Breeding_Animals by lanyuehua

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									           BREEDING ANIMALS

                 AGRISCIENCE AND
                   TECHNOLOGY
Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office
                         July, 2002
 TERMS USED IN BREEDING
        ANIMALS
• BREED : Breed is made up of animals of
  the same species that share common traits.
• BLOODLINES : Bloodlines are groups
  within breeds; tend to have one common
  ancestor.
• PUREBRED : Animals registered in a breed
  or eligible for registry.
       INHERIT TRAITS OF
           ANIMALS
•   COLOR
•   MILK CAPACITY
•   HORNS
•   SIZE
•   TYPE
• * OFFSPRING THAT HAVE TRAITS
  GENETICALLY DIFFERENT FROM THEIR
  PARENTS ARE KNOWN AS MUTANTS.
       BREEDS OF CATTLE
• ANGUS : Originated in Scotland. Black, polled
  and have a smooth coat of hair.
• BRAHMAN : Originated in United States. Light
  gray to nearly black, loose skin and large humps
  over the shoulder ; tolerant of heat and insects.
• BRANGUS : Developed by crossing Brahman and
  Angus cattle. Solid black and polled.
     CATTLE BREEDS CONT.
• CHAROLAIS : Originated in France. White to a
  light straw color; large breed, most are naturally
  horned.
• CHIANINA : Originated in Italy. White except
  for the switch of the tail, which is black; skin has a
  black pigment. Largest beef breed.
• HEREFORD : Originated in England. White face
  and red bodies. A horned breed.
    CATTLE BREEDS CONT.
• POLLED HEREFORD : Developed in the United
  States. White face and red bodies; polled.
• LIMOUSIN : Originated in France. Most are red
  but may be light yellow or black. They usually
  have horns.
• SANTA GERTRUDIS : Developed by the King
  Ranch in Texas. Cherry red, usually horned and
  have loose hide. Crosses of the Shorthorn and
  Brahman breeds.
      BEEF BREEDS CONT.
• SHORTHORN : Originated in England.
  Red and white, with a red-white mix (roan),
  have horns except for the Polled Shorthorn
  breed.
• SIMMENTAL : Originated in Switzerland.
  Faces are white/light straw and their bodies
  are red to dark red.
    DAIRY CATTLE BREEDS
• AYRSHIRE : Originated in Scotland. Red,
  mahogany, brown or white in color. Rank third in
  milk production (11,700 lbs per year with 4.0 %
  milk fat).
• BROWN SWISS : Originated in Switzerland.
  May be any shade of fawn with white markings.
  Rank fourth in milk production ( 10,600 lbs per
  year with 5% milk fat).
      DAIRY BREEDS CONT.
• GUERNSEY : Originated off the coast of France.
  May be any shade of fawn with white markings;
  horns turn outward and toward the front. Tied for
  fourth in milk production (10,600 lbs per year
  with 5% milk fat).
• HOLSTEIN : Originated in the Netherlands.
  Black and white color patterns. Rank first in milk
  production (14,500 lbs per year with 3.5% milk
  fat).
     DAIRY BREEDS CONT.
• JERSEY : Originated on the Isle of Jersey.
  Color range from cream to almost black.
  Ranks fifth in milk production (10,000 lbs
  per year with 5.4% milk fat). Smallest of
  the dairy breeds.
          SWINE BREEDS
• AMERICAN LANDRACE : White breed
  with ears drooped over the eyes. Produce
  large litters of pigs.
• BERKSHIRE : Black with six white points:
  each foot, some white on the face and a
  white tail switch; erect ears.
• CHESTER WHITE : White breed; popular
  in the northern parts of the United States.
     SWINE BREEDS CONT.
• DUROC : Red in color; ears drooped over the
  eyes. Large size, good meat-type breed.
• HAMPSHIRE : Black with a white belt around its
  shoulders. Ears are erect; good meat type breed.
• POLAND CHINA : Black with six white points:
  the feet, tip of tail and nose.
• YORKSHIRE : White with erect ears. Large
  litters and good milkers.
          SHEEP BREEDS
• FINE WOOL SHEEP - Rambouillet,
  American Merino, Delaine Merino and
  Debouillet.
• MEDIUM WOOL SHEEP - Cheviot,
  Dorset, Finnish Landrace, Hampshire,
  Shropshire, Southdown and Suffolk.
• LONG WOOL SHEEP - Cotswold,
  Leicester, Lincoln and Romney.
    SHEEP BREEDS CONT.
• CROSSBRED WOOL SHEEP - Columbia,
  Panama and Southdale.
• CARPET WOOL SHEEP - Black faced
  Highland.
• FUR SHEEP - Karakul breed.
           GOAT BREEDS
• MOHAIR AND CASHMERE - Angora ;
  most of these are grown in Texas and other
  southwestern states.
• DAIRY GOATS - LaMancha, Nubian,
  Saanen and Toggenburg.
• SPANISH GOATS - Boer
                HORSES
• LIGHT HORSES - Weigh 900-1400
  pounds and used for riding, driving, racing
  and other purposes. Quarter Horse,
  Arabian, Paint, Appaloosa, Tennessee
  Walking Horse and Palomino are breeds of
  light horses.
• PONIES - Small horses weighing under
  900 pounds. Shetland Pony is an example.
          HORSES CONT.
• DRAFT HORSES - Weigh over 1400
  pounds. Clydesdale, Belgian, Percheron
  and Shire are examples.
               POULTRY
• Poultry includes chickens, duck and turkey.
  Other poultry animals include quail, guinea,
  ostrich and emu.
• Most common breeds of chickens are White
  Leghorn, White Rock, Rhode Island Red,
  Barred Rock and New Hampshire.
• Chickens are selected for one of two uses:
  eggs and meat.
           AQUACULTURE
• Term used to describe the farming of fish.
• Examples include : catfish, trout, tilapia,
  hybrid striped bass, shrimp, oyster,
  crawfish, red fish, snails, crabs, alligators
  and frogs.
       KINDS OF BREEDING
           SYSTEMS
• STRAIGHTBREEDING : Mating of animals of
  the same breed.
• Different approaches of straightbreeding include
  purebred breeding (mating purebred animals),
  outcrossing (mating animals of the same breed but
  of different families in the breed) and inbreeding
  (mating animals of the same breed with closely
  related animals).
BREEDING SYSTEMS CONT.
• CROSSBREEDING : Involves mating
  animals of different breeds.
• Used to improve the quality of the products
  yielded by the offspring.
• Used to produce calves with more meat, no
  horns or to accomplish other specific
  genetic purpose.
   PUREBRED PRODUCTION
         SYSTEM
• Used to produce purebred animals that will be
  used for meat, milk or other purposes.

• May compete in shows.

• Raise both male and female animals.

• Must keep accurate records.
        MEAT-ANIMAL
     PRODUCTION SYSTEM

• COW-CALF PRODUCTION - Involves
  keeping cows to produce calves that are
  used for meat.
• Calves are weaned at about 500 lbs.
• FEEDER PIG PRODUCTION - Raising
  pigs that are sold to other producers to grow
  to meat-size hogs (220-260 lbs)
• Pigs are sold at 30-60 lbs.
        FINISHING SYSTEM
• BEEF CATTLE - Cattle are finished in feedlots.
  Texas, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, California and
  Colorado have the greatest numbers.
• Begin at 400-700 lbs and fed for 90-120 days or
  until they weigh 1000 lbs or more.
• Gain 2.5-4 lbs. Per day
• MARKET HOGS - Hogs are finished to 220 plus
  lbs. Fed in groups of 20-50 head.
      METHODS OF
INSEMINATING LIVESTOCK

• NATURAL INSEMINATINATION -
  Involves using animals to mate in pastures
  or pen breeding.
• ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION - Involves
  collecting semen from a male and
  depositing it in the reproductive tract of the
  female.
 ADVANTAGES OF USING AI
• AI allows the use of semen from superior
  males that are owned by another party.
• AI makes it possible for a male to breed
  many more females than could be done
  naturally.
• * Semen can be stored for a week at 41F or
  for several months frozen at -320F (liquid
  nitrogen).
IMPORTANT INFORMATION
  IN BREEDING ANIMALS
•   SPECIES   AGE/BREED GESTATION
•   COW       14 MONTHS 283 DAYS
•   SOW       12 MONTHS 114 DAYS
•   EWE       17 MONTHS 148 DAYS
•   DOE       18 MONTHS 151 DAYS
•   MARE      2-3 YEARS  336 DAYS
ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION
• Involves using hormones to get several
  females to come in heat at the same time.
• Used when using advanced breeding
  procedures such as superovulation (getting
  the female to produce a number of eggs at
  one time) and embro transfer.
   PREGNANCY TESTING
• BLOOD TEST
• URINE TEST
• RECTAL PALPATION (MOST
  COMMON METHOD USED)
• “BUMPING”
    SIGNS OF PREGNANT
   FEMALES GOING INTO
          LABOR
• ENLARGED UDDER
• SWELLING OF THE VULVA
• HOLLOWNESS IN FRONT OF THE PIN
  BONES
• NERVOUSNESS
• GOING AWAY FROM THE HERD
           GIVING BIRTH
• Most animals give birth without assistance.
• Calves should be born within one hour after
  labor begins.
• Calves are normally delivered with the head
  between the two front legs.
• Cow may need assistance if calf is in a
  different position.
        AFTER THE BIRTH
• It is very important that the calf gets the
  first milk known as “colostrum”.
• Colostrum is high in antibodies and other
  substances that help the new animal survive.
• Animal should expel the placenta 3-6 hours
  after giving birth.

								
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