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Porter

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									 Wisconsin Water Quality



       Agricultural Performance
              Standards

Sue Porter, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade
               and Consumer Protection
 Environmental Concerns
• Phosphorus is the major nutrient promoting
  aquatic weed growth in freshwater lakes and
  streams.         • Oxygen depletion kills fish
                    • Odor
                    • Limits recreation and tourism
                    • Quality of drinking water
                      drawn from surface waters.

• In Wisconsin, About 10% of the private
  drinking wells exceed the enforcement
  standard and health advisory level of 10 PPM
  nitrate nitrogen.
State Average Soil Test P
                Commercial Phosphate Consumption
                          in Wisconsin
          180,000

          170,000 166,679

          160,000

          150,000

          140,000

          130,000
Tonnage




          120,000

          110,000

          100,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                         88,367
                                                                                                                                                                                                              87,556
           90,000

           80,000

           70,000

           60,000

           50,000
                    1980-81

                              1981-82

                                        1982-83

                                                  1983-84

                                                            1984-85

                                                                      1985-86

                                                                                1986-87

                                                                                          1987-88

                                                                                                    1988-89

                                                                                                               1989-90

                                                                                                                         1990-91

                                                                                                                                   1991-92

                                                                                                                                             1992-93

                                                                                                                                                       1993-94

                                                                                                                                                                 1994-95

                                                                                                                                                                           1995-96

                                                                                                                                                                                     1996-97

                                                                                                                                                                                               1997-98

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1998-99

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1999-00
                                                                                                              Crop Ye ar
     Counties Implement Agriculture Performance
    Standards through County & DATCP approved
                    LWRM plans
• Control erosion to meet tolerable soil loss (T) RUSLE 2
• Construct manure storage facilities to standards
• Divert clean water around feedlots in WQMA
• No unconfined manure piles in WQMA
• No overflowing manure storage facilities
• No direct runoff from feedlots & manure storage
• Restrict livestock stream access to maintain adequate
  sod cover
• Apply nutrients to crop needs
ALL STANDARDS BECOME EFFECTIVE Oct. 1, 2002 EXCEPT NM
Existing (out of                         NM perf.
compliance)        Impaired Waters Map
                                         stnd. applies
operations that
                                         Jan. 2005,
are required to
                                         for (out of
comply - must                            compliance)
be offered                               cropland in
70% cost                                 ORW, ERW,
share (90% for                           and source
economic                                 water
hardship).                               protection
NM ($7/ac x 4                            areas.
years)                                   All other
                                         existing (out of
                                         compliance)
                                         cropland can
                                         not be
                                         required to
                                         comply until
                                         2008.
When cost-sharing is not required

               • After require cost-share
                 payment to install and
                 maintain practice
               • For practices to correct
                 grossly negligent discharge
               • For practices to meet WPDES
                 permit requirements
               • For NM plan required under a
                 permit for manure storage
                 structure voluntarily
                 constructed by a farmer
Local livestock regulation
          • DATCP or DNR must approve
            local livestock regulation that
            require more than state
            standards
          • Board chairs and government
            heads decide when to seek
            agency review and must show a
            water quality need
          • Farmers may challenge non-
            complying ordinances in court
Nutrient Management Code Revisions
                  • Not required to have a 590
                    plan if farmers only apply
                    septage, sludge, industrial
                    waste or industrial sludge
                  • Require qualified planners
                    to sign-off on plans for
                    cost-sharing

                  • Presumed qualified if a
                    professional with
                    credentials or a farmer can
                    prepare a plan for their farm
                    by completing approved
                    training
Nutrient Management Code Revisions
             • Bulk fertilizer dealers survey
               nutrient management planning
                – Bulk fertilizer sellers ask WI farmers: “Do you have
                  a NM plan written for the current growing season
                  that meets the WI 590 NM standard?”
                – If yes, record the planner’s name and address - on
                  file for 2 years
                – DATCP will request dealers to report number of
                  plans and acres by Aug. 14, 2003 along with
                  fertilizer tonnage sold

             • Transfer soil testing lab
               certification from FSA to DATCP
             • Evaluate NRCS 590 revision for
               incorporation into ATCP 50 &
               agree to develop P management
               tools
        Nutrient Management Plans and Acres
                 Reported 1996-2002
                                                                           366,581
                                                        302,070 acres


                                           236,326
                                                                        627
                                                       Agronomist
                                 157,713
                                                        Written
                                                         Plans
          89,421
                                                          570
                                              413
125,786
                      60,375
                                   440               Farmer Written
             329                                                        365
  243                                                    Plans
                        175                               246
   20        22         33          49        216
  1996      1997        1998       1999       2000        2001          2002
                                   Year

          Farmer written plans     Agronomist written plans      Acres
Nutrient management standards
              • Apply nutrients according
                to annual NM plan using
                current 590 standard
              • Follow UW soil test
                recommendations
              • Do not apply nutrients to
                fields > T or in waterways
              • No commercial fertilizer
                applications to frozen soils
                except for grass pastures
                and on winter grains
New 590 Application Restrictions
        on frozen or snow covered ground

 • Do not apply in excess of P removal (liquid manure
   applications > 7000 gallons per acre)

 • Do not apply within 1000’ of lakes & 300’ of
   perennial streams

 • Do not apply within 200’ of wells, sinkholes…

 • Do not apply to slopes > 9 %, except up to 12%
   only if conservation measures are in place (residue,
   contoured, waterways, etc.)
     New 590-Application restrictions on frozen or
                     snow covered ground




May restrict all winter applications if associated
drainage areas of concentrated flow channels
contribute to water and are identified on-site;
approved in a conservation plan; & are > 1/3 of field
 Limit available N applications on high permeability soils, or
 soils with less than 20 inches to bedrock, or soils with
 less than 12 inches to apparent groundwater:
50ºF or less in the fall --Limit available manure N to 120 lbs. / ac
> 50ºF in the fall-- Pick one
   Limit available manure N to 120 lbs. / ac + nitrification inhibitor
   Limit manure applications to crop N need or 120 lbs. ac + on
   perennial or fall seeded crops
   Limit available manure N to 90 lbs. / ac + apply after Sept. 15th
No fall commercial N, except fall seeded crop establishment
30 lbs. / ac or less
On irrigated fields, apply majority of commercial N after crop
establishment or use nitrification inhibitor
        Apply remaining crop N need in spring or summer. Restrictions
        do not apply to spring manure applications prior to planting.
  New 590 P Restrictions by farm or tract
   Soil Test P Values or P Index

• 50-100 ppm soil test P
  – P removal for crops to be grown in rotation (4 years)
  – Potatoes, P applications shall not exceed rotational crop
    removal if soil tests are optimum or higher
• >100 ppm soil test P
  – Stop manure applications or apply less than removal, apply
    one of the practices to limit P loading
     • Leave 30% residue on the soil surface after planting or
     • Establish fall cover crops or
     • Establish contour strips or buffer strips
        The Phosphorus Index
 beta release PI Sept. 03 as a stand-alone & part of SNAP
2 to 6            No increase over 4 year rotation
>6 to <10         Go to <6 in 6 year rotation using
                  particulate and soluble P levels
10 and up         Go to <10 in 4 year rotation and
                  <6 in an additional 6 year rotation
Planning for implementation
    Cost for 9 million acres @ $7 per acre




  30 years     300,000 acres       6,000 new acres
  $2.1 million per year ($8.4 m 4 year cost)


         DATCP 2003 Funding
           $ 9.4 million (cash)
           $ 4 million (bond revenue)
           $.2 million (NM Research)
Nutrient Management Initiatives
                                   Recommend
Compare old and                    improvements to
new 590 for                        the standard
implementation
changes and cost                   Update producer
comparison                         training
                                   Research
                                   management
                                   practices effects
                                   on P loss

sue.porter@datcp.state.wi.us   (608)224-4605
  Websites For Copies / Contacts
• ATCP 50 Fact Sheets
  http://datcp.state.wi.us/arm/regulation/prop-rules/atcp_50.html

• 590 Nutrient Management Standard July 2002
  http://www.wi.nrcs.usda.gov/fotg/print_all.asp

• Technical Note
  http://www.wi.nrcs.usda.gov/technote/notes/cptn1.pdf
sue.porter@datcp.state.wi.us          (608)224-4605

								
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