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					Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning
           Pre-workshop 2

Designing Teaching and Learning Activities
  Intended Outcomes of Pre-workshop Exercises
           for members of each group

1. Review existing teaching and learning activities
(TLAs) in relation to alignment with subject ILOs.
2. Identify areas requiring changes.
3. Revise or re-design TLAs to align to subject ILOs.
4. Discuss and share your ideas with your group
                    Before the Workshop

Refer to the Pre-workshop reference provided and the
revised subject ILOs in Pre-workshop Exercise 1, conduct
Pre-workshop Exercises 3 to design TLAs for the revised
subject IlOs. Consider if the TLAs and especially the learning
activities will engage your students to enact the subject ILO

Discuss with your group members when doing the above
Complete the exercise to be ready for discussion and sharing in
the workshops on 2 December 2006.
Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL)
        using Constructive Alignment

 Teaching:         ILO:           How well
 Engaging the      What the       the student
 student in the    student        has met the
 verb in the ILO   has to learn   ILO
           Designing TLAs to align to
          Intended Learning Outcomes

.   Having designed Subject ILOs, we now need to activate
    the verbs or learning activities embedded in the ILOs by
    designing suitable TLAs that will facilitate students
    achieving the ILOs.

.   TLAs should be aligned to ILOs by addressing the
    verb(s) in the ILOs, thus requiring students to enact the
    ILO verbs.

. Consider what teacher and student activities will be
conducted in each of the TLAs.
           Designing TLAs to align to
          Intended Learning Outcomes

.  In any teaching and learning situation e.g. lecture,
   tutorial, laboratory or project etc, TLAs include what
the teacher does (teaching activities) and what the
student does (learning activities). What the student does    is
more important in achieving the ILOs than what the
       teacher does.

.   TLAs could be either large and small class activities.

.   TLAs could be either teacher-, peer- or student self
    managed as best suit the context.
Some common TLAs and associated teaching and learning
   TLA          Teaching activities         Learning activities

   Lecture      talk, explain, clarify      listen, take notes, accept, query,
                                            discuss with peers, one-minute

   Tutorial     set/answer questions        pre-read, prepare questions,
                provide feedback            learn from peers, critique,
                                            analyse, discuss with peers

   Assignment   set topics and guidelines   search information, select,
                                            organize ideas, explain,
                                            describe, integrate, apply what
                                            has been learned, write
                                            the assignment, revise and edit,
                                            may be discuss with peers
Some common TLAs and associated teaching and learning
   TLA           Teaching activities         Learning activities
   Project       set brief, provide      apply, integrate, create, design,
                 feedback                experiment, write report, self-
                                         monitor, communicate, work in
                                         a team

   Laboratory    demonstrate,            practise, experiment, apply,
                 provide feedback        self-evaluate, solve problems

   PBL           set problems,           set learning goals, accessing
                 provide feedback        desired content and skills, design,
                                         integrate, apply, solve problems

   The TLA here is more like a situation in which the learner engages in
    learning activities requiring the ILO verbs, which makes it more
    likely the intended learning outcomes will be achieved.
Typical ILOs                         Possible TLAs
  Describe                               set reading, lecture, field trip
  Explain                                tutorial, written essay
  Integrate                              project, assignment
  Apply                                  project, case study, laboratory
  Solve problem                          PBL, case study, peer discussion,
  Design, create                         project, creative writing
  Hypothesise                            experiment, project
  Reflect                                reflective diary
  The point is not how you are going to teach (teaching activities) but how and
  what you want your students to learn (learning activities).

  NOTE! Many of these TLAs can be assessment tasks as well. Then you have
  excellent alignment.
Adjusting TLAs to relative importance of

Is the time spent on TLAs reflecting the relative
weight or importance of the ILO addressed?

Are students given more opportunitites to
engage in enacting the more important ILO
      Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
        written communicative strategies
1. Explain different (writing) communicative strategies.
   TLAs: a. Plenary session (‘lectures’)

              Teaching activities - describe, explain, elaborate, clarify
              Learning activities - pre-reading, ask questions, group
              discussion, explain to peers

           b. Write assignment

              Teaching activities - set topics and guidelines, provide feedback
              Learning activities - explain the strategies in the assignment

   There may be other TLAs which will engage students in
   explaining different writing communicative strategies.
     Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
       written communicative strategies
2. Apply appropriate (writing) communicative strategies

   TLAs: a. Case study
             Teaching activities - select case study material (may be), provide
                                   comments and feedback
             Learning activities - select piece of writing for case study, discuss with
                                   peers in small groups, analyse, comment, suggest
                                   ways of improvement, present own ideas or
                                   discussion results in an individual written
           b. Write an assignment or a group discussion report
             Teaching activities - set topic (may be), give guideline of requirements
                                   of the assignment (relate requirements to
                                   relevant ILOs), provide feedback
             Learning activities - write the assignment using appropriate strategies,
                                   revise, edit, self-assess

   There may be other TLAs which will engage students in applying
   appropriate strategies in a range of writing tasks.
     Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
              writing strategies

3. Reflect and improve own writing communicative strategies.
   TLAs:     Self-assessment
             Teaching activities - provide feedback
             Learning activities - self-evaluate a piece of own writing, e.g. an
                                   earlier assignment in relation to theories on
                                   writing communicative strategies, identify
                                   strengths and areas for improvement, revise
                                   writing using appropriate strategies in light of

   There may be other TLAs which will engage students in
   reflecting and improving their own writing strategies.
  Exercise 3 - Designing Teaching and Learning Activities

Refer to the revised ILOs in Pre-workshop Exercises 1,
design TLAs to align to the ILOs. Discuss with your group

     Subject ILOs   TLA   Teaching activities   Learning activities
After you have completed the pre-workshop

1. select one group member to share your
ideas at the workshop, and
2. jot down any issues that you would like to
   bring up for discussion at the workshop.

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