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					Personality
 Chapter 10
• What is Personality?
The pattern of enduring characteristics that
  produce consistency and individuality in a
  given person.

The pattern of psychological and behavioral
characteristics by which each person can be
compared and contrasted with other people.
        Psychodynamic Approach
• Approaches that assume that personality is motivated by
  inner forces and conflicts about which people have little
  awareness and over which they have no control.
• Psychodynamic Theory: Freud’s theory that unconscious
  forces act as determinates of personality.
• A view developed by Freud emphasizing unconscious
  mental processes in explaining human thoughts, feelings,
  and behaviors.
• Freud believed that we are all born with basic needs and
  instincts. Each person has the task of figuring out how to
  meet these needs. According to Freud the personality
  develops out of each person’s struggle with this task.
      The Structure of Personality
• Id: The raw, unorganized, inborn part of
  personality whose sole purpose is to reduce
  tension created by primitive drives related to
  hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.
   – A personality component containing basic instincts,
     desires, and impulses with which all people are born.
• Contained in the Id is the Pleasure Principle, the
  operating principle of the id which guides people
  toward whatever feels good regardless of
  society’s rules or the rights and feelings of others.
  EX: the hungry person who pushes to the front of
  the line at Burger King would be satisfying an id
  driven instinct.
• Ego: The part of the personality that provides a buffer
  between the id and the outside world. The part of the
  personality that makes compromises and mediates
  conflicts between and among the demands of the id,
  the super ego, and the real world.
• The ego is responsible for organizing ways to get what
  a person wants in the real world, as opposed to the
  fantasy world of the id. The ego makes decisions,
  controls actions, and allows thinking and problem
  solving of a higher order than the id’s.
• Operates on the Reality Principle, the operating
  principle of the ego, which takes into account the
  constraints of the social world.
• EX: the ego would influence the hungry person at
  Burger King to wait in line and think about what to
  order rather than risk punishment by pushing ahead.
• Superego: The final personality structure to
  develop; it represents the rights and wrongs of
  society as handed down by a person’s parent’s,
  teachers, and other important figures. The
  component of the personality that tells people
  what they should or should not do.
• Represents our sense of morality.
• The process of internalizing parental and societal
  values creates the superego. The superego, if left
  to operate without constraint, would create
  perfectionists unable to make the compromises
  that life requires.
• EX: would make the pushy person at Burger King
  feel guilty for even thinking about violating
  culturally approved rules about standing in line
  and taking turns.
• Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious tactics
  that either prevent threatening material from
  surfacing or disguise it when it does. Pg. 261
• Repression
• Regression
• Displacement
• Rationalization
• Denial
• Projection
• Sublimation
• Reaction Formation
      Freud’s Stages of Personality
             Development
• Psychosexual Stages: Developmental periods
  that children pass through during which they
  encounter conflicts between the demands of
  society and their own sexual urges. Periods of
  personality development in which internal and
  external conflicts focus on particular issues.
• Failure to resolve the conflicts that appear at
  any of these stages can leave a person fixated.
  Freud believes that these fixations can be seen
  in an adults personality characteristics.
                  Oral Stage
• Occurs during the first year of life in which the
  mouth is the center of pleasure.
• Freud says that personality problems arise
  when oral needs are either neglected or
  overindulged.
• Early or late weaning from breastfeeding
  /bottle feeding = an adult who talks too much,
  overeats, smokes, drinks excessively or uses
  biting sarcasm.
                  Anal Stage
• Occurs during the second year of life in which the
  focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the
  anus and when the child’s ego develops to cope
  with parental demands for socially appropriate
  behavior. Gratification from expelling and
  withholding feces; coming to terms with society’s
  controls relating to toilet training.
• Toilet Training: too harsh or begins too early =
  adult who is stingy or preoccupied with neatness;
  too late or too lax = adults who are disorganized
  or impulsive.
                  Phallic Stage
• Ages 3-5 or 6 in which the focus of pleasure shifts to
  the genital area.
• Oedipus Complex: The notion that young boys
  impulses involves sexual feelings for the mother and
  the desire to eliminate the father.
• Electra Complex: The notion that young girls develop
  an attachment to the father and compete with the
  mother for the father’s attention.
• A child fixated in this stage as an adult can have
  problems with authority figures and have an inability
  to maintain a stable love relationship.
             Latency Period
• Starts around age 5 through childhood, in
  which sexual impulses become dormant and
  the child focuses on education, same sex peer
  play, and the development of social skills.
               Genital Stage
• Begins during adolescence through the rest of
  a person’s life, when sexual impulses begin to
  appear at the conscious level. Establishment
  of mature sexual relationships.
• Freud believes the quality of relationships and
  the degree of fulfillment experienced during
  this stage are directly affected by how
  intrapsychic conflicts were resolved during the
  earlier stages.
               Trait Approach
• A model of personality that seeks to identify the
  basic traits necessary to describe personality.
• A perspective on personality that views it as the
  combination of stable characteristics that people
  display overtime and across situations.
• Personality traits remain stable and therefore
  predictable over time.
• Personality traits remain stable over situations.
• People differ from one another in how much of a
  particular personality trait they possess.
            The Big 5 Model
• A view based on factor analytic studies
  suggesting the existence of 5 basic
  components of human personality. Pg 265
• Neuroticism
• Extraversion
• Openness
• Agreeableness
• Conscientiousness
        Social Cognitive Approach
• Theories that emphasize the influence of a person’s
  cognitions-thoughts, feelings, expectations, and values- as
  well as observation of other’s behavior, in determining
  personality.
• An approach to personality that views personality as a label
  summarizing the unique patterns of thinking and behavior
  that a person learns.
• Believes that personality is something we learn through our
  experiences.
• Self-Efficacy: Belief in one’s personal capabilities. Self-
  efficacy underlies people’s faith in their ability to carry out
  a particular behavior or produce a desired outcome.
• Self-Esteem: The component of personality that
  encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations.
           Humanistic Approach
• Theories that emphasize people’s innate goodness and
  desire to achieve higher levels of functioning.
• A view of behavior as controlled by the decisions that
  people make about their lives based on their
  perceptions of the world.
• View human behavior as motivated mainly by an
  innate drive toward growth that prompts people to fill
  their unique potential.
• To explain people’s actions, it is more important to
  understand their view of the world than their instincts,
  traits, or learning experiences.
                Roger’s Self Theory
• Those who accurately experience the self-with all its preferences,
  abilities, fantasies, shortcomings, and desires-are on the road to self
  actualization.
• Self-Actualization: A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize
  their highest potential, each in a unique way.
• Self Concept: the way one thinks of oneself.
• Conditions of Worth: Circumstances in which an individual
  experiences positive regard from others only when displaying
  certain behaviors or attitudes.
• Incongruence is likely when parents and teachers lead children to
  believe that their worth as a person depends on displaying the
  “right” attitudes, behaviors, and values.
• Unconditional Positive Regard: An attitude of acceptance and
  respect on the part of an observer, no matter what a person says or
  does.
         Assessing Personality
• Objective Personality Test: asks clear
  questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings,
  or behavior.
• A form listing clear, specific questions,
  statements, or concepts to which people are
  asked to respond.
• NEO-PI-R(measure the Big 5 Personality Traits)
• MMPI(10 clinical scales plotted as a profile)
• Projective Personality Tests: personality tests
  made up of relatively unstructured stimuli in
  which responses are seen as reflecting the
  individual’s unconscious needs, fantasies,
  conflicts, thought patterns, and other aspects
  of personality.
• Can be interpreted in more than one way.
• Drawing or word associations
• TAT
• Rorschach Inkblot Test

				
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