HBL STDs by kaijieasdf


									                             HBL Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Notes

                                            Goh Kai Jie 2P2 [4]


Diseases or infections passed on through exchange of semen, blood and other fluids or by direct contact
with the affected body parts are called sexually transmitted diseases or venereal diseases (VD) or
reproductive tract infections (RTI)

How does STD microorganism enter the body?

The body has its own mechanisms of combating diseases. They have various barriers- skin, immune
system, etc which protect the body. During the sexual intercourse, this barrier is breached. The soft,
delicate lining of tissue over the vagina and the uterus is torn, providing an easy entry to the
microorganisms within the body.

Types of sexually transmitted diseases:

       AIDS
       Syphilis
       Gonorrhea
       Chlamydia
       Genital herpes


Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that are found
mainly in the semen of infected men and vaginal fluids of infected women.

Genital herpes

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and affecting the
genital and anal regions with painful blisters.


Syphilis is contracted via sexual contact with a person infected with bacteria called spirochete which is
cock-screw shaped.

The second stage of syphilis manifests itself 2 to 6 months after the infection wherein sores and rashes
appear on the skin in the area of mouth, throat and genitals. There may be severe hair loss and bald
patches begin to form on the head. The lymph glands too swell. These symptoms might disappear after a
point of time but the disease, in reality is advancing to the next stage.

The third and last stage of syphilis manifests very harmful signs and symptoms. Herein, the internal
organs, the brain and the spinal cord and damaged; paralyzing a person, blindness and heart failure too
can occur and a person can even experience insanity and an eventual death.

Goh Kai Jie 2P2 4 2012                                                                               Page 1

Syphilis can be cured at all stages if timely medical intervention is sought. Antibiotics such as Penicillin
cure syphilis. Syphilis can be prevented if the infected person does not indulge in sexual intercourse, by
practicing monogamy and by using condoms.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome [AIDS]

AIDS is caused by a virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It spreads when infected
mucous membranes or fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal discharge and breast milk containing virus
comes in contact with the membranes or fluids of another being. Thus, AIDS spreads through, oral or
genital sex, sharing of needles by drug abusers, blood transfusions or mother to a child during pregnancy.

HIV enters a human body and attacks the white blood cells (WMC), mainly, lymphocytes. HIV creates its
own protein and genetic material by replication in the lymphocytes and as a result robs off their energy
causing their death. As the white blood cells begin to deplete, a person’s immune system becomes weak
and they contract all kinds of infections very easily. These infections prove to be fatal for the AIDS


A person infected with HIV may manifest symptoms such as chronic fever, chronic diarrhea, pneumonia,
cancer of the blood vessels, etc. They may suffer from multiple symptoms simultaneously.

Preventing AIDS

AIDS can be prevented if one practices monogamy. Also, proper contraceptives should be used and they
should not indulge in drug addiction. Instruments like razors and toothbrushes should not be shared and
while opting for tattooing, body-piercing or acupuncture, one must insist to use only disposable or
sterilized instruments.

Goh Kai Jie 2P2 4 2012                                                                                Page 2

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