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BREEDING ANIMALS AGRISCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office July, 2002 TERMS USED IN BREEDING ANIMALS • BREED : Breed is made up of animals of the same species that share common traits. • BLOODLINES : Bloodlines are groups within breeds; tend to have one common ancestor. • PUREBRED : Animals registered in a breed or eligible for registry. INHERIT TRAITS OF ANIMALS • COLOR • MILK CAPACITY • HORNS • SIZE • TYPE • * OFFSPRING THAT HAVE TRAITS GENETICALLY DIFFERENT FROM THEIR PARENTS ARE KNOWN AS MUTANTS. BREEDS OF CATTLE • ANGUS : Originated in Scotland. Black, polled and have a smooth coat of hair. • BRAHMAN : Originated in United States. Light gray to nearly black, loose skin and large humps over the shoulder ; tolerant of heat and insects. • BRANGUS : Developed by crossing Brahman and Angus cattle. Solid black and polled. CATTLE BREEDS CONT. • CHAROLAIS : Originated in France. White to a light straw color; large breed, most are naturally horned. • CHIANINA : Originated in Italy. White except for the switch of the tail, which is black; skin has a black pigment. Largest beef breed. • HEREFORD : Originated in England. White face and red bodies. A horned breed. CATTLE BREEDS CONT. • POLLED HEREFORD : Developed in the United States. White face and red bodies; polled. • LIMOUSIN : Originated in France. Most are red but may be light yellow or black. They usually have horns. • SANTA GERTRUDIS : Developed by the King Ranch in Texas. Cherry red, usually horned and have loose hide. Crosses of the Shorthorn and Brahman breeds. BEEF BREEDS CONT. • SHORTHORN : Originated in England. Red and white, with a red-white mix (roan), have horns except for the Polled Shorthorn breed. • SIMMENTAL : Originated in Switzerland. Faces are white/light straw and their bodies are red to dark red. DAIRY CATTLE BREEDS • AYRSHIRE : Originated in Scotland. Red, mahogany, brown or white in color. Rank third in milk production (11,700 lbs per year with 4.0 % milk fat). • BROWN SWISS : Originated in Switzerland. May be any shade of fawn with white markings. Rank fourth in milk production ( 10,600 lbs per year with 5% milk fat). DAIRY BREEDS CONT. • GUERNSEY : Originated off the coast of France. May be any shade of fawn with white markings; horns turn outward and toward the front. Tied for fourth in milk production (10,600 lbs per year with 5% milk fat). • HOLSTEIN : Originated in the Netherlands. Black and white color patterns. Rank first in milk production (14,500 lbs per year with 3.5% milk fat). DAIRY BREEDS CONT. • JERSEY : Originated on the Isle of Jersey. Color range from cream to almost black. Ranks fifth in milk production (10,000 lbs per year with 5.4% milk fat). Smallest of the dairy breeds. SWINE BREEDS • AMERICAN LANDRACE : White breed with ears drooped over the eyes. Produce large litters of pigs. • BERKSHIRE : Black with six white points: each foot, some white on the face and a white tail switch; erect ears. • CHESTER WHITE : White breed; popular in the northern parts of the United States. SWINE BREEDS CONT. • DUROC : Red in color; ears drooped over the eyes. Large size, good meat-type breed. • HAMPSHIRE : Black with a white belt around its shoulders. Ears are erect; good meat type breed. • POLAND CHINA : Black with six white points: the feet, tip of tail and nose. • YORKSHIRE : White with erect ears. Large litters and good milkers. SHEEP BREEDS • FINE WOOL SHEEP - Rambouillet, American Merino, Delaine Merino and Debouillet. • MEDIUM WOOL SHEEP - Cheviot, Dorset, Finnish Landrace, Hampshire, Shropshire, Southdown and Suffolk. • LONG WOOL SHEEP - Cotswold, Leicester, Lincoln and Romney. SHEEP BREEDS CONT. • CROSSBRED WOOL SHEEP - Columbia, Panama and Southdale. • CARPET WOOL SHEEP - Black faced Highland. • FUR SHEEP - Karakul breed. GOAT BREEDS • MOHAIR AND CASHMERE - Angora ; most of these are grown in Texas and other southwestern states. • DAIRY GOATS - LaMancha, Nubian, Saanen and Toggenburg. • SPANISH GOATS - Boer HORSES • LIGHT HORSES - Weigh 900-1400 pounds and used for riding, driving, racing and other purposes. Quarter Horse, Arabian, Paint, Appaloosa, Tennessee Walking Horse and Palomino are breeds of light horses. • PONIES - Small horses weighing under 900 pounds. Shetland Pony is an example. HORSES CONT. • DRAFT HORSES - Weigh over 1400 pounds. Clydesdale, Belgian, Percheron and Shire are examples. POULTRY • Poultry includes chickens, duck and turkey. Other poultry animals include quail, guinea, ostrich and emu. • Most common breeds of chickens are White Leghorn, White Rock, Rhode Island Red, Barred Rock and New Hampshire. • Chickens are selected for one of two uses: eggs and meat. AQUACULTURE • Term used to describe the farming of fish. • Examples include : catfish, trout, tilapia, hybrid striped bass, shrimp, oyster, crawfish, red fish, snails, crabs, alligators and frogs. KINDS OF BREEDING SYSTEMS • STRAIGHTBREEDING : Mating of animals of the same breed. • Different approaches of straightbreeding include purebred breeding (mating purebred animals), outcrossing (mating animals of the same breed but of different families in the breed) and inbreeding (mating animals of the same breed with closely related animals). BREEDING SYSTEMS CONT. • CROSSBREEDING : Involves mating animals of different breeds. • Used to improve the quality of the products yielded by the offspring. • Used to produce calves with more meat, no horns or to accomplish other specific genetic purpose. PUREBRED PRODUCTION SYSTEM • Used to produce purebred animals that will be used for meat, milk or other purposes. • May compete in shows. • Raise both male and female animals. • Must keep accurate records. MEAT-ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM • COW-CALF PRODUCTION - Involves keeping cows to produce calves that are used for meat. • Calves are weaned at about 500 lbs. • FEEDER PIG PRODUCTION - Raising pigs that are sold to other producers to grow to meat-size hogs (220-260 lbs) • Pigs are sold at 30-60 lbs. FINISHING SYSTEM • BEEF CATTLE - Cattle are finished in feedlots. Texas, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, California and Colorado have the greatest numbers. • Begin at 400-700 lbs and fed for 90-120 days or until they weigh 1000 lbs or more. • Gain 2.5-4 lbs. Per day • MARKET HOGS - Hogs are finished to 220 plus lbs. Fed in groups of 20-50 head. METHODS OF INSEMINATING LIVESTOCK • NATURAL INSEMINATINATION - Involves using animals to mate in pastures or pen breeding. • ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - Involves collecting semen from a male and depositing it in the reproductive tract of the female. ADVANTAGES OF USING AI • AI allows the use of semen from superior males that are owned by another party. • AI makes it possible for a male to breed many more females than could be done naturally. • * Semen can be stored for a week at 41F or for several months frozen at -320F (liquid nitrogen). IMPORTANT INFORMATION IN BREEDING ANIMALS • SPECIES AGE/BREED GESTATION • COW 14 MONTHS 283 DAYS • SOW 12 MONTHS 114 DAYS • EWE 17 MONTHS 148 DAYS • DOE 18 MONTHS 151 DAYS • MARE 2-3 YEARS 336 DAYS ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION • Involves using hormones to get several females to come in heat at the same time. • Used when using advanced breeding procedures such as superovulation (getting the female to produce a number of eggs at one time) and embro transfer. PREGNANCY TESTING • BLOOD TEST • URINE TEST • RECTAL PALPATION (MOST COMMON METHOD USED) • “BUMPING” SIGNS OF PREGNANT FEMALES GOING INTO LABOR • ENLARGED UDDER • SWELLING OF THE VULVA • HOLLOWNESS IN FRONT OF THE PIN BONES • NERVOUSNESS • GOING AWAY FROM THE HERD GIVING BIRTH • Most animals give birth without assistance. • Calves should be born within one hour after labor begins. • Calves are normally delivered with the head between the two front legs. • Cow may need assistance if calf is in a different position. AFTER THE BIRTH • It is very important that the calf gets the first milk known as “colostrum”. • Colostrum is high in antibodies and other substances that help the new animal survive. • Animal should expel the placenta 3-6 hours after giving birth.
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