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					Improvement of OHS Processes

        Kari-Pekka Martimo
               PAA
Principles of Quality Improvement
1) Success depends on the ability to meet the
   customer needs
2) Quality consists of processes
3) Processes produce information that can be
   used for their improvement
4) Most employees strive for quality
            (Work) process
•   Any work/activity/action can be described
    as a process
•   A group of interacting actions presented
    one after another
•   In a process inputs are modified into
    outputs, which include added value
    perceived by the customers
              Flowcharts
• A graphical description of a process, where
  an activity is divided into various steps
• They describe usually the customer’s route
  from the beginning of the service to the
  desired end
• Enables to see the delivery of a service
• Best way to describe key processes
      Advantages of Flowcharts
1. Drawing them encourages communication and
   mutual understanding among colleagues
2. They give an overview of the whole work
   process; employees usually recognise their
   own part but not the whole process
3. Helps to understand how the work is done and
   to pay attention to bottle necks, repetition,
   unnecessary steps, inconsistencies, and
   “knots”
     Advantages of Flowcharts
4. Because they are used to verify how the
   customer should be served, deviations can be
   identified better
5. They help to identify possibilities for
   improvements and reasons for problems
6. They help to explain processes to outsiders
                                          Customer
                                        calls by phone
                                          to make a
                                         reservation
                                                               Answering
                                                                machine
  Process of making a reservation
                                         Receptionist
for an appointment with a physician      answers the
                                           phone

 How does the process begin?
                                            Urgent       YES
 How does the process end?                                     Appointment with
                                            reason
 Who does what?                                                physician on duty
                                           NO
 Decision to be made                     Receptionist
                                      requests preferred
                                         doctor, date
                                           and time

                                      Appointment agreed
                                       with the customer
                                                                 Appointment
                                                                  registered
                                                                 in computer
                                          Customer
                                           has an
                                         appointment
       Quality Characteristics

• What are the characteristics of a service
  that help assessing and making
  conclusions about quality?
• Which characteristics make customers
  delighted? (= Key characteristics)
                                              Customer
                                            calls by phone
                                              to make a
                                             reservation
                                                                   Answering
Quality Characteristics:                                            machine
                                             Receptionist
-Customer finds phone number easily          answers the
                                               phone
-Short waiting time
-Pleasant waiting time
-Friendly service                               Urgent       YES
                                                reason             Appointment with
-Informative answering machine                                     physician on duty
-Qualified assessment of the nature of         NO
  the illness                                Receptionist
                                          requests preferred
-If necessary, appointment a.s.a.p.          doctor, date
-Preferred doctor available, as well as        and time
 suitable date and time
-Customer knows where to come and when    Appointment agreed
                                           with the customer
-Polite closing of the conversation                                  Appointment
-What else?                                                           registered
                                                                     in computer

Which of them do you find to be Key           Customer
                                               has an
Characteristics?                             appointment
         Process Variables

• What are the variables of a service
  process having influence on Quality
  Characteristics?
• Process Variables having influence on
  Key Quality Characteristics are Key
  Process Variables
Quality Characteristics:                                              Process Variables:
                              Customer
-Customer finds phone numbercalls by phone                            -Information available in
easily                        to make a                               telephone book or brochure
                             reservation
                                                      Answering
                                                       machine        -Availability of employees and
-Short waiting time                                                   telephone lines
                              Receptionist
-Pleasant waiting time        answers the                             -Music/information during waiting
-Friendly service               phone                                 -Training of the receptionist
-Informative answering machine                                        -Contents of the tape

-Qualified assessment of the        Urgent      YES                  -Training and experience of the
nature of the illness               reason            Appointment with
                                                                     receptionist; assistance if needed
-If necessary, appointment                            physician on duty
                                                                     -Availability of physicians on duty
                                   NO
a.s.a.p.
                                Receptionist                          -Availability of physicians; work
                             requests preferred
-Preferred doctor available,    doctor, date
                                                                      contract
as well as suitable date          and time                            -Reservation made in computer
and time                                                              as agreed
                               Appointment agreed                     -Computers work
                                with the customer
                                                        Appointment
                                                         registered
                                                        in computer

-Customer knows where to come Customer                                -Date, time, place repeated by
                                    has an
and when                          appointment
                                                                      receptionist
-Polite closing of the conversation                                   -Training of receptionist
Process Variables:                                                      Measurements:
                                   Customer
-Information available in        calls by phone                         -Is it available?
telephone book or brochure         to make a                            -Customer/market survey
                                  reservation
                                                        Answering
-Availability of employees and                           machine        -Waiting time can be measured
telephone lines                                                         -Customer survey
                                 Receptionist
-Music/information during waitinganswers the                            -Training specification
-Training of the receptionist      phone                                -Audit of the contents of the tape
-Contents of the tape
                                                                        -Customer survey
-Training and experience of the     Urgent        YES                   -Training specification
receptionist; assistance if needed reason               Appointment with-Survey among physicians on
-Availability of physicians on duty                     physician on duty
                                                                        duty
                                     NO
                                                                        -Waiting time
-Availability of physicians; work Receptionist
                                requests preferred
contract                           doctor, date
                                                                        -Customer survey
-Reservation made in computer and time                                  -Waiting time
as agreed                                                               -Number of deviations
-Computers work                Appointment agreed                       -Survey among personnel
                                 with the customer
                                                          Appointment
                                                           registered
                                                          in computer
                                                                        -Customer survey
-Date, time, place repeated by      Customer                            -Incidence of delayed or missing
                                     has an
receptionist                       appointment
                                                                        customers
-Training of receptionist                                               -Training specification
       Quality Improvement
• Recognise the process to be improved
• Invite the employees who know the
  process
• Clarify the present picture of the
  process
• Understand the deviations in the
  process
• Learn how to improve the process
Deming Quality Improvement Circle
Methods for Quality Improvement
                                Ishikawa Diagram
         Manpower   Materials




                                     Desired
Market
                                     outcome




         Machines    Methods
            Group discussion
• What is the key process of Estonian OHS?
• How does it start? Where does it end? (employer’s,
  employee’s or provider’s view)
• What are the successive steps? (draw a flowchart)
• Who are the participants in the process?
• Who is responsible for the process (owner of the
  process)?
• What are the quality characteristics? What are the
  process variables? (employer’s, employee’s,
  provider’s view) How are they measured?
• What are the needs for quality improvement?

				
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