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					Lesson Two

1.   To know the writing technique of
2.   To learn the methods in developing an
     expository writing,esp. the use of
3.   To appreciate the language features
Teaching Contents
   1. Exposition
   2. George Orwell
   2. Detailed study of the text
   3. Organizational pattern
   4. Language features
   5. Exercises
Time allocation
1. Background information (15 min.)
2. Detailed study of the text (120 min.)
3. Structure analysis (15 min.)
4. Language appreciation (15 min.)
5. Exercises (15 min)
   Exposition is perhaps the type of
    writing that is most frequently used
    by a student, a scientist, or a
    Exposition --- expounding
   An expository paper explains or
    explores something, such as the
    process of making a machine, the
    causes of a natural or social
    phenomenon, the planning of a
    project, or the solution of a problem.
Description -- deals with appearances and
Narration --- deals with events and
Exposition --- deals with processes and
   Things can be explained by
1. Definition

The key to a definition is concreteness. One

 has to give concrete facts to make a

 definition effective.
2. Listing
 We must have enough number of items to
 be listed. Then, if possible, arrange the
 items in the graded order of increasing
3. Examples

It's the simplest, the most common, best

4. Classification
We have to follow a system
consistently. The categories of
division should be mutually exclusive.
There should be no overlapping. One
item can belong to one category and
only one.
5. Comparison and contrast
 We liken one thing to another by pointing

 out their similarities (comparison)

  We emphasize the difference between the

 two. (contrast)
6. Analysis

We may discuss the cause and effect of
a historical event, its nature and its
significance in history.
The writer appeals to a reader's understanding
 with verifiable facts and valid information,
 explaining and interpreting that materials so that
 the reader will accept his point of view or
 explanation. Thus he must organize and develop
 his thought objectively and present it with
 honesty and completeness so that the reader
 will have confidence in what he is saying.
1. generally the writer makes a statement of the
 central thought or of his purpose quite early.
 This statement is sometimes called the "thesis",
 and may even be the title of the piece.

 2. Sometimes the writer may first present and
 develop his facts and make his general statement
 as a conclusion at the end.
 The Text
It is an exposition, a political essay.
Orwell leaves no doubt about his feelings
concerning colonialism and its results. He
has shown the reader how millions of
people can be ignored and treated as less
than human.
Theme ----
   The suffering and misery of the colonial
    people in Marrakech
   The writer gives descriptions by examples.
    The objective presentation of examples
    show that the people in colonial countries
    are poverty-stricken.
George Orwell
   A British novelist and essayist between the two
    world wars *image-1*

       He is mush praised in the west partly because of his
        anti-communist point of view.
       He was born in India, father, a so called empire-
        builder --serving the British government abroad.
George Orwell
    He received good education in
     Britain and studied in the most
     famous school "Eden“.
George Orwell
    He travelled widely. Marrakech is one
     of the places he travelled to. His travel
     made him take a hostile attitude toward
     imperialism. He showed deep sympathy
     for the poor and became a firm
     supporter of socialism.
George Orwell
     He joined Spanish War. He was
     seriously wounded. The Spanish
     socialist forces divided into faction. The
     faction he belonged to was persecuted.
     So he became so pessimistic and
     depressed, which led him toward anti-
     communist attitude.
George Orwell
Animal Farm ---- a political fable
 Each animal represents a certain

 human character, meant to criticise
 Stalin's socialism.
George Orwell
   In reading his works, several aspects
    draw our attention:
    1. His works show sharp powers of
    observation and deep sympathy for
    suffering people.
    2. His works give a deep sense of
    conviction and urgency.
George Orwell
   3. The use of English is clear, simple
    and direct, with no formality of
    embellishment. (addition/decoration)
      He said his ideal was to write prose
    like a window pane.
       ______ as clear as glass
Detailed study of the text
   Marrakech *2image-3,4,5*
Detailed study of the text

   As the corpse....
     The opening paragraph is very
    dramatic. The choice of this scene
    and the words he uses implies much
    more than what appears on the
    surface. 1) dirty 2) poor
in a cloud ---
    a large number of small things
    moving through the air as a mass
     a cloud of insects
crowd ---
 It suggests
 1) the lack of order

 2) people are not terribly concerned

  about the funeral.
all men and boys, no women
   According to Muslim law, Muslims must
    respect women, and for this reason girls
    and women used to be kept in the house,
    where they could be safe. When they went
    out, they wore the veils to cover their faces.
    But this law has become a kind of excuse
    to discriminate against women.
pomegranates ----
   refers to the fruit of the pomegranate
    tree, a native of Asia. It is a round
    reddish fruit with a mild flavour. The
    word comes to English from the old
      pome --- apple
      granate ---- having many seeds
chant ---
 1. a word or group of words that is
 repeated over and over again, usually
 by more than one person.
 2. a religious prayer or song that is
 spoken or sung on only a very few
 notes so that there is not much
 variation in it.
appeal to ----
   If something appeals to you, you find
    it attractive or interesting
      attract / interest / fascinate
    These books are designed to appeal to
    The idea of becoming director of the
    factory appealed to him.
identify ---
   recognise; be able to name
     Can you identify your umbrella
    among a hundred others?
     Schoolboys could identify almost
    every car as it passed by.
derelict building-lot
   It would be an ugly, forgotten,
    abandoned place where a building
    was begun but never finished.
    "derelict" --- comes from the Latin
    word meaning “to abandon”
   How people are buried in Marrakech
      wail a short chant
      hack an oblong hole (dig without care)
      dump the body
      fling over it a little of the dried-up earth
    The fact shows the human life has no
    value at all.
The thesis
   ---"All colonial empire....."
    It is the colonial empires that make
    the people so poor. Empires are built
    up by treating the people in the
    colonies like animals. This thesis is
    going to be supported by more
    illustrations and examples.
Rhetorical questions
   --- What sort of audience Orwell had
    in mind when he wrote this essay?
    --- Clearly he is writing to readers of
    his own race and general class . So if
    you say yes, why don't they appear to
    be so?
undifferentiated ---
     You can't differentiate one brown
    stuff from another, because they look
    just the same.
      If they do have individuality, it is
    irrecognizable, just like insects, like
      regularity ---
    a state or situation in which things
    happen repeatedly
     There is no regularity about his work.
     He makes the same stupid suggestion with
    great regularity.
     His heart beats with the regularity of a
    clock pendulum.
a gazelle ---
 *image-7* gazelle
 a hoofed mammal with a slender
  neck and ringed horns. Gazelles are
  famous for their grace and beauty,
  and are native to Africa and Asia
mint sauce ---
 *2imge-8 mint sauce*
 an English specialty made of a
  combination of chopped mint leaves,
  vinegar, and water. It's traditionally
  served with roast lamb.
stow ---
   to put, hide away in safe place
      If you stow sth. somewhere, you put
    it neatly away in a place where it can
    be kept until it is needed.
    = store
    stow away = hide
     stow –
   We stowed all the boxes in the attic.
    Potatoes must be stowed in a cool dark place.
   My jewellery is safely stowed away in the
   His baggage was safely stowed away in the
# 8—15
   The writer described the plight of the
    Jews, an poorest minority in a
    colonial country. Their fate could be
    worse than that of the natives.
quarters ----
   apartment (room/house)
              residential area for particular kind of
   the doctor's quarters
   servants quarters
   officers' quarters
   confined to quarters
   sleeping quarters
ghettoes or ghettos
   Orwell uses ghettos here in the traditional
    sense of a portion of a city populated almost
    exclusively by Jews.
    A ghetto is a part of a town or city in which
    many poor people or many people of a
    particular race, religion, or nationality live in
    isolation from the majority group in the town
    or city.
ghettoes or ghettos
 It's about this black kid growing up in the

  ---- ghetto life in European cities
  ---- slums and ghettos
overcrowding ---
   adv + v ing
sore-eyed ---
   Eyes are infested from
            1. malnutrition
            2. lack of medical care
            3. unhygienic condition
skull-cap ---
   a close-fitting brimless cap
   It is often worn indoors and often by
    Orthodox Jews. Men who strictly practice
    Judaism are never supposed to have their
    heads bared. There must be some piece of
    cloth etc. between man and God.
infest ---
   When insects, rats or other animals infest a
    plant, area, they spread in a large numbers
    and cover the area, usually causing damage.

   overrun; swarm; pack; crowd; teem; flood;
    fill; be thick with
    fly-infested --- full of flies
    The back yard was infested by rats.
booth ---
   a stall for selling goods
    public telephone booth
    an announcer booth
    a motion picture projection booth
prehistoric ---
   ancient; out-of-date or old-fashioned
     His ideas on morals are really prehistoric.
    (derog or humor)

   Is Simon's prehistoric car still working?
lathe ---
   a machine for shaping wood, metal
warp ---
   to cause to bend, curve, or twist out of

     The hot sun warped the boards.
     Some gramophone records warp in

      very hot weather.
        frenzied – adj.
   full of uncontrolled excitement
       Will this push him too far and lead to a frenzied
       She was climbing now with a sort of frenzied
          --- a frenzied mob of over a thousand student
          --- make frenzied efforts
    self-contained ----
    self sufficient
      A self-contained community is one in
    which all or nearly all the needs of the
    community are met from within. There is
    little need to go outside for material or
    cultural desires. The Jewish ghettos are self-
    contained not only by preference but also by
    necessity, since Jews may have been
    unwelcome outside.
    a good job ---coll. BrE
   a fortunate state of affairs

       This restaurant is not cheap, so it's a good
        job you've brought plenty of money.

       He's gone, and a good job too.
    That's only for show ---
   The Jew only pretends to work as a poor labourer.
    show --- n. sth false or superficial, pretence
      I make a show of interest, but I really
      couldn't have cared less.
     He put on a good show, but he didn't
      deceive anyone.
     He is not really ill; he is just putting on a
     witchcraft ---
   Orwell is probably referring to many occasions
    in the 1600's in both England and America
    when innocent women were tried and often
    burned or otherwise punished for witchcraft.
    By the very nature of the charge it was
    impossible for the accused to defend herself,
    just as it was for the Jews. And like the Jews
    witches served as scapegoats for the ills of
    society that couldn't be explained. Such trials
    reached their peak in America at Salem,
     # 16—17
   Have you already sensed out the tone?
     Orwell here is extremely bitter and ironical. He
    didn't openly criticize the white colonialists who
    paid no attention to the people who suffer from
    poverty and misery. Instead, he pretends that they
    have a sound reason to ignore such people. The
    people simply cannot be seen because they are of
    the color of the earth.
In a hot country…
   You don’t even see the labore ploughing
    the field.
   South of Gibralter --- all countries or ear
    in North Africa
   East of Suez --- the middle-east Asian
It is only because of this…
   “This” here stands for the fact that people
    always miss the peasants laboring in the
    fields because they have the color of the
    earth. It is only because of this reason
    that these poor starved countries are
    accepted as tourist resorts.
      What does Morocco mean ...
   Morocco being a French colony, to many
    Frenchmen Morocco has no more meaning than
    a place where they might find a government job,
    buy an orange grove with their money or invest
    his money. To an Englishman Morocco means
    nothing but a romantic, mysterious country
    which he has read in the novels. Camels, castles
    are the romantic bits in his mind by the novels.
erode ---
   wear away; eat into
     If rock or soil erodes or is eroded by the
    weather, sea or wind, it cracks and breaks
    so that it is gradually destroyed.

       Rain and rivers eroded the soft sand-stones.
      desolate ---
   barren; (of a place) in a ruined and neglected
    1. If sth is desolate, it is empty of people and
    lacking in comfort.
    2. If sb. is desolate, they feel very sad, lonely
    and without hope.
     The forest was left desolate by the fire.
     After the war the town was a desolate place.
     She has been desolate since losing her job.
desolate ---
   v.--
     The land was desolated by floods.
     We were desolated by the death of our
    good friend.
lucerne ---
   *2image-9*
   named from the French "Luzerne" (glow
    worn - from its shiny seeds) is more
    commonly called alfalfa. It is widely
    cultivated and used as forage.
fodder --- n.
   rough food for cattle or horses, gathered
    from the fields and stored
   spike --- n. long pointed piece of metal
    with an outward or upward point
   harrow --- n. heavy frame with metal
    teeth or disks for breaking up ground
    after ploughing
This is as much …equal to
   The animals yoked to the plough had just
    enough strength to plough the soil to a
    depth of about four inches. They could
    not make deeper furrows.
get at
   to reach
   Marrakech is very dry. Even at a depth of
    30 or 40 feet there is only but a trickle of
Para 19.
   Miserable life of women
I suppose that …
   The author gave the old woman a little
    money. The response was a shrill wail for
    she was greatly surprised. The old woman
    was fully accustomed to her miserable
    existence and to not being taken notice of
    by any one, so she almost considered the
    author to be doing something unnatural by
    giving her the money.
She accepted her …
   She took it for granted that as an old
    woman she was the lowest in the society,
    that she was only fit for doing heavy work
    like an animal.
St. Bernard dog ---
   *2image-10*
    A Saint Bernard dog is a large, strong dog,
    the breed of which comes from
    Switzerland. These dogs are often used as
    a patrol dogs in the mountains. The name
    comes from the monks of the Saint
    Bernard monastery who made use of the
fifteen-hands mule
   A mule about 60 inches or 5 feet high
infuriate --- v.
   fill with fury or rage
      outrage; aggravate; enrage; provoke
   Donkey and Woman
       Both are overloaded.
       Both are willing creatures.
       Both are small.
       Both are ill-treated.
       Both have an miserable end.
   Donkey and Woman
       Visible
       Invisible
       Implication --- Women are worse treated.
Para. 22. As the storks …
   The passive plodding ,earth-bound
    blacks are contrasted with the glittering
    white birds so great, pure and lofty who
    sail above them in the sky. While the
    former are weighed down by heavy
    packs, are sweating and uncomfortably
    hot, the latter are to soar unfettered in
    the cool sky above
   Stork -- north
   Negro – south
clump and clatter
   onomatopoeia words describing the sound
    of boots and iron wheels as they moved
    over the road.
 The black soldiers were from Senegal.
 Senegal: Republic of Senegal, a country in
  western Africa, formerly part of French
  West Africa, population – 5,085,388,
  capital Dakar. It became independent in
   British colloquialism
   second-hand or readymade clothing
   With the eyes opened widely, as because
    of surprise, fear, lack of sophistication
I saw how it was.
   I understand the reason why.
   This is the result of colonization
This wretched boy….
   This miserable black boy is, as a result of the
    colonization of his country, a French citizen.
    Therefore he has been forced to leave his home
    in the forest and come to a garrison town where
    he ahs to do hard labor such as scrubbing floors
    for the whites and where he will catch syphilis.
    However this boy, instead of hating the whites,
    has deep respect for them.
In this connection …
   in this case.
   While speaking of such things (while
    speaking of the one thought which every
    white man thinks…)
It doesn’t matter twopence:
   It doesn’t matter a bit.
   It doesn’t matter at all.
   N.C.O. or NonCOs
   Noncommissioned officer; an enlisted
    person of any various grades in the armed
    forces, from corporal 下士 to sergeant 军
    士 inclusive
   The body of soldiers of an army, as
    distinguished from the officers.
   cattles / soldiers --- obedient
   white bird/ scraps of paper
    --- symbolic of   freedom
Five examples to illustrate the fact

    1. the burial of the poor people
    2. an employee of the municipality
    3. poor living and working conditions of the
    4. poor natural conditions
    5. miserable life of women
The cause of their poverty
   1. Colonialization
     "All colonial empires are in reality founded
    upon this fact"
      (para.1; 17)
   2. Racial discrimination
     "The people have brown faces -- besides there
    are so many of them" (para.3 )
      "He is the same colour as the earth, …"
The cause of their poverty
   3. Black people's ignorance
      He showed his profound respect to his
      " He ... has feelings of reverence before a
    white skin"
      "Only the Negroes didn't know it“
   4. Poor natural conditions
Organizational pattern
   Sect.1 (para 1--2) Ex.1
    objective presentation of Example 1
       the burial of the people in Marrakech
   Sect.2 (para 3 )
      the thesis ---- “All colonial empires are founded
    upon this fact”
    the author's central idea
       Colonialization is based on the fact that people
    are very poor.
Organizational pattern
 Sect.3 (para4--7) Ex.2
    The Arabian government employee
  is as poor as a beggar.
 Sect.4 (para8--15) Ex.3

  1) the living conditions of the Jews
    2) the hard work the Jews do
    3) biased attitude against the Jews
Organizational pattern
   The specific example of the people
    clamouring for a cigarette shows that
    the people are so poor, yet people still
    have rumours about them and have
    great prejudice against them.
    Organizational pattern
   Sect.5 (para16--18) Ex.4
   The country is very poor. The poverty was not noticed
    by the white people. Because of their black color, the
    white people didn't even see them.
   1> The soils are poor. " dried-up soil"
               " eroded soil"
               " desolate" "waste"
               " broken-up brick“
   2> Everything is done by hand. "capital Ls“
Organizational pattern
   3> The farming tools are rough.
       "The plough is so frail, a rough iron
    spike which stirs the soil to a depth of
    about four inches.“
   4> The farming animals are weak and the
    peasants calculate carefully.
   5> The natural conditions are poor. "dry"
    They had to dig deep ditches.
    Organizational pattern
   Sect.6 (para19--21) Ex.5
       the miserable life of women
    The writer is describing objectively the
    physical appearance of the old woman, yet
    his anger comes through. Notice his choice of
    ( poor; old; mummified; reduced to bones;
    leathery skin; bent double; crushing weight)
Organizational pattern
   Sect.7 (para22--26)
    description of the black troops in general
    and one black soldier individually.
   It won't be long for the white people to
    keep these black people in ignorance.
1. simple words, simple statements to
  convey deeper meaning
2. the use of rhetorical questions which is
  very effective in conveying his anger
3. terse, lucid prose style.
4. good diction

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