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					BEEF BREEDS
  By: Shane Miller
                    Beef Cattle
Worldwide there are more than 250 breeds
of beef cattle.
  Beef cattle are raised for meat production
  An adult male is a bull
     A castrated male is a steer
  An adult female is a cow
     Heifer is before she has had a calf
  Young cattle are calves until they are a year old,
  and then they are called yearlings
  A “poll” is a bone knob at the top of a cows skull
                  British Breeds
Developed in the British Isles
   Brought to the United States in the late 1700s through
    the late 1800s
Primary British Breeds:
      Angus
           Red
      Hereford
      Shorthorn
      Galloway
      Belted Galloway
      Dexter
      Red Poll
Angus



                http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/angus/



Aberdeen-Angus is the original name of the
 breed
     Developed in Scotland and formally
      recognized in 1835
     Exported to other countries in 1878
Referred to as Angus or Black Angus in the US
and is most popular beef breed in the US
Resistant to harsh weather, good natured
Mature early and females calve easily
Used as beef cattle and in crossbreeding to
improve carcass quality and milking ability
   Marbled meat
             Red Angus
Bred for meat
Same characteristics as Black Angus
Advantage over Black Angus is their red
color which is more heat resistant so less
sunburn and cancer risk




              http://redangus.org/
                     Hereford
Breed founded two and one-half centuries
ago in Herefordshire, England in response
to Britain’s expanding food market
First imported to the United States in 1817
Fast growing cattle with good beef quality




          http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/hereford/
Shorthorn
                     http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/shorthorn/




Originated on the northeastern coast of
England in the Tees River Valley
Brought to America in 1783
    Popular with America's early settlers
Adaptable, hardy, good disposition
Good mothering and reproductive
performance and produce a good milk flow
Galloway


                      http://cattle-today.com/Galloway.htm

 Originated and named after the Galloway region
 of Scotland
 Shaggy coat with a thick, wooly undercoat for
 warmth and stiffer guard hairs that help shed
 water which makes them well adapted to
 harsher climates
 Originally many different colors within the breed
         Belted Galloway
Have a wide white stripe around its midriff
Referred to as a ‘Beltie’
Created by crossing Galloways with Belted
Dutch cattle, which are a dairy breed
Smaller than Galloways and have more of
a dairy focus




              http://cattle-today.com/Belted%20Galloway.htm
                       Dexter
Originated in the South of Ireland in the 1800’s
Dual purpose breed
   Provide both dairy and beef
Beef has a greater level of fat "marbling" than
modern supermarket type of beef
      Some say Dexter beef is "sweeter" than other beef
Produce a rich milk relatively high in butterfat
Cows are good mothers and easy calving breed
Red Poll

                http://cattle-today.com/Red%20Poll.htm



 Originated in England around the
 beginning of the 19th century
 Cross bred from Norfolk Red and Suffolk
 Dun cattle
 Deep red and occasionally have white tails
 Bred both for meat and for milk
 Introduced into the United States in 1873
       European Breeds
Also referred to as "exotic"
    Charolais
    Chianina
    Limousin
    Maine Anjou
    Simmental
    Belgian Blue
Charolais


               http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/charolais/

Originated in west-central to southeastern
France
Known for highly-rated meat in the
markets at Lyon and Villefranche in the
16th and 17th centuries
Came to United States from Mexico in
1936
Superior growth ability and well suited to
all purpose cross breeding
Chianina

                     http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/chianina/




One of the oldest breeds of cattle in the world
Originated in Central Italy and introduced into
US in 1971, when it’s semen was imported
    The first Chianina born in the U.S. was in 1972.
Beginning in 1975, Italian full-blood Chianina
were exported from Canada into the US
Noted for milk production, recently became beef
cattle
Limouisin

 Very old breed            http://cattle-today.com/Limousin.htm


   Developed in the central Marche and

    Limousin regions of southern France
 Known for hardiness, adaptability and high
 carcass yield
   Meat is tender and fine fibered because of low

    fat levels
 First bull imported into the US in 1971
Maine Anjou


                           http://cattle-today.com/Maine%20Anjou.htm


Originated in the northwestern part of
France and it’s name comes from the
Maine and Anjou river valleys
The first Maine-Anjou imported into North
America came to Canada in 1969.
    These cattle were then introduced to the
     United States through artificial insemination.
Simmental
                          http://cattle-today.com/Simmental.htm


 Can be found in almost any state in the United
 States
 Meat used for hamburgers and steaks
    Lean, tender and flavorful
 More skin and not as much hair so natural
 pesticide control: insects don’t bother the cattle
 as much as other breeds with longer hair
 Calm nature
 Females reproduce for ten to twelve years and
 are known for their exceptional milk production,
 while having a calf at side.
Belgian Blue
                        http://cattle-today.com/Belgian%20Blue.htm


 Originated in central and upper Belgium
    Relatively new to the United States
 At one time the breed was divided into two
 strains, one primarily for milk production
 and the other a beef animal. Selection is
 now primarily for beef.
 Known for quiet temperament
 Meat is tender with minimum fat with a
 high proportion of the valuable cuts
             Other Breeds
   Brahman
   Texas Longhorn
   Santa Gertrudis
   Boran Cattle
   Afrikaner Cattle
   Brangus
   Beefmaster
   Nelore
   Murray Grey
   Wagyu
                       Brahman
                                                 http://cattle-today.com/Brahman.htm

Originated from the Bos indicus cattle
Brought to the US from India and Brazil
Mainly used for breeding
“Sacred cattle of India”
   Many of the Hindu faith will not eat meat from them, will not
    permit them to be slaughtered, and will not sell them
Produce an oily secretion from the sebaceous glands
which has a distinctive odor and is reported to assist in
repelling insects
They are good mothers and produce a very satisfactory
milk flow.
Carcasses have a very good cutout value with minimum
of outside fat
            Texas Longhorn



                  http://cattle-today.com/Texas%20Longhorn.htm



Known for its lean beef, which is lower in fat, cholesterol
and calories than most beef.
Texas Longhorn is an official symbol for the city of Fort
Worth, Texas which is nicknamed “Cowtown”
Longhorns is the name used for the University of Texas,
Austin and the school mascot is a longhorn named Bevo
Known for their horns which can extend to 120 inches tip
to tip for steers
1927 breed saved by US Forest Service, who
collected a small herd of stock to breed on a
refuge in Oklahoma.
Because of their longevity, resistance to disease
and ability to thrive on marginal pastures, they
quickly revived the breed as beef stock.
Today, the breed is still used as a beef stock,
though many Texas ranchers keep herds purely
because of their link to Texas history.
Can breed for a long time, well into their teens.
   There have been cows that have bred for up to thirty
    years.
Santa Gertrudis
                                http://cattle-today.com/Santa%20Gertrudis.htm


 In 1910, Shorthorn and Hereford cattle crossbred with
 Brahman and in 1920 a bull calf called Monkey was
 produced.
 In 1923, Monkey was used in a breeding herd of first-
 cross Brahman X Shorthorn red heifers and became the
 foundation herd sire for the Santa Gertrudis breed.
 Referred to as “America's original beef breed”
 Heat and tick resistance, adaptable to most climates,
 environments and terrains
 Known for their exceptional maternal traits and takes
 extraordinary care of their calves
 Can breed at 12-14 months of age and can stay
 breeding as long as 18 years
Boran
              http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/boran/




 Kenyan ranchers developed the Boran from the
 cattle of the Borana people of southern Ethiopia
 Raised primarily for meat production
 High resistance to heat, ticks, and eye diseases
 Can endure scarcity of water and live on low
 quality feed
 Highly fertile and mature early and known for
 their docility
                  Afrikaner
Developed from the native Hottentot cattle of the
Cape of Good Hope in South Africa
Heat-tolerant and well adapted to withstand
harsh conditions
Tick-resistant
Good temperament and are easier to handle
than most Brahman-derived breeds




             http://cattle-today.com/Afrikaner.htm
                  Brangus

                                   http://cattle-today.com/Brangus.htm

Developed to utilize the superior traits of Angus and
Brahman cattle
  Much of the early work in crossing Brahman and

   Angus cattle was done at the USDA Experiment
   Station in Louisiana
  According to the USDA 1935 Yearbook in Agriculture

   the research with these crossed started about 1932
Resistant to heat and high humidity
Cows are good mothers and the calves are usually of
medium size at birth
Beefmaster
                                         http://cattle-today.com/Beefmaster.htm



 Tom Lasater developed Beefmasters by crossing
 Hereford, Shorthorn and Brahman cattle beginning in the
 early 1930s
    Recognized by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a pure
     breed in 1954.
 Purpose was to develop cattle that would be more
 productive than existing breeds in the harsh environment
 of South Texas
 Selected on what has become known as the Six
 Essentials - Weight, Conformation, Milking Ability,
 Fertility, Hardiness and Disposition
    These Six Essentials have made them favorites with ranchers
     who depend on cattle for a living
                      Nelore
Originated from cattle originally brought to Brazil
from India
   First acknowledged in Brazil in 1868
   Brazil is the largest breeder of Nelore
Have a distinct large hump over the top of the
shoulder
Have long legs and can adapt to all kinds of
climates, except the very cold
Have natural resistance to various parasites and
diseases
Fertile and easy calving


                                    http://cattle-today.com/Nelore.htm
                 Murray Grey


                 http://cattle-today.com/Murray%20Grey.htm



Evolved in the upper Murray River region in southern
New South Wales, Australia in the early part of this
century.
The first gray cattle resulted from the mating of an Angus
bull and a roan Shorthorn cow.
Cows are good mothers and milk well, and the calves
have good rates of growth.
High-yielding carcasses with excellent loin development
and optimum fat cover.
Wagyu
                     http://cattle-today.com/Wagyu.htm




Asian cattle were crossed with British and European
breeds in the late 1800s
Wagyu refers to all Japanese beef cattle
Produces Kobe beef, named for the city where the cattle
were first bred 170 years ago
To the U.S. in 1976
Black animals are perceived to have the best quality
carcass.
Known for their marbling, calving ease, early puberty and
good fertility, docile temperament, and are hardy and
adaptive to different environments
Common Cattle Diseases
    Bovine Tuberculosis
    Blackleg (Clostridial myositis)
    Bovine Diarrhea Virus (BVDV)
    Campylobacter infection (Vibriosis)
    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
    Listeriosis
Disease           Cause                  Symptoms                      Other
Bovine            Mycobacterium bovis    Cough, shortness of           Spread by inhalation, infected
Tuberculosis                             breath; sometimes             animal’s milk, lesions, saliva,
                                         snoring respirations,         urine or droppings
                                         squeak or whistle
Blackleg          Clostridium chauvoei   Lameness, tongue              Highly fatal disease: Tissue
                  Found in               protruding, swelling,         damage, spreads to muscle
                  contaminated soil or   bleeding from                 then bloodstream
                  feed                   nose/mouth, some have         Vaccination to prevent blackleg
                                         black oozing muscle,
                                         sudden death
Bovine Diarrhea   Pestivirus             Calf diarrhea, foul           90% die within 7 days;
Virus (BVDV)                             smelling, pneumonia,          vaccination to prevent, often
                                         failure to grow, blindness,   have to test and slaughter the
                                         drooling, mouth and gum       ill to prevent further spread
                                         erosion
Campylobacter     Campylobacter fetus    Infertility and abortions     Infectious bacterial disease
infection                                                              (venereal disease) spread
(Vibriosis)                                                            during mating
Infectious        Bovine herpes virus    Nasal discharge, fever,       Highly contagious: Pneumonia,
Bovine            (BHV-1)                conjunctivitis, abortions,    venereal disease in adults,
Rhinotracheitis   Once have, always      drop in milk production       brain disease in young
(IBR)             have- can shed virus
Listeriosis       Listeria               Encephalitis, mastitis,       Can be spread from animals to
                  monocytogenes          abortions, septicemia:        humans; most commonly found
                                         most have to be put           in contaminated silage
                                         down
     Housing and Equipment
Beef cattle housing requires:
   Space, Shelter, Feed, Water, and Waste
    Management
      Should face the south, have good ventilation and
      water supply as well as shelter from the weather
Feeders should be placed to avoid mud
holes and manure build up
            References
Wilkepedia, List of breeds of cattle:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breeds
_of_cattle
Breeds of Livestock:
http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/
Cattle Today: http://cattle-today.com/
The Beef Site: Diseases and Conditions:
http://www.thebeefsite.com/diseaseinfo/

				
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posted:9/8/2012
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