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                                              Life in the Tidal Zone
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                                                 Survival and Diversity                                                                                Quic kTime™ and a
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                                                    Tidal Habitats                     QuickTime™ and a
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                                                    Great places to live:

                                                • High levels of primary (food)
                                             production: driven by phytoplankton

                                             • Nutrient rich waters created from
                                               river drainage into the sea, and
                                             upwelling: the replacement of deep,
                                             cold water for surface water driven
                                                        away by winds.

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                 Tidal Zone Adaptation
     Tidal habitats change daily with the tides,
    so organisms adapt, or adjust to changing
 environmental conditions with special features to:
  Avoid drying out                                                        Anchor themselves to resist waves
Limpets shape their                                                                                                              Tube feet of sea
shells to fit a specific               Qu i ckTi me ™ a nd a
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 rock: effective seal                                                                                                            locomotion and
 against water loss                                                                                                             suction/anchorage

                     Protect themselves from predators
   Hermit crab                                                                                                                     Pipefish well
   hiding in it’s                      Qu i ckTi m e™ a nd a
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 scavenged shell                                                                                                                   eelgrass bed
            Types of Tidal Habitats
   Different tidal habitats require different adaptations
 Sandy Beaches and Mud Flats                     Rocky Shores




• Substrate offers lots of nutrients, •   Little protection from strong waves:
                                          animals must anchor
  but little structure for attachment
                                      •   Complex tide pools possible
• Animals bury themselves in mud
• Can also attach to plants           •   Seaweeds offer protection from
                                          drying
                     Tidal Zones
     Tidal habitats are divided into zones based on relative
    beach location and how often they are covered by water

 Splash Zone                                                     Intertidal Zone
                                                                 High, Mid and Low
High Tide Zone                                                        Zones
                                                                      affected
                                                                      daily by
Middle Tide Zone                                                      changing
                                                                      tides
 Low Tide Zone                                                        Most
                                                                      adaptation
                                                                      required
Subtidal Zone       I
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         Splash Zone

   High on beach
   Out of water most of the time
   Species must tolerate salt,
    heat, cold, and extended
    dry periods
    Low diversity
                                                   Splash Zone Life

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       Lichen
                                                                                                                               Blue-Green
                                                             Isopods                                                              Algae

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                                                                                                                                       Amphipods

        Periwinkles
       High Tide Zone


   Increased wave action
   Species must survive exposure
    to drying
   Tide pools provide some protection
   Higher diversity: includes some
    animals from splash zone and
    middle zone (in tide pools)
                           High Tide Zone Life

                                                                                                 Barnacles
                                               Limpets
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  Shore Crab
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                                                                                          Rockweed
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       Middle Tide Zone


 Most active region
 Covered and uncovered twice a day
 Life must tolerate BOTH submersion
  and exposure to air
 Animals move in and out of adjacent
  zones to feed
                                  Middle Tide Zone Life

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Wrinkled Whelks                                                                           Purple and Ochre
                                                                                             Sea Stars
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                                          Green Algae
                                                                                                        Blue Mussels
         Low Tide Zone


 Most diverse zone: more plants and
  animals in low tide zone than in all
  other zones combined
 Most food and shelter
 Less exposure to air and heat
 Animals unable to exist in other zones
Orange Sea Cucumber
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                                                  Low Tide Zone Life
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                                                                                                                                                                 Eelgrass

Black Katy Chiton                                                                                                       Qu i ckTi m e™ a nd a
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                                                                    Opalescent                                 Urchin
                                                                    Nudibranch                                                                               Brittle Star

 Calcareous Tube Worm
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                                                                                                  Giant Green Anemone
 I
            Subtidal Zone
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 Just below Intertidal Zone
 Almost never exposed
 Many consumer animals: prey on
  animals in low tide zone
 Life forms less tolerant to changes:
  do not have adaptations to allow
  them to survive without water
                                                   Subtidal Zone Life
   Wolf Eels

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                                                         Pipefish
             Jellyfish
                                                                                                                             Octopus

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                                                                                                                                              Salmon
                                             Summary
                                                      Exposure to Water     Diversity
                                      Splash Zone

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                                      Middle Tide Zone
                                      Low Tide Zone
                                                                          Most Diverse
                                      Subtidal Zone       Most time



                Each zone requires unique adaptations
                             for survival

				
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