American Imperialism Slideshow Moore

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					     Pre-Quiz #1
Identify the 3 major goals to American Imperialism.

1.

2.

3.
WORD BANK
Imperialism         isolationism       intervene            Henry Cabot Lodge
Carl Schurz         Josiah Strong      Alfred T. Mahan      Social Darwinism
reformer            realism            idealism             Anglo-Saxon Civilization
national interest   Monroe Doctrine    Western Hemisphere   Big Stick Policy
corollary           Dollar Diplomacy   Moral Diplomacy      Self-Determination

5.    To involve yourself deliberately in a situation, especially in a conflict or
      dispute, in order to influence what is happening and, most often, to
      prevent undesirable consequences.

6.    The political, military, or economic domination of one country over
      another.

7.     A government policy based on the belief that national interests are best
       served by avoiding economic and political alliances with other countries.

8.     A social theory stating that the political and economic advantages in a
       developed society are gained from the biological advantages of its
       collective membership (i.e. survival of the fittest).

9.    A set of goals that a country considers to be important.
Pre-Quiz #2

1. Identify the 3 major goals to American
   Imperialism.

2. Provide an example for each motivation.

3. Provide an example as to why some
   Americans were against imperialism.
WORD BANK

Henry Cabot Lodge; Carl Schurz; Josiah Strong; Alfred T. Mahan;

                 realism;                       idealism
1.   A naval officer and historian who believed that U.S. foreign policy should become
     a world power by building a strong navy via ships and acquiring convenient
     coaling stations.

2.   An anti-imperialist politician who believed that the U.S. should defend its
     interests, but our policy should promote peace, not conquest.

3.   A Christian missionary (someone who goes to another country to spread his/her
     religious faith) who believed it was the duty of the U.S. to morally spread its
     Anglo-Saxon civilization to the dark places of the world.

4.   A United States Senator who encouraged America to expand in order to
     economically compete with other countries.

5.   The U.S. foreign policy that focuses on practical (realistic) concerns and national
     self-interest (what we can gain from this experience: natural resources, Panama
     Canal, etc).

6.   The U.S. foreign policy that focuses on moral values (right vs. wrong) and the
     spread of American ideals (democracy and capitalism).
   Pre-Quiz #3
1. Identify the 3 major goals to American Imperialism.

2. If REALISM focuses on what we can gain (i.e. natural
    resources, Panama Canal, etc.) from taking over other
    countries, which of the following gentlemen would be most
    likely to agree with the policy of REALISM?

Henry Cabot Lodge Carl Schurz Josiah Strong Alfred T. Mahan

3. If IDEALISM focuses on the moral values (right vs. wrong)
    and the spread of American ideals, which of the following
    gentlemen would be most likely to agree with the policy of
    IDEALISM?

Henry Cabot Lodge Carl Schurz Josiah Strong Alfred T. Mahan
WORD BANK
Imperialism         isolationism       intervene            Henry Cabot Lodge
Carl Schurz         Josiah Strong      Alfred T. Mahan      Social Darwinism
reformer            realism            idealism             Anglo-Saxon Civilization
national interest   Monroe Doctrine    Western Hemisphere   Big Stick Policy
corollary           Dollar Diplomacy   Moral Diplomacy      Self-Determination

4.     A term used by Josiah Strong that refers to white English-
       speaking peoples.

5.     The political principle that stated that Europe should no longer
       involve itself in the Western Hemisphere.

6.     A proposition or statement that is a logical extension of a
       principle or an original idea.

7.     A person or a movement that tries to make change or tries to
       change others.

8.    The half of the Earth that is to the west of the prime meridian,
      including North and South America and portions of western
      Europe and Africa.
WORD BANK
Imperialism         isolationism       intervene            Henry Cabot Lodge
Carl Schurz         Josiah Strong      Alfred T. Mahan      Social Darwinism
reformer            realism            idealism             Anglo-Saxon Civilization
national interest   Monroe Doctrine    Western Hemisphere   Big Stick Policy
corollary           Dollar Diplomacy   Moral Diplomacy      Self-Determination

9.     Roosevelt’s strong-arm approach to foreign affairs was modeled
       after this West African proverb.

10. Taft’s policy was to encourage and protect American trade and
    investment in Latin America.

11. One of Wilson’s policies was to promote and spread democratic
    ideals, rather than economic investment or the use of force.

12. Another one of Wilson’s policies was to allow the right of the
    foreign peoples to decide on their own government that was free
    of outside influence.

13. After taking a look at questions 9-12, which of the president’s
    policies would you MOST PREFER and LEAST PREFER?
Pre-Quiz #4
Evaluate and rank the four gentlemen’s views
  towards American imperialism. Who would
  you have most likely to have agreed with at
  this time in American history? Why?

•   Henry Cabot Lodge:
•   Carl Schurz:
•   Josiah Strong:
•   Alfred T. Mahan:
Pre-Quiz #5: Identify and explain how the “Four
Schools” of American imperialism are represented in this
cartoon.
Pre-Quiz #6

1. Identify the names of the diplomatic
   policies taken by Presidents Roosevelt,
   Taft, and Wilson.

2. Explain what each of these policies
   meant.
Pre-Quiz #7
1. Identify the names of the diplomatic policies taken by
    Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson.

2. Explain what each of these policies meant.

3. Explain how each of the following gentlemen would
    react to each president’s foreign policy.
   • Henry Cabot Lodge:
   • Carl Schurz:
   • Josiah Strong:
   • Alfred T. Mahan:
          American Imperialism
Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet                 Motivating Factor #1: Military
                                              • The Desire for Military Strength
  December 16, 1907, and February 22, 1909,
  to demonstrate the strength of the new
                                                  – An increased military presence
  American Navy (43,000 miles).
                                                    to keep pace with European
                                                    powers
                                                      • British Army = 5x bigger
                                                      • British Navy = 10x bigger

                                                  – Modern naval fleet to protect
                                                    American business and
                                                    shipping interests around the
                                                    world;

                                                  – National prosperity depends on
                                                    control of the world’s sea lanes
                                                    (acquire naval bases all over the
                                                    world)
              American Imperialism
Motivating Factor #2: Economic
• Thirst for new markets

    – Raw materials needed to fuel America’s
      industrial machine;

    – New technology in the late 19th Century
      created more goods than Americans could
      ever consume;

    – Overseas markets for American
      agricultural & manufactured goods;

    – Foreign trade would solve unemployment
      & economic depression.
American Imperialism
              Motivating Factor #3: Political
              • The Belief in Cultural
                 Superiority

                  – Social Darwinism: a free-
                    market competition will lead
                    to the survival of the fittest;

                  – Belief in racial superiority of
                    Anglo-Saxons;

                  – Responsibility of spreading
                    Christianity and to civilize
                    the savage world
                      • (white man’s burden).
    What about those who were opposed to the
         ideals of American Imperialism?
Motivating Factor: Peaceful Measures
• Belief in Promoting Peace, Not Conquest.

    – Defend America’s interests with dignity and
      respect;

    – We already have enough land with westward
      settlement;

    – Our economy can regulate itself;

    – We have enough raw materials;

    – We have too many domestic problems with
      immigration and poverty;

    – Who defines the “superior culture” anyway?
    “A Man, A Plan, A Canal, Panama”
• American interest in Panama in 1850
   built a railroad to transport Americans
   during the California Gold Rush;
                                               Atlantic
• French/United States wants to build a        Ocean

   canal on the Isthmus of Panama.
    –   But the Isthmus of Panama belongs to
        Colombia and Colombia says “No!”;

• Philippe Bunau-Varilla and Nelson
   Cromwell’s bold plan;

• Panamanian Independence and
   American control of the canal until
   1999!!!

• American ingenuity: Locks which raise
   and lower ships in order to move them
   between two oceans;

• Cost to build: 5,600 lives and $387
   million!
               The Annexation of Hawaii
• Did we acquire Hawaii legitimately?

• Businessmen, American minister, U.S.
   soldiers overthrow Hawaii’s queen.

• 1959: 50th State & 90% support.

• Democratic principles?
    –   Sanford Dole = Pineapple; became Hawaii’s president
        without a single vote


• President Cleveland re-examined the
   annexation of Hawaii

• President McKinley + Congress = Control of
   Hawaii.

• 1993: President Clinton + Congress =
   Apology.
          The Spanish-American War
• President McKinley hesitant to go to war,
   served in the Civil War

• Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore
   Roosevelt pushes for war

• William Randolph Hearts and Joseph
   Pulitzer work up war fever (Cubans
   mistreated by Spanish);

• The USS Maine explodes in Havana
   Harbor, America goes to war;

• US defeats Spain;
    – Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam =
      US territories.

• Platt Amendment = U.S. intervention in
   Cuba to defend “life, property, and
   individual liberties;
          The Philippine-American War
• Sequel to the Spanish-American War:
  250,000 lives lost;

• Mark Twain and other famous authors
  suspicious of America’s intentions

• White Man’s Burden = U.S. has a duty to
  “civilize” the “inferior Filipino culture.”

• Guerilla warfare vs. total war;

• Samar Island = U.S. soldiers killed anyone
  capable of firing a gun;

• William Howard Taft as governor general,
  “Filipinos our little brown brothers.”

• Lesson: Don’t overstretch our authority
  overseas.
       “Policing the Caribbean and Central America”
•                   “Intervention in Haiti”
    Germany demands a port in the Dominican
    Republic, the U.S. says no;

•   Haiti experiences 102 revolts, wars, or coups
    in only 72 years!!!
    –    American intervention
    –    Charlemagne Peralte resisted the U.S. His
         dead body was photographed with a crucifix
         and a Haitian flag as a warning

•   Roosevelt (Big Stick Policy): U.S. must
    protect the Panama Canal and other
    American interests

•   Intervention in Latin America had four steps:
    1.   Military Intervention
    2.   Train and fund the police and military
    3.   Sponser elections
    4.   Leave the country to govern itself
The Caribbean, Central America, and Haiti

				
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