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Physical_ Sensory_ and Perceptual Development In Infancy Chapter

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					               Chapter 4:
Physical, Sensory, and Perceptual
           Development In Infancy
Figure 4.1 Parts of the Brain
            Physical Changes
       The Brain and Nervous System

Brain
 Rapid development during the first 2 years
 Midbrain and medulla most fully developed
   at birth
 The cortex is the least developed.
  The Brain and Nervous System
Physical Changes: Synaptic Development
Definition of a Neuron
Growth in synapses
     The Brain and Nervous System
                      Plasticity

Neural plasticity: Brain’s ability to change in
  response to experience

 Use it or lose it

 Changes in psychological functioning
    Reflexes and Behavioral States


Adaptive reflexes: Reflexes that help survival
Primitive reflexes: Reflexes controlled by less
   sophisticated parts of brain
p. 161
Reflexes
 Growth, Motor Skills, and Developing
           Body Systems

By age one
   10 to 12 inches of growth
   Infants triple body weight

Around age two
   Toddlers reach half their adult height.
   Proportionately much larger heads than
     adults
Growth, Motor Skills, and Developing Body
                Systems


 Cephalocaudal
 Proximodistal
            Stop and Think!
          Questions To Ponder
Researchers suggest there is a difference in the
  rate but similarity in the sequence of motor
  skill development.

   Using this information as a base, what
     advice would you give to parents of
                   toddlers?
                 Health and Wellness
    Nutrition: Breastfeeding and Bottle feeding

Breastfeeding                     Bottle feeding
   Nutritionally superior:          May be needed
    More rapid weight gain            supplement for preterm
    and size                          babies
   Early health benefits            Special-needs formulas
   Only nutrition needed for         available
    first 4 to 6 months of life      Can be high quality
   May not be possible for          Allows more father
    all mothers                       participation
           Health and Wellness
   Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Incidence: Leading cause of death in U.S. in
   infants 1–12 months

Relationships:
 Apnea
 Sleeping on stomach
 Maternal smoking
              Sensory Skills
                    Vision

Rapid development of visual acuity
   20/200 at birth; 20/20 at 2 years

Color vision
   Red, blue, green at 1 month

Tracking
    Tracking slow-moving object before 2
     months and skilled at 6–10 weeks
              Sensory Skills

Hearing
   Adult voices heard well and some
     directional loud-sound location
Smelling and tasting
   Newborns react differently to each basic
     taste as early as birth.
Touch and motion
   Best developed of all senses
Taste Responses in Newborns
  What responses do you see?
Taste Responses in Newborns
            Perceptual Skills
     Studying Perceptual Development

Preference technique
Habituation/dishabituation
Operant conditioning
Fig. 5-11, p. 178
Fig. 5-4, p. 169
                 Perceptual Systems
         Explaining Perceptual Development

Nativists                       Empiricists
 Most perceptual abilities      Most perceptual abilities
   inborn                         learned

    Many of these abilities       Experience needed to
     present at birth               develop perceptual
                                    systems


    A compromise position: Perceptual skill
    development is the result of interaction between
    inborn and experiential factors.

				
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