Vidhi Desai's Anatomy Lab by lanyuehua

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									ANATOMY LAB


       Name: Vidhi Desai
       Course Code: TPJ 3M0
       Teacher: Ms. Tran
       Due Date: October, 10th, 2010
Anatomy Lab                                                                   Name: Vidhi Desai


  1. Compare and contrast skeletal muscle and ligaments texture and function.
   Skeletal muscles move and support the skeleton. They make up fifty percent of the body
     weight. There are 640 individually named skeletal muscles. A skeletal muscle links two
     bones across its connecting joint. When these muscles contract and shorten, the bone
     moves. Muscles are arranged in layers over the bones. Skeletal muscles are voluntary
     muscles. These are muscles that we consciously control. Skeletal muscles are single, very
     long, cylindrical, striated and multinucleate. They control via nervous system. Whereas,
     Ligaments are connective tissue that join one bone to another at our joints, allowing us to
     move, and also provide support by stabilizing and sometimes enclosing a joint to make sure
     that each joint can only move through a safe range of movement. The structure of ligaments
     allows them to perform their role whilst still providing maximum mobility. Essentially,
     ligaments are something like a stiff elastic band, made out of the protein collagen. Some
     ligaments are stiffer than others, as they have to maintain a joint in its set position and
     prevent a bone from moving around or against another in a way that it isn’t supposed to.

  2. Explain hypertrophy and atrophy. Provide examples
   Hypertrophy is a nontumorous enlargement of an organ or a tissue as a result of an increase
     in the size rather than the number of constituent cells. For example: Hypertrophic
     Cardiomyopathy Atrophy is a wasting or decrease in size of a body organ, tissue, or part
     owing to disease, injury, or lack of use. For example: muscle atrophy.




  3. How are isotonic and isometric exercise help tone muscles? Provide examples of the
     exercise type.
   In an isotonic contraction, tension remains unchanged and muscle’s length changes. Lifting
     an object at a constant speed is an example of an isotonic contraction. There are two types
     of isotonic contractions: concentric and eccentric. In a concentric contraction, the muscle
     tension rises to meet the resistance, then remains the same as the muscle shorten. In
     eccentric, the muscle lengthens due to the resistance, then remains the same as the muscle
     shortens. Ninety percent of gym workouts are isotonic. For example: when you flex your
     biceps, it is isotonic contraction. Isotonic exercise helps in toning the muscles and also



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Anatomy Lab                                                                    Name: Vidhi Desai


     having stronger, flexible muscles and stronger bones. Apart from improving muscle mass
     and bone strength, it also helps to enhance metabolism of the body. Isotonic exercises put
     more strain on a muscle, which it is not used to. These muscle contractions lead to the
     growth of proteins in each cell of the muscle. Isometric exercise, also known as static
     strength training, involves muscular actions in which the length of the muscle does not
     change and there is no visible movement at the joint. The joint and muscle are either
     worked against an immovable force or are held in a static position while opposed by
     resistance. It helps in toning because it occurs when there is tension on muscle but no
     movement is made causing the length of the muscle to remain the same. For example:
     someone attempting to curl one arm upwards but is held by using equal resistance from the
     other arm.

  4. Explain how a worker should lift a heavy load in front of him without causing injury to the
     back muscle?
   Heavy load should not exceed the capacity of the individual lifter to prevent the injury to
     the back muscle. Poor lifting techniques as well as lifting objects that are too heavy can
     overload the back and cause strained bank muscle. Falling down or an unexpected twisting
     of the back can also pull back muscles. The worker should not also over flex or extend the
     muscle in order to prevent the injury.

  5. Using proper terminology e.g. flexion, extension, rotating etc… explain why a professional
     baseball pitchers have one arm which is more muscular than the other? (Hint: Describe
     the muscle motion during pitching)
   The pitcher’s number one tool is their arm, and he/she should take reasonable precaution
     to protect it. Professional baseball pitchers have one arm more muscular than the other
     because while pitching for long hours the muscles are contracting continuously of one arm.
     For instance, a right handed pitcher will only use right hand to throw the ball and this will
     lead to weakening of the muscle hypertrophy of the arm. In, baseball the pitcher has many
     medical disadvantages because of the continuous rotation of the hand to throw the baseball
     from the pitcher’s mound toward the catcher to begin each play. This also requires flexing
     and rapid leg movement. To prevent these things the pitcher should warm up because this
     will loosen the muscles and lubricate the joint by allowing it for greater extension.




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