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State of Alabama
    State of Alabama
 Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama
               Coat of Arms

               The coat of arms consists of a shield, on which the
                emblems of the five governments that have held
                 sovereignty over Alabama appear. The flags of
               Spain, France, Great Britain, and the Confederacy
                 are bound by the flag and shield of the United
                States. This shield is supported on either side by
                bald eagles, symbolic of courage. The crest is a
                model of the ship, the Baldine, that Iberville and
               Bienville sailed from France to settle a colony near
                            present day Mobile (1699).
                 The motto beneath the shield is "Audemus jura
               nostra defendere" ("We Dare Maintain Our Rights"
                        or "We Dare Defend Our Rights").
State of Alabama
  State Bird of Alabama


    Official Flower of Alabama

         State of Alabama
Brief History

The Alabama (people) were a Muskogean- speaking tribe whose
   members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and
   Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River.
   The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the
   Choctaw language and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as
   their name.
Although the origin of Alabama could be discerned, sources disagree
   on its meaning. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican
   originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest”.
   Scholars believe the word comes from the Choctaw alba (meaning
   "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to
   gather"). The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or
   "herb gatherers“, which may refer to clearing of land for cultivation
   or to collecting medicinal plants.
State of Alabama
Alabama Indian Tribes
         Abihka
        Alabama
       Apalachee
      Apalachicola
          Atasi
         Chatot
        Cherokee
       Chickasaw
        Choctaw
           State of Alabama
Brief History
 The first Europeans to reach Alabama were Spanish explorers in
  the 16th century, who journeyed inland in 1539 under Hernando
  De Soto in search of gold.
 The French were the first successful colonizers in Alabama, and in
  1682 claimed Louisiana, which included Alabama. Early
  settlements were fortified trading posts along the Mobile River and
  included the initial French seat of government for the territory, but
  the Native Americans began to favor British traders who provided
  better quality products at a lower price. Great Britain and France
  fought a series of wars climaxing with the French Indian War
  (1754-1763), which was a decisive British victory that removed the
  French from North America. Following the Revolutionary War
  (1775-1783) Alabama was given to the United States. Alabama
  became a separate Territory, and then on December 14, 1819, the
  22nd state of the Union.
         State of Alabama
 Cotton became the cash crop of Alabama and the plantation
  system, organized around slave labor, was adopted from Virginia.

 In 1861 Alabama invited the several other states to Montgomery to
  consider forming a Southern nation. There they established the
  Confederate States of America, and elected as their president
  Jefferson Davis. In the reconstruction following the Civil War,
  Alabama refused to ratify the 14th Amendment extending rights to
  blacks, and in 1867 was put under military rule until finally
  readmitted to the union in 1868.

 Railroads were built, and industry began to emerge. Railroads
  spawned further industrial growth in the early 1900s though
  economic expansion was quenched by the Depression. Alabama’s
  delegation in Congress provided leadership in the recovery
  programs of the New Deal to diversify the economy allowing
  recovery and expansion to continue.
          State of Alabama
 In the 1950s Civil Rights efforts began to focus on integration, and
  Dr. Martin Luther King led both the state and nation toward radical
  reform, persevering through violent opposition.
  From the early 19th century, Alabama’s economy was dominated
  by one crop—cotton, however, the boll weevil, a beetle that infests
  cotton plants, so damaged the state’s cotton crop that farmers
  began to concentrate on raising livestock and crops other than
  cotton. Manufacturing began to be important to Alabama with the
  growth of the iron and steel industry during the early 20th century.
  In the late 1990s manufacturing remained the dominant economic
       State of Alabama

 Farmland covers about 28% of the state.
 Number of farms – 48,500
              Alabama is one of the leading
              cotton producers
       State of Alabama

 This state produces cattle and calves


  •Broiler and meat chicken and chicken eggs

  •Peanuts, sweet potatoes, greenhouse
  and nursery plants and sod, etc
       State of Alabama
Industry   Alabama's industrial boom, which began in the
           1870s with the exploitation of the coal and iron
           fields in the north, quickly transformed
           Birmingham into the leading industrial city in
           the South, producing pig iron more cheaply
           than its American and English competitors. An
           important stimulus to manufacturing in the north
           was the development of ports and power plants
           along the Tennessee River.
             By the late 1970s, the older smokestack
             industries were clearly in decline, but
             Birmingham received a boost in 1984 when
             US Steel announced it would make its
             Fairfield plant the newest fully integrated
             steel mill in the nation. In 1997, Mercedes
             Benz began manufacturing its sport utility
             vehicle at a new facility in Vance.
State of Alabama

    As of 1999, the principal employers among
    industry groups were food and kindred products,
    textile mill products, apparel and other textile
    products, primary metal industries, industrial
    machinery and equipment, electronic equipment,
    and transportation equipment.
         State of Alabama
               Alabama - Largest Cities
  Name                                Population
 Birmingham                              212,237

 Montgomery                              205,764

 Mobile                              195,111
        State of Alabama

   Huntsville180,105
   Tuscaloosa90,468
   Hoover81,619
   Dothan65,496
   Decatur55,683
   Auburn53,380
   Madison42,938
       State of Alabama

Places of interest
 Moundville Archaeological Park, Tuscaloosa, AL.
        State of Alabama
 Alabama Museum of Natural History

 One can experience the natural diversity of Alabama through
 exhibits from the Age of Dinosaurs, the Coal Age, and the Ice Age;
 view the extensive displays of geology, zoology, mineralogy,
 paleontology, ethnology, history, and photography; see the Hodges
 meteorite, the only meteorite known to have struck a human, and
 the State Fossil of Alabama. The Alabama Museum of Natural
 History is housed in historic Smith Hall, one of the finest examples
 of Beaux-Arts architecture in the region.
        State of Alabama
 Horseshoe Bend National Military Park

appears to be the site of the last battle of the Creek War on March
27, 1814. General Andrew Jackson's Tennessee militia, aided by
the 39th U.S. Infantry Regiment and Cherokee and Lower Creek
allies, finally crushed Upper Creek Red Stick resistance at the
Battle of Horseshoe Bend on the Tallapoosa River.
          State of Alabama
 Russell Cave
    became a National Monument on May 11, 1961, signed into law
    by John F. Kennedy. The National Geographic Society donated
    310 acres to the American people because of the great
    archeological discoveries there. The park is located in Bridgeport,

        State of Alabama
The cave entrance was used as a shelter by prehistoric
  people for about 10,000 years. The cave provided
  shelter from the elements, maintained a comfortable
  temperature. A large roof fall raised the floor level of the
  right side making it more habitable. A natural spring
  provided fresh water. Plants provided food, tool making
  materials, and medicine. The environment at Russell
  Cave ranged from limestone mountain slopes,
  sandstone mountain tops and valley floors. Animals
  living in the area provided food. The bones were used
  to make tools.
State of Alabama
     The Boll Weevil Monument in Enterprise,
     Alabama is a prominent landmark and
     tribute erected by the citizens of Enterprise
     in 1919 to show their appreciation to an
     insect, the boll weevil, for its profound
     influence on the area's agriculture and
     economy. Hailing the beetle as a "herald of
     prosperity," it stands as the world's only
     monument built to honor an agricultural
     pest. The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)
     was indigenous to Mexico, but appeared in
     Alabama in 1915. By 1918 farmers were
     losing whole cotton crops to the beetle. H.
     M. Sessions saw this as an opportunity to
     convert the area to peanut farming.
       State of Alabama
Cultural events

             • The Carolyn Blount Theatre has been home to
             the Alabama Shakespeare Festival.
             The Alabama Shakespeare Festival (ASF) is the
             seventh largest Shakespeare festival in the world.
             Each year it attracts more than 300,000 visitors
             from throughout the United States and more than
             60 countries, to its home in Montgomery, Alabama
             producing 12–14 productions annually, typically
             including three works of William Shakespeare.
             Other plays sample various genres and playwrights,
             classical and modern, sometimes with an emphasis
             on Southern works.
         State of Alabama
 The Alabama Book Festival is an annual literary festival held
  since 2006 in Montgomery, Alabama, USA.

• The Alabama Jubilee Hot-Air Balloon Classic is held annually
on Memorial Day weekend in Decatur, Alabama. Each year the
Jubilee hosts about 60 local and national hot-air balloons

   • Big Spring Jam is an annual three-day music festival taking
   place in Huntsville, Alabama. It features acts from all genres of
   music including local bands, emerging talent, old favorites, and the
   top artists of the day. Along with the music, the Big Spring Jam
   also holds an annual 5k race. The Big Spring Jam takes place
   early each autumn. The title, however, comes from the location,
   Big Spring International Park in downtown Huntsville.
             State of Alabama

• Mardi Gras in Mobile, Alabama, is the oldest continual annual Carnival
celebration in America, having begun in 1703, Since Mobile was the first
capital of French Louisiana (1702), the festival began as a French Catholic
tradition, celebrated up until midnight on Mardi Gras day ("Fat Tuesday" or
Shrove Tuesday) and the subsequent start of Lent on Ash Wednesday.
However, Mardi Gras in Mobile now has evolved into a mainstream multi-
week celebration across the spectrum of cultures in Mobile, so that the final
Monday, Tuesday, and sometimes even Wednesday have become school
holidays, regardless of religious affiliation.
• The National Peanut Festival (NPF), the United States' largest peanut
festival, is held each fall in Dothan, Alabama, to honor peanut growers
and to celebrate the harvest season
          State of Alabama
 Books and films set in Alabama
 Films

                       Forrest Gump
                       Forrest Gump

 Books            Another Part of the Forest

             Alabama Moon

                                                Forrest Gump
State of Alabama
              Sweet home Alabama

                     To kill a mockingbird
     State of Alabama
 Books

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