De-escalation_revised

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					   Managing Angry Kids
A Staff Development Program to Prevent and Manage
                Acting-Out Behavior
              Adapted from Material by :
                 Geoff Colvin, Ph.D.
               Malcolm Smith, Ph. D.
                      JKM Inc.
I should’ve
   called
   sooner.
Part One
Model for describing the phases of acting-out behavior
   Acting-out behavior will be presented in terms of seven phases of behavior depicted in the graph
below. Behavioral indicators will be described for each of the phases. The descriptions are
generalizations or summaries of behavior from a large number of students over many years.

                                                          5. Peak


                                        4. Acceleration
Intensity
                                                                    6. De-escalation
                         3. Agitation


            2. Trigger


       1.   Calm                                                                       7. Recovery

                                          Time
                                                          5. Peak


                                        4. Acceleration
Intensity
                                                                    6. De-escalation
                         3. Agitation


            2. Trigger
            Thinking                                                          Normal

      1.    Calm                                                                       7. Recovery

                                          Time
           Fear




Violence          Anger
                                                                            5. Peak

                                                          4. Acceleration

                   Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                                 3. Agitation




                                    2. Trigger
                               1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery
Phase One ---
                                                                     Time


 Calm

1.   On Task
2.   Follows rules and expectations
3.   Responsive to praise
4.   Initiates behavior
5.   Goal oriented
6.   Socially appropriate

         Overall Behavior
                 Cooperative
                                                                        5. Peak

                                                      4. Acceleration

               Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                             3. Agitation




Phase Two---                    2. Trigger
                           1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery

 Trigger
                                                                 Time

1. Conflicts
   a. Denial of something they need
   b. Something negative is inflicted on them
2. Changes in routine
3. Provocations
4. Pressure
5. Interruptions
6. Ineffective problem solving
7. Errors
8. Corrections
         Overall Behavior
                 Series of unresolved problems
                                                                          5. Peak

                                                        4. Acceleration

                 Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                               3. Agitation




                                  2. Trigger
Phase Three---               1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery

                                                  Time
  Agitation
          Increase or Decrease in Behavior
   Increase                     Decrease
1. Eyes dart                    Stares into space
2. Language non-                Language subdued
   conversational
3. Busy hands                   Hands contained
4. In and out of groups         Withdraws from groups
5. Off task/On task             Off task “Frozen”

       Overall Behavior
               Unfocused
                                                                         5. Peak

                                                       4. Acceleration

                Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                              3. Agitation




                                 2. Trigger
Phase Four---               1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery

 Acceleration                                 Time
 1. Questioning and arguing
 2. Non-compliance and defiance
 3. Off task
 4. Provoking students
 5. Compliance with accompanying inappropriate behaviors
 6. Criterion problems
 7. Whining and crying
 8. Avoidance and escape
 9. Threats and intimidation
10. Verbal abuse
        Overall Behavior
                 Student displays engaging behaviors
                                                                           5. Peak

                                                         4. Acceleration

                  Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                                3. Agitation




                                   2. Trigger
Phase Five---                 1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery

                                                                    Time
      Peak
 1.   Physical abuse
 2.   Assault
 3.   Self-abuse
 4.   Severe tantrums
 5.   Hyperventilation
 6.   Screaming
 7.   Running
 8.   Violence

         Overall Behavior
                 Student is out of control
                                                                           5. Peak

                                                         4. Acceleration

                  Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                                3. Agitation




Phase Six---                       2. Trigger
                              1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery
      De-Escalation
                                                   Time
 1.   Confusion
 2.   Reconciliation
 3.   Withdrawal
 4.   Denial
 5.   Blaming others
 6.   Sleeping
 7.   Responsive to directions
 8.   Responsive to manipulative or mechanical tasks
 9.   Avoidance of discussion (unless there is occasion to
         blame others)

         Overall Behavior
                 Student displays confusion
                                                                           5. Peak

                                                         4. Acceleration

                  Intensity                                                          6. De-escalation
                                                3. Agitation




                                   2. Trigger
                              1. Calm                                                           7. Recovery

                                                                    Time
Phase Seven---
      Recover
 1.   Eagerness for Independent work or activity
 2.   Subdued in group work
 3.   Subdued in class work
 4.   Defensive
 5.   Avoidance of de-briefing

Overall Behavior
 Eagerness for busy work and reluctance to discuss
       Summary of Part One
There are seven phases of acting-out
behavior. We need to be able to
observe student behavior so as to
identify which phase the student may
be in. Most of the variability between
students lies in the specific behaviors
students may exhibit for a given
phase and then how quickly they
move through the phases.
Phase One-Calm
1. Structure
  a.   Preparation
  b.   Delivery of Instruction
  c.   Classroom Organization
  d.   Expectations
  e.   Management
2. Quality Instruction
  a. “Teach them to learn and they will pay
     attention”
3. Providing Attention
  a. Contingent Attention
  b. Non-contingent Attention
       Phase Two-Triggers
• Identify contexts that trigger escalation
• Reteach Expectations
• Modify the Context
• Cue and Precorrect
• Provide positive feedback when the
  student demonstrates the expected
  behavior
• Monitor and Review
     Phase Two-Triggers
1.    Formal strategies for problem-solving
     a.   Curricula
     b.   1:1 services from district resources
     c.   Services purchased from the community
2.    Pre-Correction Plan
     a.   Context or predictable problem behavior
     b.   Expected or alternative behavior
     c.   Context adjustments or accommodations
     d.   Behavioral rehearsal
     e.   Strong reinforcement
     f.   Prompts
     g.   Monitoring plan
3. Individual Problem Solving Plan
  a. Clearly identify the source of the problem
  b. Identify possible solutions for the problem
  c. Assist student in evaluation options and
     selecting one option
  d. Discuss results and implication of the
     choice
  e. Develop implementation plan, specify task
     and who is responsible for each
  f. Develop criteria for success and
      specify review date
Phase Three-Agitation
1.   Basic Approach-
     Make accommodations


2.   Timing
     Make accommodation before the onset of serious
        behavior – otherwise you may reinforce a chain of
        avoidance or escalation
3.   Space
     Provide the student with an opportunity to have some
        isolation from the rest of the class
4. Time
  Give the student some options with
  deadlines

5. Preferred Activities
  Allow the student to engage in a preferred task
     for a short time

6. Teacher Proximity
  Stand near the student if possible or have
    student’s desk near the teacher’s– but back
    off if signs are apparent
7. Independent Activities
  Independent activities where the
  student needs a minimum of assistance

8. Movement Activities
  Help set up materials, run an errand, etc.

9. Involve the student in the plan
 Phase Four-Acceleration
1. Avoid escalating prompts
  a. Agitated behavior from staff
  b. Cornering the student
  c. Power games, “getting in student’s face”
  d. Touching or grabbing
  e. Nagging
  f. Making statements that may discredit the
     student in front of his/her peers “I
     appreciate the way you are ignoring…”
  g. Engaging in arguing
2. Maintain calmness, respect and
   detachment
3. Utilize crisis prevention strategies
  a. Establish a “bottom line” negative
     consequence
  b. Delivery
     i.   Present the expected behavior and the bottom line
          consequence as a choice or decision
     ii. Allow some time for the student to decide
     iii. Withdraw from the student, attend to others or
          engage in some other task
  c. Follow-up
4. De-brief
  What was your behavior?
  What was your concern or need?
What else could you have done that
 would have been acceptable and
 would have met your need?
What will you do next time this
 situation arises?

Remember!!!

If you inadvertently assist the student
   to escalate, do not be concerned as
   you’ll get another chance to do it
   right in the very near future!!!
     Phase Five-Peak
1.    Short term interventions
     Must address SAFETY First!!!
     a. Isolation and removal of other students
     b. Parent contact
     c. Police call
     d. Short term suspension
     e. Restraint
2.    Precautions
     These are intrusive procedures!! It is critical that staff have
        developed a clear process for managing students at the
        peak of out-of-control behavior
     a. School procedures
     b.   Training for those who will use them
     c.   More than one staff member
     d.   Monitor carefully and prepare to offer an independent
          activity
     e.   Careful records should be kept
     f.   Parent permission through IEP
3.    Long term interventions
     Repeated instances should be a “red flag” for doing things
        differently
     a. Plan to intervene earlier in the chain
     b. Analyze the environment for escalating prompts
     c. Assess school work
     d. Refer for counseling
     e. Refer for evaluation
  Phase Six-De-Escalation
1. Isolate the student

2. Allow some time to cool down

3. Engage in independent work for
   twenty minutes

4. Complete exit paperwork

5. Restore environment

6. Resume regular schedule
  Phase Seven-Recovery
1. Provide strong focus on normal routines
2. Do not negotiate on consequences for the
   serious behavior
3. Strongly acknowledge appropriate handling
   of situations similar to previous situation
   where student exhibited serious behavior
4. De-brief
5. Communicate expectation that the student
   can succeed with help
6. Establish a plan with specific
   steps
    The Profile of a Dangerous Educator
A dangerous educator

 …believes that his job is not about relationships.
 …believes that this is just a job, and when the school day is over, the
  work’s all done.
 …believes that he/she can handle any situation alone.
 …believes that, It was good enough for me, by golly, it oughta’ be good
  enough for them.”
 …believes that all these kids need is a good whippin.’
 …believes that what he/she does outside of here has no bearing.
 …believes that anger shouldn’t be part of the curriculum.
 …never makes time to just sit and listen.
 …believes that these kids have no right to be mad.
 …believes he/she can’t make a difference.
 …believes that punishment is more effective than discipline.
 …thinks you shouldn’t smile until Thanksgiving
 …believes that morality and values should only be taught at
  home.
 …sees the act, not the young person behind it.
 …believes that strict adherence to the rules is the most
  important goal of any youth’s day.
 …forgets that he/she is modeling.
 …is a “structure monster.”
 …constantly says “that isn’t in my job description.”
 …doesn’t deal with his/her anger.
 …believes that saying “I’m sorry” would be a bad message to
  give.
 …never makes mistakes.
 …never allows young people their mistakes.
 …can’t wait for the day to end.
 …believes that calling for help is a sign of weakness.
 …believes he/she can handle any situation.
 …never wonders what happened to the young people once they
  leave.
 …never practices random acts of kindness or senseless acts of
  beauty.
 …thinks his/her job is only to maintain order.
 …has no boundaries.
 …has no structure.
 …makes promises he/she can’t keep.
 …thinks these kids can’t be trusted.
 …doesn’t understand that respect is a two-way street.
 …has lost a sense of humor.
 …doesn’t believe in a second chance.
 …thinks it’s too late for these kids to learn something.
 …is resistive to change.
 …never takes time to care about his/her team members.

				
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