection Authority Local Agenda 21 - United Nations Local Energy Efficiency Demonstration - Sustainable Energy Authority Victoria Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plans - Environment Protection Authority Savewater - Yarra Valley Water Smart Water Fund - Victorian water authorities MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 16 Smogbusters - Environment Victoria, Community Conservation Council, Department of Environment and Heritage Sustainability Fund - Environment Protection Authority Sustainable Schools - CERES, Gould League Sustainability Street - Environs Australia, Vox Bandicoot Travel Smart - Department of Infrastructure Urban Tripper - Environment Victoria Victorian Stormwater Action Program - Environment Protection Authority Waste Wise Programs - EcoRecycle Victoria Waterwatch - Department of Sustainability and Environment MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 17 4. CASE STUDIES The following chapter sets out examples of successful projects and programs run by local government that seek to improve the way individuals, households and communities target energy, water, waste and recycling issues. These case studies are examples of current programs undertaken by some local governments in Victoria but it is by no means an exhaustive list, as many other councils have excellent programs and projects in a wide range of areas. The MAV would like to thank all those councils who contributed examples or time to assist in this summary. Each short case study has a current contact name, number or website for more detailed follow up. Surf Coast Shire Council – Anglesea Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) City of Boroondara - Community Environment Actions 2003/04 Buloke Shire Council - Donald Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) Campaspe Shire Council - Environmental Rate Rebates City of Casey - Comingled Recycling Cities of Darebin, Melbourne, Yarra, Moreland, Moreland Energy Foundation and energy supplier AGL - Community Power City of Darebin - Reservoir Civic Centre Frankston City Council - Water Initiatives Macedon Ranges Shire Council - Community Run Bus Service Manningham City Council - Sustainable Schools Program Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd City of Melbourne - Travel Smart City of Melbourne - Trial ‘Greensaver’ Efficiency Program Maroondah City Council - Waste Education Mildura Rural City Council - Water Management Moreland City Council - Sustainability Streets Mornington Peninsula Shire Council - Litter Education Mornington Peninsula and Westernport Biosphere Project Nillumbik Shire Council - Green Waste Collection Nillumbik Shire Council - Land Management Incentive Programs City of Port Phillip - Inkerman Oasis City of Port Phillip - Sustainable Living At Home Greater Shepparton City Council - Improved Bicycle Network and ‘Cycle Instead’ Program Greater Shepparton Council - Goulburn Broken Urban Stormwater Awareness and Training Cities of Moonee Valley and Port Phillip - Smogbusters – Way to School City of Whittlesea - Walking School Bus City of Yarra - High-rise Recycling Program Shire of Yarra Ranges - Birdsland Environmental Education Centre MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 18 4.1 Surf Coast Shire Council - Anglesea Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) Located within the municipality of the Surf Coast Shire Council, Anglesea is on the Great Ocean Road approximately 100km south west of Melbourne. Around 2000 people are permanent residents, while holiday periods can see the population swell to more than 10,000. Council, in conjunction with the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) and other authorities, have responded to local concern over sustainability of the area by helping to develop a pilot Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) for Anglesea. Council has been integral to the process providing facilitation, staffing, office space and funds and are seen as a leading partner in the process. The objectives of the pilot NEIP are: building community capacity; protecting Anglesea’s natural ecological values; identifying and developing strategies to reduce Anglesea’s ecological footprint; and sharing the learning of the pilot NEIP with others. An Anglesea Leadership Group has been formed, consisting of half project partners including council and half local residents who are actively engaged in the NEIP process. Under the NEIP, Anglesea has become a Cool Community with the Australian Greenhouse Office. Thirty households have had training to conduct their own water, energy and waste audits. They are now eligible for up to $800 worth of water and energy saving products. Several households are now converting to solar hot water services and installing water tanks while many others are making a variety of changes around their homes. Another recent NEIP outcome has been a commitment to making Anglesea a plastic bag-free town. A draft submission of the NEIP will soon be submitted to the EPA and the process of community education and capacity building is ongoing. Contact Details Craig McKiernan, Surf Coast Shire Council, 03 5261 0553, firstname.lastname@example.org 4.2 City of Boroondara – Community Environment Actions 2003/04 The City of Boroondara is a predominantly residential municipality located in Melbourne’s inner and middle eastern suburbs. Twelve suburbs are home to over 148,500 residents. Council is committed to preserving and enhancing the environment for future generations. The following is a brief description of sustainability programs directed at the community in 2003 and 2004. Boroondara Pre-School in Balwyn North won Boroondara’s Water Conservation Competition. The mayor presented a voucher for $1000 to fund the installation of a rainwater tank in their new play area, to make water conservation a central feature of the pre-schoolers’ activities. ARI Plastanks and council each provided $500 towards the prize. City of Boroondara has worked in partnership with the Department of Environment and Heritage and the Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd to complete energy assessments for 10 retail businesses in Boroondara. The assessments involved an energy bill analysis and a walk through audit looking at equipment and operations. The Department of Environment and Heritage funded the program. Implementation of all of the recommendations, at an investment cost of around $6,706, will provide annual energy and greenhouse emissions savings of around $5,606 and 68 tonnes Co2 per year. The payback period is approximately 1.2 years. Proprietors have committed to implement energy actions that have a payback period of one year or MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 19 less. A case study will be prepared for each business and the program will be evaluated in late 2004. A voucher scheme offering free indigenous plants to residents was well received with all 640 vouchers being issued within four weeks of the offer being advertised. As a result 3,200 indigenous plants will be claimed by residents to plant in their gardens, to increase habitat available to native animals. Council hosted a Green Gardeners greywater and rainwater session in March 2004, in partnership with Sustainable Gardening Australia and Melbourne Water. This was well attended by 50 local professional landscapers and nursery workers. The seminar detailed regulations relating to rainwater and greywater reuse. The first 450 households that downsized their household waste bin or purchased a green waste bin or compost bin after 27 April 2004 received two free compact fluorescent globes. This offer was made possible through a grant provided by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The program aimed to encourage residents to become more waste and energy wise. A sample of the participating residents will be contacted later in 2004 to gauge the success of the program. City of Boroondara hosted a World Environment Day 2004 lunch for Friends Groups to acknowledge the voluntary work of Boroondara's environmental Friends Groups. The lunch was attended by 32 members of the community and council staff who support the Friends Groups. Many guests expressed their gratitude to council for acknowledging their work. Contact Details Anne Tourney, Environmental Sustainability Coordinator, 03 9278 4532, Atourney@boroondara.vic.gov.au 4.3 Buloke Shire Council – Donald Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) The Buloke Shire is located in north western Victoria, occupying an area of 8,000 square kilometres and with a population of 7,939 people. Agriculture is the primary source of both income and employment in the area, with grain production the major industry. Other forms of agriculture, small industry, retail and community sectors provide other employment and income. The Donald Neighbourhood Environment Improvement Plan (NEIP) centres on the township of Donald, which lies within the Avon-Richardson catchment in one of the most severely salinity- affected areas in north central Victoria. There are real threats to the town’s environmental assets and subsequently to its economic and social wellbeing. The Donald NEIP has been developed in recognition of the serious issues facing the area. The Buloke Shire Council has worked in partnership with the local community, other agencies and local industry to develop a proposal for the NEIP which is due to be submitted to the Environment Protection Authority this year. The proposal identifies the issues as well as the stakeholders who are interested in contributing to the process. When this has been approved, the Plan will be developed, which will identify specific roles and responsibilities for each of the stakeholders. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 20 Council has auspiced the proposal and will link the final plan into their strategies and operations as well as helping to facilitate the project between the various stakeholders. The NEIP is an excellent chance for local government to work with the local community to address environmental issues of importance to the community at the local level and significant groundwork has been covered in the proposal stage. Contact Details Kevin Spence, Landcare Coordinator, 0408 353 966 or Peter Rogers Buloke Shire Council 03 5497 1300 4.4 Shire of Campaspe - Environmental Rate Rebate The Shire of Campaspe is located 180km north of Melbourne with the Murray River as its northern boundary. It is home to around 36,300 residents who live in a number of townships or on farming properties. The shire is committed to environmental management and has taken a leadership position in relation to landcare. Their Environmental Rate Rebate program has been running for the last three years and is one of approximately 20 Victorian municipalities offering a similar scheme. The aim is to recognise landowners who practice environmentally responsible natural resource management and to encourage others to do so. Under the scheme, council offers a five per cent Environmental Rate Rebate for the completion of environmental works. Works that are eligible for the rebate include: the control of pest weeds and animals; planting locally native trees or shrubs; protecting and enhancing existing vegetation; managing and protecting natural waterways and wetlands; and erosion control works. In the previous two years, over 1000 landholders have taken up the rebate. Community consultation and audits have been undertaken across the shire to gauge ways in which the program can be improved. Community suggestions are currently being incorporated into the program, which is expected to significantly increase uptake of the scheme. Contact Details Sally Dickinson, Conservation Officer, 03 5481 2200 4.5 City of Casey – Comingled Recycling The City of Casey stretches from the foothills of the Dandenong Ranges, to a small section of coast along Western Port Bay and contains five distinct geographic regions. It is the fastest growing municipality in Victoria and third fastest in Australia, with an existing population of over 205,000 expected to rise to 300,000 by 2020. Providing best practice kerbside recycling to such a fast growing municipality is not a simple task but the City of Casey has committed to a fully comingled mobile bin system, collected fortnightly. The change was prompted by the community’s demand for a system that is convenient, safe and environmentally friendly. The services were implemented as a direct result of council’s Waste Management Strategy Plan (2000), which was developed with community input that included surveys, phone calls, community briefings and was also guided by a community focus group. While the old system collected over 13,000 tonnes of recyclables per year, the new recycling system has seen this amount increase by 20 per cent with more than 16,000 tonnes of MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 21 recyclables collected per year. This is expected to increase as residents become more familiar with the system. Contact Details Michael Jansen, Team Leader Environmental Services, 03 9705 5200 4.6 Cities of Darebin, Melbourne, Yarra, Moreland, Moreland Energy Foundation and energy supplier AGL - Community Power Community Power is a not-for-profit renewable energy buying group made up of the Cities of Darebin, Melbourne, Yarra, Moreland, Moreland Energy Foundation and energy supplier AGL. The objective is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst achieving cost competitive prices and good consumer service for households, businesses and organisations within the partner council areas. The project was initiated by the City of Darebin in response to a proposal by a local community group. Community Power works on the principle of obtaining a better price and conditions through the increased purchasing power of a large group. The buying group builds in an optimal percentage of Green Power dependent on the savings achieved through the bulk purchase of conventional or ‘black’ electricity. There are now over 850 participants taking advantage of four contract options, which provide between 5% and 100% Green Power. Community Power also delivers ongoing energy management programs for group members, which include energy audits of homes and small businesses and education and awareness programs. Recent programs have included a series of three workshops held with a total of 100 participants. Residents were given an audit form to complete at home that, once completed and returned, made them eligible for up to $50 worth of energy saving goods. This was designed to encourage residents to take responsibility for their actions while providing incentives and knowledge to reduce energy consumption. Funds have also been received for an energy assessor to undertake 50 household audits, available to residents interested in or already members of Community Power. The auditor examined past bills and energy appliances, completed a report and provided participants with up to $100 worth of energy efficient appliances and accessories. Contact Details AGL 1300 762 245 or Alex Tzikas, City of Darebin, 03 8470 8220 http://www.communitypower.org/ 4.7 City of Darebin - Reservoir Civic Centre The City of Darebin is home to over 130,000 residents and is one of the largest, most diverse communities in Victoria. Bounded by Darebin Creek to the east and Merri Creek to the west, Darebin is located within 20 minutes of Melbourne Airport, the Melbourne CBD and Port of Melbourne. Environmental sustainability within the Darebin community is one of council’s major aims. The Reservoir Civic Centre, completed in August 2004, has been designed to provide for the needs of a diverse community based on triple bottom line principles and is growing into a key community educational resource around sustainable living. There is a strong emphasis in the design, construction and management of the new Centre and, on environmental sustainability with special consideration for energy efficiency, waste minimisation and water efficiency. This is in keeping with council’s commitment to the ‘Cities for MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 22 Climate Protection’ campaign and provides an excellent avenue for educating the community through leading by example. The building provides a tangible example of sustainable technologies that can be transferred into the homes of residents - which was one of the project’s key aims. Educational materials available at the Centre and through other council facilities emphasise these opportunities and encourage residents to pursue them. These include a touch screen explaining how the sustainable design features work and a series of brochures outlining steps the community can take towards sustainability in energy, water, materials, air quality and waste. Council also conducts tours through the building and since opening earlier this year, over 10,000 people have visited the Centre including school groups, resident groups, individual residents, university students, architects and councillors from other municipalities. The project recently won the prestigious national Banksia Award for environmental excellence in leadership in sustainable buildings. Contact Details Emma Hopkins , 03 9230 4405, email@example.com 4.8 Frankston City Council – Water Initiatives Frankston City Council is located in the outer southern suburbs of Melbourne with an estimated population of over 118,000. Council is committed to managing freshwater resources in a sustainable manner and has developed or endorsed a variety of programs to help community members become more efficient and responsible water users. These include: Savewater Awards – For the second successive year, Frankston City Council was a finalist in the Savewater Awards, recognising water saving initiatives at the community nursery and the Langwarrin Community Centre, both of which now utilise rainwater tanks in the operation of the facilities to generate significant water savings. Council was also recognised for the use of recycled water at four recreational facilities across the city. Water Campaign™ - In 2002, Frankston City Council made a formal commitment to become a participant in the ICLEI Water Campaign™. The Water Campaign provides a strategic framework to review the current management of freshwater resources, and how local government can contribute to the improved management of these resources within their own operations, across the municipality and the catchment. In February of 2004 council achieved Milestone One of this program. Smart Water Fund - Frankston City Council was recently successful in receiving a $50,000 grant from the Smart Water Fund for implementation of a range of sustainable water resource practices in its two aquatic centres. Savings are estimated at 16 megalitres (million litres) of drinking quality water with a cost saving of $18,200 per annum. The project provides an opportunity for council to educate the community leading by example. Water Reuse Study – A feasibility study recently undertaken jointly with Melbourne Water and the Mornington Peninsula Shire Council, has been completed to identify the potential for use of treated effluent in parks and gardens, industrial areas and new residential subdivisions. Council is now looking to deliver on the highest priority scheme identified through this process. Water Audits – Water audits and ongoing implementation of water saving recommendations are currently being undertaken for all major council facilities. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 23 Waterwatch - The Waterwatch program is a national community based network that aims to involve community groups, schools and individuals in keeping waterways healthy, and to collect data to better manage the resource. Data is now being collected from creeks and wetlands within Frankston City Council. Once the baseline data has been collected, council will record this information and use it for prioritising actions, which may be required to address water quality issues within the catchment area. Findings will also assist council with the development of environmental performance indicators for Frankston City Council. GreenPlumbers™ - Developed by the Master Plumbers and Mechanical Services Association of Australia, the program is delivered in partnership with local government. A series of workshops have been designed to enhance plumbers' skills and knowledge about the environmental considerations of their work. The first series of workshops was held in Frankston City Council in 2001. These training opportunities place plumbers in a better position to advise and inform consumers on topics such as: the benefits of energy efficiency; water conservation; solar hot water; and the most appropriate and cost effective appliances to suit individual needs. The program has the potential to deliver real benefits to the environment with long-term community reductions in water usage and greenhouse gas emissions. GreenGardeners – This program is an inititiave of Melbourne Water delivered in partnership with council and Sustainable Gardening Australia. Frankston City Council hosted the first series of workshops in July 2003. The GreenGardeners program provides training and advice to local nursery and landscape industry members on the issues of sustainable gardening practices. Over three evening workshops participants undergo up to six hours of training on issues that include: sustainable design principles; soil health and natural soil improvers; responsible plant selection; chemicals and alternatives; water conservation and stormwater runoff reduction. The program continues to expand industry training and recognises the important role that landscapers and nursery staff can play in providing the community with good advice on sustainable gardening practices. In additon to the targeted programs already highlighted, council also educates the community through seminars, an environmental newsletter, fact sheets, and tips and links to other organisations. Contact Details Mark Batty, Environmental Coordinator, 03 9784 1888 4.9 Macedon Ranges Shire Council – Community Run Bus Service Located within an hour's drive north west of Melbourne, the Macedon Ranges Shire Council is known for its semi-rural lifestyle, natural features such as Hanging Rock, and local heritage townships. It is home to a population of over 38,000 people. A growing population over the last 25 years led to an increased need for public transport in the early 1980s. In response to this need, council and local residents worked together to form car and bus pooling cooperatives that travelled to Melbourne daily. Council took out a loan to purchase buses, which has now been fully repaid by weekly payments from the cooperatives responsible for operations. Boosting the regions public transport aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While this is an excellent example of council working with the community to seek positive social and environmental outcomes, changes in transport services over the last few years have given MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 24 rise to conflict between new public bus services and the original community cooperative services. Contact Details Muir Calderwood, Lansfield and Romsey Commuter Bus, 03 5425 5505 or Bronwyn Machin , Macedon Ranges Getting Around Project Officer, 0417 130 885 firstname.lastname@example.org 4.10 Manningham City Council – Sustainable Schools Program The Manningham City Council is located 12 kilometres east of Melbourne's Central Business District. The boundaries of the city are the Yarra River to the north and Koonung Creek to the south. The Mullum Mullum Creek divides the municipality, with rural-residential environments to the east and essentially residential areas to the west. Eleven suburbs are home to a community of more than 110,000 people. Manningham City Council has allocated $10,000 per annum for the next three years to support five schools participating in the Sustainable Schools Program run by the Gould League. Each school will undertake an introductory unit and then work through a 10-step process of setting and achieving goals in the areas of biodiversity, waste, energy and water use. The project will assist Manningham City Council to engage with the community on sustainability issues and is half way through its first year. Contact Details Subash Nanoo, Waste Officer, 03 9846 0578 or Pat Armstrong, Gould League, 03 9556 9028 4.11 Maroondah City Council – Waste Education The Maroondah City Council is a well established municipality in the outer east of Melbourne. Blending both city and country it has a balance of established neighbourhoods, new suburban developments and green spaces. The current population is over 100,000. As part of the Maroondah's Waste Management Program, council offers a range of special education programs. These include guided tours of the recycling facility, as well as educational sessions and materials on waste minimisation, composting, recycling and litter for schools and community groups. Maroondah City Council recently became a part of the WasteWise program aimed at minimising, reusing and recycling materials. Council also conduct annual audits of household waste to examine the composition of domestic waste and identify the contamination rate and recovery rate for recyclable materials. The audits help to inform future community waste education programs. Contact Details Clare Wolinski, Waste Management Officer, 03 9703 5226 4.12 Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd The municipality of Moreland is located in the inner north of Melbourne, spanning 12 highly developed suburbs. As home to more than 137,000 residents, Moreland has one of the highest population densities of any metropolitan local government area. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 25 Council established the Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd (MEFL) after the forced sale of council owned electricity retailers and it is the first independent, locally based organisation devoted entirely to reducing community greenhouse emissions. A variety of techniques are used to help both the Moreland community as well as other localities to become more energy smart. These include education, practical assistance, research and innovation, financial support, partnerships and advocacy. Current community based projects include the: ‘Kinda Cooling Project’ working with the Brunswick Kindergarten to assist the development of an energy efficient cooling plan for the main building, whilst also raising awareness of energy and greenhouse issues with the kindergarten community. ‘Home Energy Star Program,’ which works one-on-one with 85 Moreland households. Participating households receive a home energy audit to identify areas of potential energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction. They are then supported over the following year in addressing the recommendations and achieving potential energy savings. ‘Phoenix Fridge Program’ collects old and under-utilised fridges from community members and turns them into energy-efficient appliances for redistribution to low- income households. The program is seen as an opportunity to increase social equity while responding to some critical environmental issues. ‘Small Business Energy Action.’ In conjunction with the Northern Alliance for Greenhouse Action (Cities of Moreland, Banyule, Darebin, Hume, Whittlesea and Nillumbik Shire), MEFL is currently managing the Business Energy Action retrofit program for small businesses. Businesses within the partner municipalities who undertake an energy assessment are eligible for matching funding for energy efficiency projects identified. ‘Home Energy Action.’ Another project with the Northern Alliance for Greenhouse Action involved training around 180 residents from the partner municipalities to undertake household energy audits. The residents were then encouraged to conduct audits on the houses of their neighbours and friends. Contact Details Moreland Energy Foundation Ltd, 03 9381 1722, email@example.com 4.13 City of Melbourne – Travel Smart The City of Melbourne is Victoria’s business, administration, cultural and recreational hub. Twelve suburbs are home to over 52,000 residents with predictions of strong population growth as more people choose to live close to the city centre. The City of Melbourne has worked for several years to encourage greenhouse friendly travel amongst workers in the CBD. From 1999 to 2002, council worked in partnership with Environment Victoria’s Smogbusters Program on the Travelling Green project to address staff travel patterns at Australia Post and Fosters Brewing Group work places. The focus of the project was to design actions that reduce travel by staff in private vehicles to and from work and to encourage a greater use of public transport and less greenhouse intensive transport modes such as cycling and walking. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 26 In 2002, the project was funded by the State Government’s Travel Smart program. Through the current Travel Smart program, council is working with the Department of Infrastructure and several businesses including the National Australia Bank, Commonwealth Bank and Telstra. Thousands of staff members are involved, which means strong reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The project will be expanded next year to include businesses on St Kilda Rd. Contact Details Robyn Evans, 03 9658 8735, firstname.lastname@example.org 4.14 City of Melbourne - Trial ‘Greensaver’ Efficiency Program The City of Melbourne is Victoria’s business, administration, cultural and recreational hub. Twelve suburbs are home to over 52,000 residents with predictions of strong population growth as more people choose to live close to the city centre. The City of Melbourne is trialing a new "Greensaver" program, designed to reduce energy and water consumption in residential areas. Working with City West Water and Green Plumbers, 400 households in North Melbourne and Kensington have the chance to pay $40 (once a rebate has been subtracted) to have a registered Green Plumber come to their homes to conduct a water and energy audit. Inefficient energy and water use can cost the average household up to $600 every year. Residents will be given advice from the plumber on reducing water and energy consumption and overall long-term running costs. Contact Details City of Melbourne, 03 9658 9658 4.15 Mildura Rural City Council - Water Management Mildura is a vibrant regional centre on the banks of the Murray River in north western Victoria with a growing population of more than 49,000 residents. A series of Mildura Rural City Council water management initiatives, including community prizes, has seen water usage drop significantly by 221 Olympic sized swimming pools for the 2003-04 financial year, compared with the same period in 2002-03. Up to $6,500 prize money across various categories will reward water saving innovation and water-use efficiency in the community, encouraging residents to promote and develop water saving measures. Council is also working alongside community to construct water efficient gardens, parks, median strips and roundabout features with local, drought tolerant plant species suited to the arid conditions. Contact Details Mildura Service Centre, 03 5018 8100, www.mildura.vic.gov.au 4.16 Moreland - Sustainability Streets Sustainability Streets is a simple but powerful idea that increases sustainable practices through community capacity building. Developed by environmental educator Vox Bandicoot and Environs Australia – the Local Government Environment Network, the project has been taken up by a number of Victorian municipal councils. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 27 The central idea is that communities come together, learn about ecological sustainability and then work to assist or teach other individuals or communities. Councils work collaboratively with the community, Vox Bandicoot and Environs Australia, playing an integral role in building community support and providing resources, information, staff and facilities. There are currently 10 Victorian councils engaged in the project and their local communities have embraced the process. The first Sustainability Street program in Australia was formed around five streets in Moreland, close to the heart of Coburg and has met with strong community support and enthusiasm. The first year involved intensive community training with monthly meetings held on issues of water, waste, energy and biodiversity. Local skills and knowledge were utilised, with workshops held at residents’ houses. Other methods of knowledge sharing and community building have included picnics and a street parade. After the first year of training, with strong involvement from council and the other partners, the program was designed to move towards greater community ownership. A core of committed locals now meet regularly to plan projects and share information and have recently become incorporated. They have established a community fund and are in the process of developing a community garden in the area. Feedback from participants has been overwhelmingly positive with reports of greater engagement with and understanding of sustainability issues and an enhanced sense of community. There are now 10 Victorian councils engaged in the program and many more have expressed keen interest. Contact Details Environs Australia, Ground Floor, 60 Leicester St, Carlton Victoria 3053 Ph: (03) 9347 5344, email@example.com or Vox Bandicoot, 5 Railway Place, Fairfield Victoria 3078 Ph: 9489 0855, firstname.lastname@example.org , www.sustainabilitystreet.org.au 4.17 Mornington Peninsula Shire Council - Litter Education The Mornington Peninsula Shire Council is located on the fringe of Melbourne’s outer southern suburbs. In 2001, the total population of the municipality was estimated at over 132,700 people. Council’s draft Stormwater Management Plan identified that a multi-faceted approach to addressing the threats to water quality was necessary. In order to achieve this a Litter Reduction and Education program was undertaken which included community education, installation of gross pollutant traps, implementation of council's draft Environmental Management System, together with its advocacy role to State and other agencies. With installation of all gross pollutant traps there was extensive community publicity. Measuring the yield of litter from the gross pollutant traps will be used to gauge the success of behavioural programs. Products forming part of the education campaign included drink bottles, frisbees and bookmarks with the logo Bin it or Swim In It. The program was funded by EPA Victoria as part of the Victorian Stormwater Action Program 2001-02. Contact Details Paul Healy, 03 5986 0274 MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 28 4.18 Mornington Peninsula and Westernport Biosphere Project The Biosphere is a UNESCO program that has been established in around 400 regions worldwide and is rapidly gaining profile in Australia. Biospheres serve as 'living laboratories' for testing and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity. Each biosphere reserve is intended to fulfil three basic functions, which are complementary and mutually reinforcing: A conservation function - to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation; A development function - to foster economic and human development, which is socio- culturally and ecologically sustainable; and A logistic function - to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development. The Mornington Peninsula and Westernport Biosphere Project is a community-based initiative that has gained endorsement from all levels of government. There are five councils located within the Biosphere who have all signed on to a Board of Directors which is also made up of other levels of government and community members. The project, in operation since December 2003, is relatively new but has already lead to a close connection between local government and community, providing a forum for networking and information sharing. The Biosphere Reserve offers an important opportunity for local communities and their governing bodies to work together to reconcile the conservation of natural resources with their sustainable use. Contact Details Amy McDonald, 03 5982 9650, email@example.com 4.19 Shire of Nillumbik - Green Waste Collection The Shire of Nillumbik is located less than 25 kilometres north east of Melbourne and has the Yarra River as its southern boundary and Kinglake National Park to the north. Over 58,000 residents live in close knit communities, which range from typical urban settings to remote bush properties. The Shire of Nillumbik has committed to a policy targeting zero landfill by implementing the ‘GRO (green, recycled, other) waste management system in August 2003. A three-bin system was introduced to increase the amount of material being recycled and therefore divert waste from landfill. Under the new system, Green waste including food scraps and garden materials, is collected by council contractors and converted into bulk or bagged compost before being sold back to the community through local nurseries, where it is used to enhance gardens and aid in water conservation. The Recycle bin has moved to a full comingled service, meaning a greater range of items including paper and cardboard are accepted. As a result, the contents of the Other bin have decreased, reducing the amount of waste sent to landfill. The system encourages community members to engage with concepts of resource consumption and waste minimisation and to think about ways they can work towards more environmentally sustainable behaviours. Contact Details Tamara Allen, Resource Conservation Planner, 03 9433 3219 MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 29 4.20 Nillumbik Shire Council - Land Management Incentive Programs The Shire of Nillumbik is located less than 25 kilometres northeast of Melbourne and has the Yarra River as its southern boundary and Kinglake National Park to the north. Over 58,000 residents live in close knit communities, which range from typical urban settings to remote bush properties. To assist Shire of Nillumbik residents address land management issues and protect and enhance biodiversity, council offers a range of programs to provide assistance and financial incentives. These programs include: Sustainable Agricultural Rebate The Sustainable Agricultural Rebate program provides landowners with a rate rebate to undertake or maintain specified works on their property to improve land and water resources, and address problems of land degradation. Landcare Support Grants The Landcare Support Grants program provides locally based incorporated Landcare groups with grants of up to $2500 to develop and implement projects addressing land degradation issues and/or those protecting and enhancing biodiversity. Biodiversity Enhancement Program The Biodiversity Enhancement Program encourages landowners to protect and enhance Nillumbik’s biodiversity, in particular native vegetation and habitat for fauna, through permanent protection and biodiversity enhancement works. The program has two components: rate rebates for landowners who have placed a Trust for Nature conservation covenant on their property; or the grants program which provides funding for landowners in environmentally significant areas to undertake biodiversity enhancement works. The Shire of Nillumbik also runs regular courses and workshops to assist residents in planning and enhancing their property's natural values. A Property Management Planning Course is conducted biannually and regular workshops are held on bush land management, rabbit control and plant identification. This six-session course is held over five weeks to assist landowners in the development of a Property Management Plan. The course aims to assist landowners to identify management issues, develop long-term objectives and determine planned improvements. An aerial photograph of a landowner's property is provided as part of the course fee. A series of workshops focusing on Living in Nillumbik and Sustainable Living are held throughout the year at Edendale Farm Community Environment Centre. The workshops include guest speakers, walks, talks, hands-on activities and lots more. Topics range from managing bushland and identifying plants, to minimising energy in the home. Contact Details Narelle Liepa, 03 9433 3214 4.21 City of Port Phillip - Inkerman Oasis The City of Port Phillip is located on the northern shore of Port Phillip Bay, south of the Melbourne Central Business District. It is home to over 78,000 residents who are dispersed between seven neighbourhoods. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 30 The internationally acclaimed Inkerman Oasis is a sustainable community housing development resulting from collaboration between the City of Port Phillip and Inkerman Developments Pty Ltd. Located in St Kilda, the 236 apartments incorporate a range of passive and active sustainable design principles and demonstrate how a relatively high density of housing can be achieved whilst retaining open space and avoiding tower buildings. The development marks the first time in Australia that greywater and stormwater in a high- density development will be recycled for irrigation and toilet flushing. Other sustainable design features include optimum solar access for living areas; energy/resource efficient appliances and fixtures; solar hot water for 16 of the community housing units; solar communal lighting; roof gardens and native plant landscaping; bicycle shed; non-mechanical ventilation of a majority of the sub-basement car park and cross flow; and ventilation shafts in buildings to increase natural ventilation and minimise mechanical ventilation. The Inkerman Oasis development has been awarded the UN Association of Australia World Environment Day Award 2000; the Stockholm Partnership for Sustainable Cities Award 2002; and the Greenhouse Building Nomination 2002. Contact Details City of Port Phillip, 03 9209 6777, www.portphillip.vic.gov.au 4.22 City of Port Phillip - Sustainable Living At Home The City of Port Phillip is located on the northern shore of Port Phillip Bay, south of the Melbourne Central Business District. It is home to over 78,000 residents who are dispersed between seven neighbourhoods. Sustainable Living at Home (SLAH) is a six-month community environmental education program launched by City of Port Phillip in 2001. The program was designed to empower local residents to act cooperatively with their neighbours to reduce their impact on the environment. The Port Phillip community has enthusiastically supported the program, with participation rates increasing steadily each year. The program delivers ongoing environmental benefits through significantly reduced levels of resource consumption, waste and pollution for the participating households. At the same time, it promotes the creation of strong and positive neighbourhood relationships, leading to a more supportive, responsible and healthy local community. SLAH is offered to residents as a free program and has proven to be an excellent model to provide an avenue for community social interaction and community building, provide a link between environmental community groups and residents, encourage resource use behaviour change, and to collect resource consumption and change data. An integral aspect of the SLAH program is the setting of sustainability objectives against which progress and achievements can be measured for the community and each household. Sustainability objectives are developed for both the SLAH program and individual participants. In developing individual household action plans participants are guided in setting achievable, yet challenging, sustainability objectives linked to the five main environmental SLAH themes - waste, water, purchasing, travel and energy. The goals should include short, medium and long- term targets. MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 31 The SLAH sustainability objectives are: 15 per cent reduction in water usage; 30 per cent reduction in waste; 10 per cent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions; and 60 per cent participation in SLAH events. The City of Port Phillip collects both qualitative and quantitative data from residents involved in the program and results have been encouraging. The opportunity for social interaction was unanimously stated as one of the good aspects of SLAHminars. This confirms the value of the program in developing community links as well as delivering environmental benefits. The budget to deliver the program can be increased or decreased depending on the materials and activities offered to participants as incentives. The City of Port Phillip has created community and commercial partnerships to successfully implement the program. Contact Details Susan Gregory, 03 9209 6382, www.portphillip.vic.gov.au/slah.html 4.23 Greater Shepparton City Council – Improved Bicycle Network and ‘Cycle Instead’ Program Located in the Goulburn Valley, Greater Shepparton City Council has a population of over 59,000 residents and is the fourth largest provincial centre in Victoria. In November 2000, council developed a Bicycle Strategy aimed at building upon existing bicycle infrastructure, identifying priority bicycle routes and developing an implementation plan. The Strategy was developed in consultation with the community and objectives recognise the importance of bicycle infrastructure for increased community participation in cycling. This has been implemented over subsequent years with funding from council and VicRoads. Improved bicycle infrastructure is in line with council’s commitment to the Cities for Climate Protection program and reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1999 levels by 2010. To engage the community, Greater Shepparton City Council and Bicycle Victoria entered into a partnership to promote cycling. During a two-month trial period, with funding from the State Government, the ‘Cycle Instead’ project aimed (and exceeded) to replace 50,000 vehicle trips by bicycle trips. Using a mix of mass media, community events and rewards, council was able to engage community members. Surveys taken before and after the program showed that during the trial there was a decrease of 173,687 car trips; a greenhouse gas abatement of 256 tonnes, an increase of 95,071 cycling trips and a significant number of residents said that the campaign had encouraged them to ride more or consider alternatives to driving. Greater Shepparton City Council’s commitment to increased bicycle use in the community is an excellent example of a rural council responding to environmental and health issues normally considered urban problems. Shepparton was voted Best Regional Council by Bicycle Victoria in 2002. Contact Details Kevin Jones, Manager Design Services, 03 5832 9700 or Roger Smith, Manager Infrastructure Planning and Major Projects, 03 5832 9820, www.shepparton.vic.gov.au MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 32 4.24 Greater Shepparton City Council - Goulburn Broken Urban Stormwater Awareness and Training The Goulburn Broken Urban Stormwater Awareness and Training Project is a council initiative, which involves the employment of a project officer to coordinate all stormwater education and training activities in the Goulburn Broken catchment. The project has four main components aimed at reducing the impact of stormwater pollution entering the Goulburn and Broken Rivers and tributaries: a community education program; industry workshops and audits; assistance for councils; and education and training targeting the construction industry. Council introduced a local law in 2003 to control sediment loads to waterways and has been running a targeted education program to help the construction industry understand its legal requirements under the law. Merchandise, site visits, and media advertising have all been utilised. The campaign has been designed to also educate the wider public and has been extended to reach school children. EPA Victoria has funded it as part of the Victorian Stormwater Action Program 2003-04 in addition to funding from councils within the catchment. Greater Shepparton City Council has assisted the Mitchell and Moira Shires who have limited funds by allowing them to add their logos to advertising for a nominal fee. Contact Details Martin Harrop, 03 5832-983 4.25 Cities of Moonee Valley and Port Phillip - Smogbusters – Way to School An initiative of Environment Victoria (EV), Smogbusters - Way to School has worked with the Cities of Moonee Valley and Port Phillip to encourage students, parents, and the broader school community to consider the implications of motor vehicle travel particularly to and from school. Three primary schools from each municipality were chosen to receive a Way to School information kit as well as presentations from council staff and EV representatives. Baseline studies were conducted of usual modes of travel and distance covered. After six months the Smogbusters Day of Change was held where students were encouraged to minimise car use and seek alternative forms of transport such as walking, bicycle riding or public transport. Studies comparing the amount of car travel on the Day of Change showed between 20 and 30 per cent reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Councils were integral to the success of the program providing funding, staffing and facilitation of the program. As a result of the past successes, three additional councils have signed on with more expressing interest. Contact Details Rachel Carlisle, Sustainable Transport Coordinator, Environment Victoria 03 9341 8107, firstname.lastname@example.org, http://www.waytoschoolkit.infoxchange.net.au/ 4.26 City of Whittlesea – Walking School Bus The City of Whittlesea is a rapidly growing municipality located in Melbourne's outer northern suburbs. The current population of 124,000 is predicted to increase steadily. With over half the residents from non-English speaking backgrounds, the area is culturally diverse. The community based Walking School Bus program encourages students to walk rather than drive to school, promoting healthy, environmentally sustainable and safe transport options. One to two adult volunteers walk with a group of primary school children to and from school. The MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 33 participating students are picked up and dropped off at their house and walk along a specified route. The Program began in 2002 with four primary schools. Additional funding from VicHealth (the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation) in 2003 enabled council to work with a new group of schools. Council is currently negotiating further funding and there are now five schools participating. The Program is managed by council’s Health Promotion department and in addition to meeting the objectives of the city’s Health Promotion Plan it also meets those of council’s Transport Strategy and the Cities for Climate Protection Program. The program provides an excellent example of inter-sectoral and community cooperation bringing positive outcomes in a variety of areas including greenhouse abatement, alternatives to car-based transport, stronger communities and health benefits. Contact Details Louise Juracich, 03 9217 2170, www.whittlesea.vic.gov.au 4.27 City of Yarra - High-rise Recycling Program The City of Yarra is located immediately north east of Melbourne’s Central Business District. The urban geography and land use are incredibly diverse, with tracts of natural bush land, three major watercourses - the Yarra River and the Darebin and Merri Creeks, and a large mixture of inner urban residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Social housing and a rapidly gentrifying housing stock are home to over 69,000 residents. The City of Yarra, in conjunction with the Office of Housing and the North Richmond Tenants Association, has developed an award winning recycling program for a high-rise estate in Richmond. Richmond Public Housing Estate is home to approximately 1,660 families. A high turnover of tenants and large proportion of non-English speakers means that promoting and explaining the system is a complex task. However, the program has continued to expand with around 100 bins of recyclable plastics and glass collected each month. In addition to recycling, other activities have been instigated that make a positive contribution to the environment. These include running ‘waste-wise at home’ workshops for tenants (covering waste, energy and water minimisation practices) and working with the Cultivating Community Group to support composting and worm farming for the estate’s gardeners. The latest venture will see a car wash service established on the estate. The water used for the project will be recycled from bathrooms and kitchens of the apartment blocks. Any residual water from the car wash will be filtered again and used to water the gardens. Income gained will then be channelled back into other Tenant Association projects. Contact Details Carmela Parris, 03 9205 5093, ParrisC@yarracity.vic.gov.au 4.28 Shire of Yarra Ranges - Birdsland Environmental Education Centre The Shire of Yarra Ranges is located in Melbourne's outer east, between 30 and 110 kilometres east of the Melbourne GPO. Nine wards are home to over 137,100 people who live in one of a number of suburbs or rural localities. The Birdsland Environmental Education Centre is a council initiative aimed at ‘working with the community to provide environmental education that actively encourages sustainable living’. A MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 34 variety of programs are run with an emphasis on fun and practical hands-on learning. Programs are tailored to suit the individual needs of schools or community groups and are a springboard for groups wanting to learn more about biodiversity, WaterWatch, Sustainable Schools Program and Waste Wise Schools. The centre is an eco-friendly building incorporating worm farms, solar panels, wind generator, composting toilets, frog bogs, native grass gardens and more. Programs are based around five broad topics: biodiversity, waste minimisation, sustainable energy, earth education and water. Since the opening in 2000, thousands of students and community members have participated in the programs and active community participation has been encouraged through a community committee and an education sub-committee. Council recently won a WasteWise award in recognition of the community education achieved through Birdsland and other council initiatives. Contact Details Shire of Yarra Ranges 1300 368 333, Marianne Hack 03 9294 6215, Birdsland Centre 03 9752 5893, www.yarraranges.vic.gov.au MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 35 5. OPPORTUNITIES AND BARRIERS FOR LOCAL GOVENRMENT The following chapter suggests a number of opportunities and barriers operating at the local level when considering the work of local government with sustainable communities. It also examines suggestions for improving community based environment approaches and avenues for increasing the effectiveness and participation of individuals and households. 5.1 Opportunities Local government is well placed to work with communities and households on sustainability. Councils already work closely with their community and are already leading by example in many areas such as water, energy and waste management. Council support messages at a local level and in a local context. Councils have pre-existing community linkages through a range of environment, health, welfare and community development programs. Single-issue topics (water energy etc) often integrate with other council sustainability messages and education programs. Integrates with local planning and building responsibilities. Councils are often local employers, and can impact on individuals and households through their own workforce. 5.2 Barriers Some of the issues facing local government in its role with community sustainability include: Limited funds and resources available to run effective wide scale education/awareness campaigns, and budgets compete with other demands (welfare, infrastructure). Community is socially, economically and culturally diverse - a range of campaigns targeting different parts of communities are often needed. Councils are often the first point of contact on a wide range of environment issues but may not have the technical skill in-house to answer. Sometimes regulatory frameworks confusing for local implementation (e.g. greywater). Education requirements for business community are different to those for residents. 5.3 Community Environmental programs – Avenues to success The experience of local government in running community based environment programs is very valuable. Below are some of the comments and lessons learnt from the case studies. Realistic Funding and Timeframes Community environment projects are often reliant on external funding, which is short term in many cases. Excellent programs can be established but can fail to make long-term impacts upon communities because they tend to lack follow through. Communities usually need MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 36 extended reinforcement of behaviour change techniques before they become the norm. Therefore, projects need longer term planning and funding arrangements. Managerial support Most successful programs have required strong managerial support to succeed. This necessitates either an existing interest from management or strong lobbying from staff, which is reliant on adequate time and resources. Council Steward Many community based projects have one or two committed councillors who champion the cause within council. In order to succeed, they need adequate support and resources from within council or a strong enthusiasm that sometimes goes beyond the call of duty. Some councillors have expressed a need for more time or funding to support community involvement and commitment. Community Champion Many successful community environment projects have had a community champion who rallies the community and works closely with the council. Whole-of-Council Support Whole-of-council support is often very important for community environment programs to succeed. Many local government environment programs are reliant on a number of factors to succeed and cut across a range of departments. Some successful programs have worked between several departments rather than staying within the environment department. This is especially important when attempting to engage communities. Community Ownership Developing and facilitating community ownership of a local program is often vital, as it embeds the activity in the community. However, occasionally, when a community initiative becomes wholly owned by the community, it can work at odds with council agendas. Good community development approaches and partnership between council and community usually work best. 5.4 Improving the links to Local Government Recognition of the role of local government State agencies need to engage fully with local government when delivering environment initiatives at the community or household level. Often local government is not included in early program design or implementation. As a result State programs often duplicate, conflict or do not align with local programs and regulation. A more structured and consultative approach to working with local government and local communities would achieve more effective community engagement in local environment initiatives. Improve local government resources and capacity Ongoing funding, or opportunities for local government to raise its own funds, are important for the long-term success of community environment programs managed through local government. Through the Local Sustainability Accord process in 2004 the MAV will be suggesting that legislative reform be considered that might give local government greater capacity to raise revenue for environmental programs. For example, NSW councils can raise an environment levy to fund local projects, after setting community priorities through a thorough community engagement process. Other opportunities exist to explore enhanced local government powers under State legislation such as the Environment Protection Act 1989 where in some areas councils can already issue MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 37 and retain fines, for example litter fines. Such approaches allow local governments to fund and manage important community level programs. 5.5 Effective Community Change Develop integrative programs that combine action on energy, water, waste etc Traditionally there has been a tendency for State and Commonwealth agencies to approach the community and businesses on an individual issues basis. For example, targeting water conservation or energy conservation as separate issues. While these approaches often have merit and achieve success, household or business based programs that are integrative, that is, consider a number of issues concurrently are increasingly becoming popular. Good examples of integrative programs are the City of Port Phillip Sustainable Living at Home program and the Environs Australia Sustainability Streets program. Such programs are modelled on strong integrative, community development and behaviour changes principles. They allow individuals, households and business to approach the range of sustainability questions. They can also be more efficient for councils to manage, as they integrate across a number of issues and allow councils to achieve multiple goals such as improved recycling and greenhouse reduction. Develop improved behaviour change programs, not just information programs A strong trend in community environment programs is to develop programs based around community based social marketing (CBSM). This approach emphasises programs that target long lasting behaviour change rather than just providing information. The MAV EcoBuy Program has used CBSM approaches to excellent effect in developing green purchasing approaches in local government. Below is an excerpt from material by Doug McKenzie-Mohr, a Canadian expert in CBSM who has visited Melbourne and worked with local government a number of times. “When members of a community use resources wisely, for example by recycling or taking mass transit, a community moves toward sustainability. To promote sustainability, then, it is essential to have a firm grasp of how to effectively encourage individuals and businesses to adopt behaviors that are resource efficient. Most initiatives to foster sustainable behavior rely upon large-scale information campaigns that utilize education and/or advertising to encourage behavior change. While education and advertising can be effective in creating public awareness and in changing attitudes, numerous studies show that behavior change rarely occurs as a result of simply providing information (see Chapter 1 of the online guide at www.cbsm.com). Community-based social marketing is an attractive alternative to information based campaigns. Community-based social marketing is based upon research in the social sciences that demonstrates that behavior change is most effectively achieved through initiatives delivered at the community level which focus on removing barriers to an activity while simultaneously enhancing the activities benefits.” 6 Develop strong evaluation and monitoring approaches to measure effectiveness Another strong emphasis in many community and local government environment programs is to develop strong evaluation and monitoring approaches to measure the effectiveness of the programs. At a community level, such evaluation and monitoring is often fairly complex, and much work still needs to be undertaken to improve and assist local government with such approaches. Often councils struggle to gain access to data sets held by State agencies, and to undertake appropriate methodologies for data analysis, at the correct scale. An emphasis on improved access and robust methodologies for community based programs is essential to ensure cost effective outcomes against environmental targets and goals. 6 Doug McKenzie-Mohr, Quick Reference Guide, Community Based Social Marketing. See www.cbsm.com MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 38 6. REFERENCES Commonwealth of Australia (2002), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Report No. 4611.0 Environmental Expenditure, Local Government, Australia, 2000-2001 Doug McKenzie-Mohr, Quick Reference Guide, Community Based Social Marketing. See www.cbsm.com MAV Website at http://mav.asn.au/environment/environment.htm Municipal Public Health Planning Framework. For further information see the Department of Human Services website: www.dhs.vic.gov/au Victorian Local Government Environment Management Survey 2002: Programs, Resources and Management Approaches. Main Report. December 2002, MAV. Response rate 76/78 councils (97%) World Summit on Sustainable Development, Local Government Declaration, http://www.iula.org MAV Submission – Sustainable Communities Inquiry Page 39
"Submission to inquiry into sustainable communities"