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					   1. How has Japan’s geography influenced its
    development?
   2. How did Chinese culture influence Japan?
   3. Why were Shinto and Buddhism important
    to the development of Japanese culture?
   Chain of islands
    between Sea of
    Japan & the Pacific
    Ocean
   Four large islands
    (Hokkaido,
    Honshu, Shikoku,
    & Kyushu)
   3900 smaller
    islands
   Mountains cover ¾
    of Japan
   Valleys between
    mountains are
    fertile (rice).
   Sea is also a main
    source of food.
• Being surrounded by
  water offered
  protection from
  outsiders.
• Near China and Korea
• Japan’s development
  was influenced by the
  proximity to China
   Small states united
    around capital at
    Nara from 4th to 8th
    centuries
   Around same time
    agriculture
    improved
    dramatically
   Chinese influences
    begin to appear
   Taking Chinese ways but modifying them
       Example:
         Japan didn’t adopt civil service exams but they did
          adopt a tradition of inheriting status through family
          tradition
         Officials were educated sons of nobles
         As Tang Dynasty declined in China, Japan turned away
          from that model
         Asserted Japanese identity
   Buddhism (from India to
    China to Japan)
   Confucianism from China
   Pictographic Writing
    (kanji) - one character
    represents a meaning
   By 900, Japanese
    simplified kanji to make
    kana (“borrowed
    letters”). Kana includes
    Hiragana & Katakana.
       Simpler set of letters based
        on sounds
                      Architecture




Chinese building                Japanese building
   Buddhism is declared the
    state religion of Japan in 594
    C.E.
   Buddhism coexisted with
    Shinto
   Shinto – ancient Japanese
    religion focusing on rituals
    of cleanliness, loyalty to
    family, respect to ancestors,
    valuing nature, &
    worshipping the emperor.
     Associated with Imperial
      family
     No scriptures but ceremonies
      that are a part of daily life
   Japanese capital
    moved to Kyoto in
    794 C.E.
   Japan broke off
    much of their
    Chinese contacts
   By 1000 C.E. Japan
    was isolated from
    China and Korea
   794- 1185 A.D.
   Capital at Heian (modern-day
    Kyoto)
       Capital moved away from influence of
        Buddhist priests
   Court
       Elegant and sophisticated culture
       Fairy-tale atmosphere
       Elaborate rules of dress
       Heian women produced important
        works of literature
         Diaries, essays, poetry
         Pillow Book, written by Sei Shonagon 900s A.D.
           Court manners, Amusements
   Women had a certain level
    of equality
   Laws made it clear that
    women were still
    subordinate to men
       Men could still divorce
        women for not bearing
        children, talking to much, or
        severe illness
   Played an active role in
    society
   Aristocratic women were
    prominent at court
       Writers
       painters
   Lady Murasaki
       Best know writer
       Tale of Genji,
        world’s first full-
        length novel
       Adventures of
        Prince Genji and
        his son
       Full of romance,
        but haunted by
        sadness
       Love does not last
   Shogun – head of the
    military government
    of Japan during the
    samurai era (starting
    in 1192)
   Daimyo – a local
    warrior-lord in Japan
    during the samurai era
   Samurai – a powerful
    warrior class in Japan
   Archery
   Fencing (kendo
    style)
   Horsemanship
   Alternative
    Weapons (metal fans
    or wood staffs)
   Martial Arts
   Valued accuracy
    without thinking
   Self-Control
    (endure pain &
    suffering)
   To think they were
    already dead.
   Alertness (as a “6th
    sense”)
   Educated in
    writing and
    calligraphy.
   Matsuo Basho – a
    samurai who
    invented the haiku
   Tea Ceremony –
    performed in a
    certain way (step
    by step)
   Bushido – code that
    samurai lived by ~ “the
    way of the warrior”
   Includes the need to be
    honest, fair, and
    fearless.
   Loyalty to their lord
   Personal Honor
   Price for failing to meet
    the code was seppuku
   Defined as a ritual
    suicide by cutting
    the stomach with a
    knife or sword
   Also known as
    hara-kiri
   Performed when
    disgraced, to
    protest an injustice,
    or when sentenced
    to death
   Kublai Khan launched invasion in 1274
   Typhoon wrecked Mongol fleet
   1281, Mongols tried again but again a typhoon
    hit!
   Called kamikaze or divine winds
   Reinforced the Japanese sense that were a
    people apart who enjoyed the special
    protection of the gods

				
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posted:9/8/2012
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