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					Python programming language

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1 1.1 . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Language Evaluation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category Application Domains . . . . . 1.5.1 Web Internet Development . . . 1.5.2 Database Access . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.3 Desktop GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.4 Scientific Numeric computation 1.5.5 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.6 Network programming . . . . . . . . 1.5.7 Software builder Testing . . . . 1.5.8 Game 3D Graphics Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Printing) (Reserved word Keywords) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Reserved words, Keywords) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Arithmetic Mathematics) (normal arithmetic operators) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Built-in Math Functions) . . . . . . . . . (absolute value) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (smallest or largest values) (specified number of digits) . . . . . (adds numbers in a sequence.) . . . (range of numbers.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . Python 1.0 Python 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1.6 1.7 2 3 3.1 3.2 4 4.1 4.2

13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 21 23 23 23 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27

4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

. . . . . . .

8 5 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 5.3 5.3.1 6 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 8 scope) 8.1 8.2 9 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2 10 10.1 10.2 11 (Data type) (Numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Integers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Floating-point numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Complex Numbers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Collection Data Types) . . . . . . . . . . (List) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Dictionary Groupings of Data Indexed by Name) (Tuples) (Sequences) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Sets) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (String Array of Characters) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Comparisons) (Boolean AND ( ) . . . . . . . . OR ( ) . . . . . . . . NOT ( ) . . . . . . . . . Expressions) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Life time Variable 49 49 49 51 51 51 53 53 53 53 54 55 55 55 56 59 60 62 63 29 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 34 34 35 39 42 45 47 47 47 48

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

(Statement block)

(Statement block) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Life time Variable scope) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Control flow, Flow of Control (Decisions, Choice Selection) . . . . . . . . if Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . switch Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Loop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . while Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pass, break, continue else Clauses Statements . . do-while Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Error Checking) . . . . . assert Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . try-except raise Statements (Exception handling) (Defined Function) , Global ( ) Local ( Alternatively) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(Input Data from Keyboard)

9 Python Python, wxPython Stani’s Python Editor Python . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wxPython . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stani’s Python Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPE Sidebar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 69 69 72 75 79 80 81 81 85 85 86 87

.1 .2 .3

.0.1 .0.2 .0.3

, Debug .1 .2 Debug SPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1.1 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 .10 .11 .12 .13 .14 .15 .16 .17 .18 .19 .20 .21 .22 .1 .2

Guido van Rossum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Python 2.4 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "Install for all users" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C:\Python24\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . wxPython runtime for Python 2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6 : Finish component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Next . . . . . . . . . . . checkbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14 69 70 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 73 73 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 79 80 81 82 82 82

Stani´ Python Editor Version 0.8.2.a s Windows SourceForge (mirror) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: Stani’s Python Editor Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPE . . . . . . . . . . .

Stani’s Python Editor (SPE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.3 Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Local object browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

12 .1 .2 .3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Error Debug . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 85 86

1

(Python) gramming language)

(Interpreted pro-

Guido van Rossum 1990 (Fully dynamically typed) (Automatic memory management) ABC, Modula-3, Icon, ANSI C, Perl, Lisp, Smalltalk Tcl Ruby Boo Open source Foundation ( . * 25 2549) 2.4.3 ( 29 2.5 ( 2549) Python Software http://www.python.org/ 19 2549)

1.1
1.1.1 Python 1.0

1990 Guido van Rossum CWI (National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science) ABC Modula-3, Icon, C, Perl, Lisp, Smalltalk Tcl Duido van Rossim Benevolent Dictator for Life (BDFL) BDFL Linus Torvalds Linux kernel, Larry Wall Perl programming language 1.2 1995 ration for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) 1.6 1.6 Guido van Rossum CNRI Guido , CNRI CNRI Free Software Foundation (FSF) Corpo-

General Public License (GPL)

13

14

1.1: Guido van Rossum GPL-compatible GPL Guido van Russom Software" 1.6.1 GPL-compatible license ( ) FSF "Advancement of Free 1.6

1.1.2

Python 2.0
2000 Guido Python Core Development team BeOpen.com BeOpen PythonLabs team 2.0 BeOpen.com 2.0 BeOpen.com Guido PythonLabs Digital Creations 2.1 1.6.1 2.0 Python Software Foundation License Python Software Foundation (PSF) Apache Software Foundation 2.1 alpha

1.1.3
3.0 Python 3000 (Py3K) by removing old ways of doing things" ( ) (PEP) • 2.x "reduce feature duplication 3.0 Python Enhancement Proposal

1.2 • • relative imports • unicode/str separate mutable bytes type

15

classic class, classic division, string exceptions

implicit

1.2
(Multi-paradigm language) coding (Paradigm) Object-oriented programming, Structured programming, Functional programming Aspect-oriented programming (dynamically type-checked) Garbage collection

1.3

Language Evaluation Criteria
(Readability) (Writability) (Reliability) (Cost)

Open source

1.4
1.

Text File 2. Python Software Foundation License (PSFL) Python Software Foundation (PSF) General Public License (GPL) Free Software Foundation (FSF) Unix Platform, Windows Platform, OS/2, Amiga, Mac OS X Framework, Java virtual machine Nokia Series 60 Linux .NET

3.

16 4. Modula-3, Icon, ANSI C, Perl, Lisp, Smalltalk 5. 6. Java libraries Java Virtual Machine .NET Platform Tcl CORBA objects ABC,

COM, .NET Jython

7.

IronPython .Net Framework

Microsoft Python for .NET

8.

Internet Communications Engine (ICE)

9. extension modules SWIG 10. Server Boost.Python Server side Script Client C C++

11. CMS

Content Management Systems (CMS) Plone http://www.plone.org/

1.5

Category

Application Domains
Category (Multi-paradigm Object-oriented programming, Imperative, Functional programming

language) Logic programming

1.5.1

Web
Django

Internet Development
Web Development Zope, mega frameTurboGears Content Management Systems Plone Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

works CPS

1.5.2

Database Access
ODBC MySQL, Oracle, MS

Interfaces Database Connection Interface SQL Server, PostgreSQL, SybODBC

1.6

17

1.5.3

Desktop GUI

Tk GUI development library libraries Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC, win32 extensions), wxWidgets, GTK, Qt, Delphi Graphic user interface

1.5.4
s

Scientific

Numeric computation
, Bioinformatics Physic-

1.5.5

Education
programming Python Software Foundation pyBiblio Software Carpentry Course

1.5.6

Network programming
Web Internet Development network programming sockets Twisted Framework Asyncronous network programming

mudules

1.5.7

Software builder

Testing

• Scons • Buildbot • Roundup

build Apache Gump Trac bug tracking Automated continuous compilation project management Testing

1.5.8

Game
Game libraries

3D Graphics Rendering
PyGame PyKyra Framework 3D Graphics Rendering

1.6
• BitTorrent age Tracker BitTorrent, Pack-

18 • Blender • Chandler , Microsoft • Civilization IV , • Mailman • Kombilo • MoinMoin • OpenRPG • Plone • Trac wiki Wiki Role Playing Games Content Management System MoinMoin Subversion Source version control Framework Cherrypy, SQLObject, MochiKit Internet E-Mail mailing lists boost.python , open source 3D modeling (Personal Information Manager, PIM) Outlook

• Turbogears KID templates • ViewVC • Zope • Battlefield 2 Web-based

CVS

SVN repositories

web-application platform First Person Shooter Configuration scripts Tsunami

• Indian Ocean Tsunami Detector • EVE Online Multi Massive Online Role Playing Game MMORPG.com

• SPE - Stani’s Python Editor Free open-source Python IDE for Windows, Linux & Mac with wxGlade (GUI designer), PyChecker (Code Doctor) Blender (3D) •

1.7
Industrial Light & Magic " Wars: Episode II crowd rendering batch processing compositing video " Tommy Burnette, Senior Technical Director, Industrial Light & Magic " ILM Star

1.7

19 "Philip Peterson, Principal Engineer, Research & Development, Industrial Light & Magic

Google "

Google

Google Google " Peter Norvig, Di-

rector of Search Quality, Google, Inc. NASA "NASA CAD/CAE/PDM libraries " STEP Testbed Model, Integration code Integration Transformation

Steve Waterbury, Software Group Leader, NASA

20

2 (Printing)
print String * Python C/C++, Java, ’String’ "String"

; (Semi-colon Symbol)

>>> print "Hello, World!"

Hello, World!

>>> >>> >>> >>>

print print print print

"Jack and Jill went up a hill" "to fetch a pail of water;" "Jack fell down, and broke his crown," "and Jill came tumbling after."

Jack and Jill went up a hill to fetch a pail of water; Jack fell down, and broke his crown, and Jill came tumbling after. * (Repetition Symbol)

>>> print "Hello, World!"*5

Hello, World!Hello, World!Hello, World!Hello, World!Hello, World! 21

22 * "#" Execute Program Comment Comment

(Printing)

>>> print "Foo" # Test Comment >>> print "Bar"

Foo Bar

3 (Reserved word Keywords)
3.1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (Reserved words, Keywords) underscore ( )

3.2

(Reserved words, Keywords)

and, assert, break, class, continue, def, del, elif, else, except, exec, finally, for, from, global, if, import, in, is, lambda, not, or, pass, print, raise, return, try, while, yield, as ( 2.5) with ( 2.5) * 2.4.3 2.5 (Python Reference Manual Release 2.4.3, documentation updated on 29 March 2006 and Python Reference Manual Release 2.5, documentation updated on 19 September 2006)

23

24

(Reserved word

Keywords)

4 (Arithmetic Mathematics)
4.1 (normal arithmetic operators)
(normal arithmetic operators) • ** ( • *( • /( • %( • +( • -( , Exponentiation) , multiplication) , division) , remainder , addition) , subtraction) modulo)

1. 2. 3. 4.

(parentheses "()") (exponents "**" ) (multiplication "*" ), (addition "+") (division "/" ) (subtraction "-") (remainder/modulo "%" )

>>> i = 10 >>> f = 6.54 >>> print i + f 16.54 25

26

(Arithmetic Mathematics)

f

i float

10

f 16.54

6.54

i

integer

>>> >>> >>> >>> 8

i = 10 i = i + 6 i = i / 2 print i

>>> >>> >>> >>> 8

i = 10 i += 6 i /= 2 print i

C

4.2
4.2.1
Function

(Built-in Math Functions)
(absolute value)
abs(var) function var

>>> print abs(-6.5) 6.5

4.2.2
list, set

(smallest or largest values)
min(var) var max(var) list, set var , ,

>>> print min(6, 7, 2, 8, 5) 2 >>> print max(6, 7, 2, 8, 5)

4.2

(Built-in Math Functions)

27

8 >>> print min([0, 43.5, 19, 5, -6]) 0 >>> print max([0, 43.5, 19, 5, -6]) 43.5

4.2.3
round(var, digits)

(specified number of digits)

>>> print round(1234.56789, 2) 1234.57 >>> print round(1234.56789, -2) 1200.0

4.2.4

(adds numbers in a sequence.)
sum(sequence) sequence of numbers sum (1,2,3,4,5) 1

-5

>>> print sum((1, 2, 3, 4, 5)) 15

4.2.5

(range of numbers.)
range(start, end [,step]) 1 - 500

>>> print range(1, 6) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

>>> print sum(range(1, 6)) 15 1 - 6 m 2 ( n -1) m n m 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 n

>>> print range(1, 6, 2) [1, 3, 5]

28

(Arithmetic Mathematics)

5 (Data type)
Interpreter Programming Data type Data type Data type

(Data type)

5.1
5.1.1

(Numbers)
(Integers)
(Plain Integer)

Plain Integers +2147483647

int signed integer

32 bits

-2147483648

>>> x = 42 >>> type(x)

<type ’int’> * function type(var) function casting data numbers 29 function int var interger

30 >>> x = int("17") >>> y = int(4.8) >>> print x, y, x - y

(Data type)

17 4 13 * function int(var) integer function var

(Long integer) Long integers - 2147483647 long signed integer + 2147483647 Long Integer

Integer L 234187626348292917L 7L

>>> googol = 10 ** 100 >>> print googol >>> type(googol) (Operator ** )

10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000 <type ’long’> googol (Boolean) Boolean bool long

• True • False -

1 0

5.1.2
Floating-point double

(Floating-point numbers)
float 64 bit double precision float float 7.8 x 10-28

1.23

5.1

(Numbers)

31

>>> debt = 7784834892156.63 >>> print debt >>> type(debt)

7.78483489216e+012 <type ’float’> 7.78483489216 x 10
12

function float >>> x = float(17) >>> y = float("4") >>> print x, y, x - y

17.0 4.0 13.0 * function float(var) floating-point function var

5.1.3
j j2 + 1 = 0

(Complex Numbers)
complex (imaginary number) z x y z x + iy x y

>>> imaginary_number = 16j >>> complex_number = 6 + 4j >>> print complex_number (6+4j) >>> print type(complex_number) <type ’complex’> j plex(real, [imag]) * function complex(real, imag) complex function real function com-

imag

32 >>>complex_number = complex(6, 4) >>>type(complex_number) <type ’complex’> >>>print(complex_number) (6+4j)

(Data type)

5.2
5.2.1 (List)

(Collection Data Types)

(Array) import module array list

(List)

square brackets "["

"]"

>>> i = [1, 2, 3, 4, ’Foo’, 5, ’Bar’] >>> print i >>> type(i)

[1, 2, 3, 4, ’Foo’, 5, ’Bar’] <type ’list’> (index key) >>> print i[6]

Bar 0

0, 1, 2, 3, 4 , .... , n - 1 n list : (Colon Symbol)

>>> x = [1, 2, 3, 4, ’Foo’, 5, ’Bar’] >>> print x[3:5]

5.2

(Collection Data Types)

33

[4, ’Foo’]

>>> y = [10, 3, 5, 25, 7, 9] >>> z = [x for x in y if x >= 9] >>> print z

[10, 25, 9] 9

5.2.2
dict

(Dictionary
(Dictionary

Groupings of Data Indexed by Name)
value ( ( ) tuple keys:value

keys

Groupings of Data Indexed by Name) keys (associated key) (index key) ) list keys value keys

>>> >>> >>> >>>

i = {’first’:’alpha’,’last’:’omega’} print i print i[’first’] type(i)

{’last’: ’omega’, ’first’: ’alpha’} ’alpha’ <type ’dict’> first >>> print i[’first’] ’alpha’ >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> menus_specials = {} menus_specials[“breakfast”] = “canadian ham” menus_specials[“lunch”] = “tuna surprise” menus_specials[“dinner”] = “Cheeseburger Deluxe” print menus_specials[’breakfast’]

canadian ham

34

(Data type)

5.2.3
(

(Tuples)
, Tuples)

(Sequences)
tuple ( () )

>>> t = 12345, 54321, ’hello!’ >>> type(t) <type ’tuple’> >>> t[0] 12345 >>> t (12345, 54321, ’hello!’) >>> # Tuples may be nested: ... u = t, (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) >>> u ((12345, 54321, ’hello!’), (1, 2, 3, 4, 5))

"," >>> empty = () >>> singleton = ’hello’, >>> len(empty) 0 >>> len(singleton) 1 >>> singleton (’hello’,) tuple

# <-- note trailing comma

t = 12345, 54321, ’hello!’ (unpacking)

(packing)

tuple

* function len(var) var >>> x, y, z = t * 3 t

function

,

3

5.2.4

(Sets)
( )

5.2

(Collection Data Types) set List * function set(var) set var function

35 function set

>>> basket = [’apple’, ’orange’, ’apple’, ’pear’, ’orange’, ’banana’] >>> fruit = set(basket) # create a set without duplicates >>> type(fruit) <type ’set’> >>> fruit set([’orange’, ’pear’, ’apple’, ’banana’]) >>> ’orange’ in fruit # fast membership testing True >>> ’crabgrass’ in fruit False >>> # Demonstrate set operations on unique letters from two words ... >>> a = set(’abracadabra’) >>> b = set(’alacazam’) >>> a # unique letters in a set([’a’, ’r’, ’b’, ’c’, ’d’]) >>> a - b # letters in a but not in b set([’r’, ’d’, ’b’]) >>> a | b # letters in either a or b set([’a’, ’c’, ’r’, ’d’, ’b’, ’m’, ’z’, ’l’]) >>> a & b # letters in both a and b set([’a’, ’c’]) >>> a ^ b # letters in a or b but not both set([’r’, ’d’, ’b’, ’m’, ’z’, ’l’])

5.2.5
* >>> i = [1,2,3,4] >>> print i.pop() 4 >>> j = {’first’:’alpha’,’last’:’omega’} >>> print j.pop(’first’) alpha Java

36 pop - [ / ]

(Data type)

Object.pop([key]) pop pop >>> i = [1,2,3,4] >>> print i.pop() 4 >>> j = {’first’:’alpha’,’last’:’omega’} >>> print j.pop(’first’) alpha append - [ ] pop

(index key) (associated key)

Object.append([object])

>>> i = [1,2,3,4] >>> print i.pop() 4 >>> i.append(5) >>> print i [1,2,3,5] insert - [ ] Object.insert(index, object)

>>> [1, >>> >>> [1, >>> >>> [1,

print i 3] i.insert(4, 5) print i 3, 5] i.insert(2, 6) print i 3, 6, 5] count - [ ] Object.count([object])

>>> i = [1,2,3,4] >>> print i.count(5)

5.2 0 >>> print i.count(4) 1 index - [ ]

(Collection Data Types)

37

Object.index(value, [ start , stop ]) (index key) >>> i = [1,2,3,4] >>> print i.index(4) 3 >>> print i.index(1) 0 extend - [ ]

Object.extend(list|dict)

>>> >>> >>> >>> [1,

j = {’last’: ’omega’} i = [1,2,3,4] i.extend(j) print i 2, 3, 4, ’last’] remove - [ ]

Object.remove(value)

>>> [1, >>> >>> [3,

print i 2, 3, 4, ’last’] i.remove(1) print i 6, 5, ’last’] sort - [ ] Object.sort() (sort)

>>> >>> >>> [1,

a = [5, 2, 3, 1, 4] a.sort() print a 2, 3, 4, 5]

38 >>> i = [’a’,’r’,’b’,’i’,’z’] >>> print i [’a’, ’r’, ’b’, ’i’, ’z’] >>> i.sort() >>> print i [’a’, ’b’, ’i’, ’r’, ’z’] reverse - [ ] (sort)

(Data type)

Object.reverse() >>> >>> >>> [1, >>> >>> [5, a = [5, 2, 3, 1, 4] a.sort() print a 2, 3, 4, 5] i.reverse() print i 4, 3, 2, 1] clear - [ ] Object.clear() >>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>> j.clear() >>> print j {} get - [ ] Object.get(key) >>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>> j.get(’first’) ’a’ has key - [ ]

Object.has key(key)

(associated key)

5.3

(String

Array of Characters)

39

>>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>> j.has_key(’first’) True >>> j.has_key(’last’) False items - [ ] Object.items(key)

>>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>>>>> j.items() [(’second’, ’b’), (’first’, ’a’)] keys - [ ] Object.keys()

>>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>>>>> j.keys() [’second’, ’first’] values - [ ]

Object.values() >>> j = {’first’:’a’, ’second’:’b’} >>> print j {’second’: ’b’, ’first’: ’a’} >>>>>>>>> j.values() [’b’, ’a’]

5.3
(Strings)

(String

Array of Characters)
1

(Array of Characters)

40 single quotation (’.....’) double quotation (" .... ") , 8-bit strings

(Data type)

Unicode objects

>>> print "Hello, World!"

Hello, World! function print , (Concatenation Symbol)

>>> >>> >>> >>> >>>

i = 5 print print print print

"14 / 3 = ",14 / 3 "14 % 3 = ",14 % 3 "14.0 / 3.0 =",14.0 / 3.0 "hello", "hello", i

14 / 3 = 4 14 % 3 = 2 14.0 / 3.0 = 4.66666666667 hello hello 5 Concatenation Symbol + (String Concatenation Symbol) print

>>> print "Jack and Jill went up a hill" + "to fetch a pail of water;" + "Jack fell down, and broke his crown," + "and Jill came tumbling after."

Jack and Jill went up a hill to fetch a pail of water; Jack fell down, and broke his crown, and Jill came tumbling after. double quotation

5.3 \newline \\ \’ \" \a \b \f \n \r \t \v

(String

Array of Characters) (Ignored) Backslash ( \) Single quote (’) Double quote (") Bell (BEL) Backspace (BS) Formfeed (FF) Linefeed (LF) Carriage Return (CR) Horizontal Tab (TAB) Vertical Tab (VT)

41

ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII ASCII

String formatting operator "%"

>>> state = ’California’ >>> ’It never rains in sunny %s.’ %state

’It never rains in sunny California.’ %s s

d i o u x X e E f F g G c r s

Signed integer decimal Signed integer decimal Unsigned octal Unsigned decimal Unsigned hexidecimal (lowercase) Unsigned hexidecimal (uppercase) Floating point exponential format (lowercase) Floating point exponential format (uppercase) Floating point decimal format Floating point decimal format Same as "e" if exponent is greater than -4 or less than precision, "f" otherwise Same as "E" if exponent is greater than -4 or less than precision, "F" otherwise Single character (accepts integer or single character string) String (converts any python object using repr()) String (converts any python object using str())

42

(Data type)

d = 4.5000 print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never print ’It never

rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny

%d.’ %i.’ %o.’ %u.’ %x.’ %X.’ %e.’ %E.’ %f.’ %F.’ %g.’ %G.’ %c.’ %r.’ %s.’

%d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %d %int(d) %d %d

It It It It It It It It It It It It It It It

never never never never never never never never never never never never never never never

rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains rains

in in in in in in in in in in in in in in in

sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny sunny

4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4.500000e+000. 4.500000E+000. 4.500000. 4.500000. 4.5. 4.5. L. 4.5. 4.5.

5.3.1
find Object.find((sub[, start[, end]]) (index key)

-1

5.3

(String

Array of Characters)

43

>>> s = "windows" >>> s.find(’dow’) 3 upper Object.upper() >>> s = "windows" >>> s.upper() WINDOWS lower Object.lower() >>> s = "WINDOWS" >>> s.lower() windows replace Object.replace(old, new) ( ) ( )

>>> s = ’The happy cat ran home.’ >>> s.replace(’cat’, ’dog’) ’The happy dog ran home.’

44

(Data type)

6 (Comparisons)

"in"

"is" "==" Boolean value

"is"

0

True False

False 1 True

Operator < <= > >= == != <> in is

>>> 1 True >>> 2 True >>> 2 True >>> 3 True >>> 0

< 2 <= 2 > 0 >= 3 == 0

True >>> 0 True >>> x >>> 1 True >>> 1 True 45

!= 1 = [1,2,3,4] in x is 1

46

(Comparisons)

7 (Boolean Expressions)

(Condition) 1 AND, OR NOT

7.1

AND (
and

)
false false

false expression true and true true and false false and true false and false

True False False False

7.2
true

OR (
or

)
true true

expression true or true true or false false or true false or false

True True True False 47

48

(Boolean Expressions)

7.3

NOT ( )
not

expression not true not false

False True

>>> i = 1 >>> j = 2 >>> k = 3 >>> l = 1 >>> i == k and j == i False >>> i == k or l == i True >>> not i == k and l == i True

8 (Statement block) (Life time Variable scope)
8.1 (Statement block)
C ..... (indentation) >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> x = 1 if x == 1: print "True" else: print "False" print "xxx" block True xxx if if : (colon) Python

8.2

(Life time

Variable scope)
x 5 x 6 2 x

hello 1 hello x global scope 49 print x 1 x 6 6 5 global 6 6

50 1 >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> x = 5 def hello(): x = 6 print x hello() print x

(Statement block) 2 >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>>

(Life time

Variable scope)

x = 5 def hello(): global x x = 6 print x hello() print x

6 5

6 6

1.

global

2. 3.

9 (Control flow, Alternatively)
3

Flow of Control

3 1. 2. 3. (Decisions, Choice (Loop Iteration) (Error Checking) Selection)

9.1
9.1.1
scope)

(Decisions, Choice
if Statements
if (True) (False)

Selection)

if (if Statements

51

52 if Condition: Statements ..... ..... else: Statements ..... .....

(Control flow, Flow of Control

Alternatively)

>>> x = 1 >>> if x is 1: >>> print ’Yes’ >>> else: >>> print ’No’ "Yes" True elif ( else if 2 java x "Yes" c/c++) 1 1

if Condition: Statements ..... ..... elif Condition: Statements ..... ..... else: Statements ..... .....

>>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>> >>>

x = 3 if x < 1: print ’x < 1’ elif x > 1: print ’x > 1’ else: print ’x = 1’ "x > 1"

9.2

(Loop)

53

9.1.2

switch Statements
switch

9.2
9.2.1

(Loop)
while Statements
while while (while Statements scope)

while Condition: Statements ..... .....

>>> x = 1 >>> while x < 5: >>> print ’Yes\n’ >>> x+=1

Yes Yes Yes Yes x 1 x True 1 False 1 while x<5 Yes x

9.2.2

for Statements
for for range ( ) for (for Statements scope) in function

54

(Control flow, Flow of Control

Alternatively)

for var in range(m, n [, step = 1]): Statements ..... .....

>>> for i in range(0, 10): >>> if i % 2 == 0: >>> print i, ’is an even number’ >>> else: >>> print i, ’is an odd number’ 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 is is is is is is is is is is an an an an an an an an an an even number odd number even number odd number even number odd number even number odd number even number odd number foreach ach >>> x = {’first’:’one’, ’second’:’two’} >>> for j in x: print x[j] two one for fore9

9.2.3
pass

pass, break, continue

else Clauses Statements

Statements >>> while True: .... pass ....

9.3 break

(Error Checking)

55

continue

else Clauses break (Loop, Iteration)

for n in range(2, 10): for x in range(2, n): if n % x == 0: print n, ’equals’, x, ’*’, n/x break else: print n, ’is a prime number’ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 is a prime is a prime equals 2 * is a prime equals 2 * is a prime equals 2 * equals 3 * number number 2 number 3 number 4 3

9.2.4
2.5 Beta

do-while Statements
do-while ( 24 2549) Python 2.5 Python

9.3
9.3.1 assert Statements

(Error Checking)

assert

assert Condition, ’Text Error or Text Mixed’

56

(Control flow, Flow of Control

Alternatively)

def test(arg1, arg2): arg1 = float(arg1) arg2 = float(arg2) assert arg2 != 0, ’Bad dividend, arg1: %f arg2: %f’ % (arg1, arg2) ratio = arg1 / arg2 print ’ratio:’, ratio test(0,2) test(2,0)

ratio: 0.0 Traceback (most recent call last): File "C:\tmp.py", line 51, in ? test(2,0) File "C:\tmp.py", line 46, in test assert arg2 != 0, ’Bad dividend, arg1: %f arg2: %f’ % (arg1, arg2) AssertionError: Bad dividend, arg1: 2.000000 arg2: 0.000000

9.3.2

try-except

raise Statements (Exception handling)
try-except ,

list error

index if Statements code try-except

null

code code try-except compile try-except error try-except try-except exception try-except

9.3

(Error Checking)

57

try: Standard operation except: Error operation try try except >>> try: ... x = y ... except: ... print ’y not defined’ ... y not defined try-except >>> x = y Traceback (most recent call last): File "<input>", line 1, in ? NameError: name ’y’ is not defined try-except , try-except >>> fridge_contents = {"egg":8, "mushroom":20, "pepper":3, "cheese":2, "tomato":4,"milk":13} >>> if fridge_contents["orange juice"] > 3: ... print "Sure, let’s have some juice" ... Traceback (most recent call last): File "<stdin>", line 1, in ? KeyError: ’orange juice’ try-except try-except >>> fridge_contents = {"egg":8, "mushroom":20, "pepper":3, "cheese":2, "tomato":4,"milk":13} >>> try: ,

58

(Control flow, Flow of Control

Alternatively)

... if fridge_contents["orange juice"] > 3: ... print "Sure, let’s have some juice" ... except KeyError: ... print "Aww, there’s no juice. Lets go shopping" ... Aww, there’s no juice. Lets go shopping try-except except ror >>> fridge_contents = {"egg":8, "mushroom":20, "pepper":3, "cheese":2, "tomato":4,"milk":13} >>> try: ... if fridge_contents["orange juice"] > 3: ... print "Sure, let’s have some juice" ... except KeyError, error: ... print "Woah! There is no %s" % error ... Woah! There is no ’orange juice’ raise Statements try-except try-except KeyEr-

>>> class E(RuntimeError): ... def __init__(self, msg): ... self.msg = msg ... def getMsg(self): ... return self.msg ... >>> >>> try: ... raise E(’my test error’) ... except E, obj: ... print ’Msg:’, obj.getMsg() ... Msg: my test error

10 (Defined Function)

subroutine )

(Reusability Code) (real function, return value) def

2 (void, sub , subprogram

def function_name( [Argument] ): Statement …… [return]

• function name • Statements • var • Argument • return 1 1

# define def foo(): print "Foobar" # foo()

()

Foobar 59

60

(Defined Function)

10.1
1. 2. 3.

,
(Function Argument) (return) (Function Default Argument)

# define def foo(text): print text # foo("Foobar")

()

Foobar return def add(x,y): return x + y print add(10,20) print add(add(10,20),30) function

30 60

a, b, c = 0, 0, 0 def getabc(): a = "Hello" b = "World" c = "!" return a,b,c def gettuple(): a,b,c = 1,2,3 return (a,b,c) def getlist(): a,b,c = (3,4),(4,5),(5,6) return [a,b,c] a,b,c = getabc()

10.1 print d,e,f print g,h,i print

, a,b,c = gettuple() d,e,f = getlist() g,h,i

61

Hello World ! 1 2 3 (3, 4) (4, 5) (5, 6) x y 0

def add(x = 0,y = 0): return x + y print add(10,20) print add()

30 0

def multiprint( n=5, txt="Hello" ): i = 0 while i < n: print txt multiprint()

Hello Hello Hello Hello

def factorial(n = 1): if n <= 1: return 1 return n*factorial(n-1) print "2! = ",factorial(2)

62 print "3! = ",factorial(3) print "4! = ",factorial(4) print "5! = ",factorial(5)

(Defined Function)

2! 3! 4! 5!

= = = =

2 6 24 120

10.2
1

Global (

)

Local (

)

(Local Variable)

(Global Variable) global

x = 5 def hello(): x = 6 print x hello() print x

x = 5 def hello(): global x x = 6 print x hello() print x

6 5

6 6

11 (Input Data from Keyboard)
raw input

var = raw_input([prompt]) • prompt • var raw input String

print "Halt!" s = raw_input("Who Goes there? ") print "You may pass,", s

Halt! Who Goes there? Josh Halt! Who Goes there? Josh You may pass, Josh

63

64

(Input Data from Keyboard)

menu_item = 0 list = [] while menu_item != 9: print "--------------------" print "1. Print the list" print "2. Add a name to the list" print "3. Remove a name from the list" print "4. Change an item in the list" print "9. Quit" menu_item = input("Pick an item from the menu: ") if menu_item == 1: current = 0 if len(list) > 0: while current < len(list): print current,". ",list[current] current = current + 1 else: print "List is empty" elif menu_item == 2: list.append(raw_input("Type in a name to add: ")) elif menu_item == 3: del_name = raw_input("What name would you like to remove: ") if del_name in list: item_number = list.index(del_name) del list[item_number] #The code above only removes the first occurance of # the name. The code below from Gerald removes all. #while del_name in list: # item_number = list.index(del_name) # del list[item_number] else: print del_name," was not found" elif menu_item == 4: old_name = raw_input("What name would you like to change: ") if old_name in list: item_number = list.index(old_name) list[item_number] = raw_input("What is the new name: ") else: print old_name," was not found" print "Goodbye"

65

-------------------1. Print the list 2. Add a name to the list 3. Remove a name from the list 4. Change an item in the list 9. Quit 2 Jack

Pick an item from the menu: 2 Type in a name to add: Jack Pick an item from the menu: 2 Type in a name to add: Jill Pick an item from the menu: 1 0 . Jack 1 . Jill Pick an item from the menu: 3 What name would you like to remove: Jack Pick an item from the menu: 4 What name would you like to change: Jill What is the new name: Jill Peters Pick an item from the menu: 1 0 . Jill Peters Pick an item from the menu: 9 Goodbye

66

(Input Data from Keyboard)

Python
1. Don’t forget the colons if, while for 2. Start in column 1 1 3. Blank lines matter at the interactive prompt shell prompt 4. Indent consistently 1 whitespaces/tab) 5. Don’t code C in Python () 6. Don’t always expect a result Method obj return None Null list.append(X) 7. Use calls and imports properly Import C if (X==1): print X 4 (4 (Colon, :)

Append

Sort list=list.append(X)

return

Method () function() file import mod.py import mod

function

67

68

Python

Python, wxPython Python Editor
.1
* 1.

Stani’s

Python
Python Version 2.4.3 Python 2.4 version 2.4.x Windows http://www.python.org/download/ "Python 2.4.x Windows installer"

.1: 2. Python-2.xxx.yyy.exe

Python 2.4

Windows

69

70

Python, wxPython

Stani’s Python Editor

.2:

1:

.3:

2:

"Install for all users"

.4:

3:

C:\Python24\

.1

Python

71

.5:

4:

.6:

5:

.7:

6:

72

Python, wxPython

Stani’s Python Editor

.2
* 1.

wxPython
wxPython Version 2.6.3.3 win32-unicode for Python 2.4 wxPython Version 2.6 Windows http://www.wxpython.org/download.php Microsoft Windows win32-unicode wxPython runtime Python 2.4 win32-unicode Windows NT/2000/XP win32-ansi Windows 95/98/Me

.8:

wxPython runtime for Python 2.4

.9: 2. wxPython2.6-win32-unicode-2.6.3.3-py24.exe

.2

wxPython

73

.10:

1:

.11:

2:

Next

.12:

3:

Yes

.13:

4:

74

Python, wxPython

Stani’s Python Editor

.14:

5:

component

Next

.15:

6 : Finish

checkbox

.3

Stani’s Python Editor

75

.3

Stani’s Python Editor

* Stani’s Python Editor Version 0.8.2.a for wxPython Version 2.6 win32unicode and Python 2.4 1. Stani’s Python Editor Version 0.8.2.a http://www.stani.be/python/spe/page download Where to get? SourceForge (mirror)

.16: (mirror)

Stani´ Python Editor Version 0.8.2.a s

Windows

SourceForge

.17: 2. SPE-0.8.2.a-wx2.6.1.0-py24.exe

76

Python, wxPython

Stani’s Python Editor

.18:

1:

.19:

2:

Next

.20:

3:

.3

Stani’s Python Editor

77

.21:

4:

Next

.22:

5:

78

Python, wxPython

Stani’s Python Editor

SPE

.1:

Stani’s Python Editor

SPE

79

80

SPE

.2:

Stani’s Python Editor (SPE)

.0.1
Explore

Sidebar

Class browser

class, method

function

Index index and method Todo index index class

Notes

81 Browser folder directory Windows Explorer

.0.2
Editor

Source

UML view Graphical layout Pydoc documentation Separators separator Label class hierarchy

.0.3
Shell

Tools

Error line

Editor

.3: Shell

Local object browser , ,

82

SPE

.4: Local object browser Session shell

.5: Session

Output SPE Error Tools > Run/Stop Error

.6: Output

83

1. Find 2. Browser 3. Recent 4. Todo 5. Index 6. Notes Project Windows Explorer

84

SPE

, Debug
.1 SPE

>>> print "Hello, World!" Source Editor "Tools" ments/Stop" short-key Ctrl+Shift+R menu bar "Run without argu-

.1:

.2:

85

86

, Debug

.2

Debug

.3:

Error

Debug

File "C:\Documents and Settings\Ford AntiTrust\Desktop\helloworld.py", line 1 print "Hello, World! ^ SyntaxError: EOL while scanning single-quoted string Error Error SyntaxError line 1 Output Editor Error Code Systax single-quoted string Interpreter line line 1 Error

File "C:\Documents and Settings\Ford AntiTrust\Desktop\helloworld.py", line 1 column line print

print "Hello, World! ^ SyntaxError: EOL while scanning single-quoted string

• Python programming language. http://www.python.org/, Python Software Foundation, 2006. • Python programming language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python programming language, Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, 2006. • Python software. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python software, Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, 2006. • Comparison of programming languages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison of programming languages, Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, 2006. • Python Tutorial Online. http://python.cmsthailand.com/, CMSthailand.com, 2005. • An empirical comparison of C, C++, Java, Perl, Python, Rexx, and Tcl — March 2000 ˜ refereed journal paper. http://page.mi.fu-berlin.de/prechelt/Biblio/jccpprt computer2000.pdf, Lutz Prechelt, 2000. • Programming in Python. http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/library/os-python5/index.html, Robert Brunner (rb@ncsa.uiuc.edu), Research Scientist, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 2005. • wxPython, a blending of the wxWidgets C++ class library. http://www.wxpython.org/, OSAF (Open Source Applications Foundation), 2006. • Stani’s Python Editor, Python IDE with Blender, Kiki, PyChecker, wxGlade & XRC support. http://pythonide.stani.be/, S. Michiels, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 2006. • Beginning Python Wiley Publishing, Inc., Peter Norton, Alex Samuel, David Aitel, Eric Foster-Johnson, Leonard Richardson, Jason Diamond, Aleatha Parker, Michael Roberts, 2005. • Python http://veer.exteen.com/, • , 2005.

Python http://plynoi.exteen.com/20060827/python, Plynoi, 2006.

87

64 bit double precision, 30 Alternatively, 50 Category Application Domains, 16 3D Graphics Rendering, 17 Database Access, 16 Desktop GUI, 17 Education, 17 Game, 17 GUI, 17 Network programming, 17 Numeric computation, 17 Scientific, 17 Software builder, 17 Software Testing, 17 Web Internet Development, 16 Colon Symbol, 32 Comment, 22 Concatenation Symbol, 40 Control flow, 50 Data type, 27

(Complex Numbers), 31 (Integer), 29 (Plain Integer), 29 (Long integer), 30 (String Array of Characters), 39

Flow of Control, 50 Function argument, 59 Functions abs(), 26 complex(), 31 float(), 31 int(), 30 len(), 34 max(), 26 min(), 26, 27 print, 21 range(), 27, 53–55 raw input, 63 set(), 35 sum(), 27 type(), 29 (Collection Google, 19 Guido van Rossum, 13 Hello World, 21, 85 Industrial Light & Magic, 18 Language Evaluation Criteria, 15 Cost, 15 Readability, 15 Reliability, 15 Writability, 15 Multi-paradigm language, 15

Data Types), 32 (Dictionary Groupings of Data Indexed by Name), 33 (Tuples) (Sequences), 33 (List), 32 (Array), 32 (Sets), 34 (Numbers), 29 imaginary number, 31 signed integer, 29 (Boolean), 30 (Floating-point numbers), 30

88

89 NASA, 19 Operator *, 25 **, 25, 30 +, 25 -, 25 /, 25 %, 25 Python, 13 Repetition Symbol, 21 Reserved words (Keywords), 22 and, 22, 47 as, 22 assert, 22, 55 break, 22, 54 class, 22 continue, 22, 54 def, 22, 58 del, 22 elif, 22, 51 else, 22, 51 else clauses, 54 else if, 51 except, 22, 56 exec, 22 finally, 22 for, 22, 53 from, 22 global, 22, 49, 62 if, 22, 51 import, 22 in, 22, 45, 53–55 is, 22, 45 lambda, 22 not, 22, 47 or, 22, 47 pass, 22, 54 print, 22 raise, 22, 56 return, 59 return , 22 try, 22, 56 while, 22, 53 with, 22 yield, 22 Stani’s Python Editor (SPE), 75 Browser, 81 Explore, 80 Index, 80 Notes, 80 Source, 81 Editor, 81 Pydoc, 81 Separators, 81 UML view, 81 Todo, 80 Tools, 81 Local object browser, 81 Output, 82 Session, 82 Shell, 81 , 83 , Debug Debug , 86 , 85 SPE, 85 , 80 statement block, statement scope, 48 String Concatenation Symbol, 40 String formatting operator, 41 Symbol *, 21 +, 40 „ 40 :, 32 #, 22 % (String formatting operator), 41 type bool, 30 complex, 31 dict, 33

, 85

90 False, 30 float, 30 int, 29 list, 32 long, 30 set, 34 True, 30 tuple, 34 wxPython, 72 (normal arithmetic operators), 25 , 25 , 25 , 25 , 25 , 25 , 25 , 25 , 22 , 69 , 50 Python, 69 (Error Check- Stani’s Python Editor (SPE), 69, 75 ing), 51, 55 wxPython, 69, 72 assert Statements, 55 (Defined Function), 58 try-except raise Statements (Exception Global Variable, 62 handling), 56 Local Variable, 62 (Decisions, Choice or Selection), (return) , 60 51 (Function Argument), 60 (Decisions, Choice Selec(Function Default Artion) gument, 60 elif, 51 (Comparisons), 43 else, 51 , 45 else if, 51 (Printing) if, 51 19 switch, 52 , 15 (Loop, Iteration), 51 break, 54 , 22 continue, 54 , 27 do-while, 55 , 48 else clauses, 54 (Statement block), 49 for, 53 (Life time Variable swhile, 53 cope), 49 (Arithmetic Mathematics), 23 , 17 (Built-in Math Battlefield 2, 18 Functions), 26 BitTorrent, 17 , 26 Blender, 18 , 27 Chandler, 18 , 26 Civilization IV, 18 , 27 EVE Online, 18 , 27 Indian Ocean Tsunami Detector, 18

,

91 Kombilo, 18 Mailman, 18 MoinMoin, 18 OpenRPG, 18 Plone, 18 Stani’s Python Editor(SPE), 18 Trac, 18 Turbogears, 18 ViewVC, 18 Zope, 18 (Boolean Expressions), 46 AND, 47 NOT, 47 OR, 47 , 13 Python 1.0, 13 Python 2.0, 14 , 14 , 15


				
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