1. To know the writing technique of
2. To learn the methods in developing an
expository writing,esp. the use of
3. To appreciate the language features
2. George Orwell
2. Detailed study of the text
3. Organizational pattern
4. Language features
1. Background information (15 min.)
2. Detailed study of the text (120 min.)
3. Structure analysis (15 min.)
4. Language appreciation (15 min.)
5. Exercises (15 min)
Exposition is perhaps the type of
writing that is most frequently used
by a student, a scientist, or a
Exposition --- expounding
An expository paper explains or
explores something, such as the
process of making a machine, the
causes of a natural or social
phenomenon, the planning of a
project, or the solution of a problem.
Description -- deals with appearances and
Narration --- deals with events and
Exposition --- deals with processes and
Things can be explained by
The key to a definition is concreteness. One
has to give concrete facts to make a
We must have enough number of items to
be listed. Then, if possible, arrange the
items in the graded order of increasing
It's the simplest, the most common, best
We have to follow a system
consistently. The categories of
division should be mutually exclusive.
There should be no overlapping. One
item can belong to one category and
5. Comparison and contrast
We liken one thing to another by pointing
out their similarities (comparison)
We emphasize the difference between the
We may discuss the cause and effect of
a historical event, its nature and its
significance in history.
The writer appeals to a reader's understanding
with verifiable facts and valid information,
explaining and interpreting that materials so that
the reader will accept his point of view or
explanation. Thus he must organize and develop
his thought objectively and present it with
honesty and completeness so that the reader
will have confidence in what he is saying.
1. generally the writer makes a statement of the
central thought or of his purpose quite early.
This statement is sometimes called the "thesis",
and may even be the title of the piece.
2. Sometimes the writer may first present and
develop his facts and make his general statement
as a conclusion at the end.
It is an exposition, a political essay.
Orwell leaves no doubt about his feelings
concerning colonialism and its results. He
has shown the reader how millions of
people can be ignored and treated as less
The suffering and misery of the colonial
people in Marrakech
The writer gives descriptions by examples.
The objective presentation of examples
show that the people in colonial countries
A British novelist and essayist between the two
world wars *image-1*
He is mush praised in the west partly because of his
anti-communist point of view.
He was born in India, father, a so called empire-
builder --serving the British government abroad.
He received good education in
Britain and studied in the most
famous school "Eden“.
He travelled widely. Marrakech is one
of the places he travelled to. His travel
made him take a hostile attitude toward
imperialism. He showed deep sympathy
for the poor and became a firm
supporter of socialism.
He joined Spanish War. He was
seriously wounded. The Spanish
socialist forces divided into faction. The
faction he belonged to was persecuted.
So he became so pessimistic and
depressed, which led him toward anti-
Animal Farm ---- a political fable
Each animal represents a certain
human character, meant to criticise
In reading his works, several aspects
draw our attention:
1. His works show sharp powers of
observation and deep sympathy for
2. His works give a deep sense of
conviction and urgency.
3. The use of English is clear, simple
and direct, with no formality of
He said his ideal was to write prose
like a window pane.
______ as clear as glass
Detailed study of the text
Detailed study of the text
As the corpse....
The opening paragraph is very
dramatic. The choice of this scene
and the words he uses implies much
more than what appears on the
surface. 1) dirty 2) poor
in a cloud ---
a large number of small things
moving through the air as a mass
a cloud of insects
1) the lack of order
2) people are not terribly concerned
about the funeral.
all men and boys, no women
According to Muslim law, Muslims must
respect women, and for this reason girls
and women used to be kept in the house,
where they could be safe. When they went
out, they wore the veils to cover their faces.
But this law has become a kind of excuse
to discriminate against women.
refers to the fruit of the pomegranate
tree, a native of Asia. It is a round
reddish fruit with a mild flavour. The
word comes to English from the old
pome --- apple
granate ---- having many seeds
1. a word or group of words that is
repeated over and over again, usually
by more than one person.
2. a religious prayer or song that is
spoken or sung on only a very few
notes so that there is not much
variation in it.
appeal to ----
If something appeals to you, you find
it attractive or interesting
attract / interest / fascinate
These books are designed to appeal to
The idea of becoming director of the
factory appealed to him.
recognise; be able to name
Can you identify your umbrella
among a hundred others?
Schoolboys could identify almost
every car as it passed by.
It would be an ugly, forgotten,
abandoned place where a building
was begun but never finished.
"derelict" --- comes from the Latin
word meaning “to abandon”
How people are buried in Marrakech
wail a short chant
hack an oblong hole (dig without care)
dump the body
fling over it a little of the dried-up earth
The fact shows the human life has no
value at all.
---"All colonial empire....."
It is the colonial empires that make
the people so poor. Empires are built
up by treating the people in the
colonies like animals. This thesis is
going to be supported by more
illustrations and examples.
--- What sort of audience Orwell had
in mind when he wrote this essay?
--- Clearly he is writing to readers of
his own race and general class . So if
you say yes, why don't they appear to
You can't differentiate one brown
stuff from another, because they look
just the same.
If they do have individuality, it is
irrecognizable, just like insects, like
a state or situation in which things
There is no regularity about his work.
He makes the same stupid suggestion with
His heart beats with the regularity of a
a gazelle ---
a hoofed mammal with a slender
neck and ringed horns. Gazelles are
famous for their grace and beauty,
and are native to Africa and Asia
mint sauce ---
*2imge-8 mint sauce*
an English specialty made of a
combination of chopped mint leaves,
vinegar, and water. It's traditionally
served with roast lamb.
to put, hide away in safe place
If you stow sth. somewhere, you put
it neatly away in a place where it can
be kept until it is needed.
stow away = hide
We stowed all the boxes in the attic.
Potatoes must be stowed in a cool dark place.
My jewellery is safely stowed away in the
His baggage was safely stowed away in the
The writer described the plight of the
Jews, an poorest minority in a
colonial country. Their fate could be
worse than that of the natives.
residential area for particular kind of
the doctor's quarters
confined to quarters
ghettoes or ghettos
Orwell uses ghettos here in the traditional
sense of a portion of a city populated almost
exclusively by Jews.
A ghetto is a part of a town or city in which
many poor people or many people of a
particular race, religion, or nationality live in
isolation from the majority group in the town
ghettoes or ghettos
It's about this black kid growing up in the
---- ghetto life in European cities
---- slums and ghettos
adv + v ing
Eyes are infested from
2. lack of medical care
3. unhygienic condition
a close-fitting brimless cap
It is often worn indoors and often by
Orthodox Jews. Men who strictly practice
Judaism are never supposed to have their
heads bared. There must be some piece of
cloth etc. between man and God.
When insects, rats or other animals infest a
plant, area, they spread in a large numbers
and cover the area, usually causing damage.
overrun; swarm; pack; crowd; teem; flood;
fill; be thick with
fly-infested --- full of flies
The back yard was infested by rats.
a stall for selling goods
public telephone booth
an announcer booth
a motion picture projection booth
ancient; out-of-date or old-fashioned
His ideas on morals are really prehistoric.
(derog or humor)
Is Simon's prehistoric car still working?
a machine for shaping wood, metal
to cause to bend, curve, or twist out of
The hot sun warped the boards.
Some gramophone records warp in
very hot weather.
frenzied – adj.
full of uncontrolled excitement
Will this push him too far and lead to a frenzied
She was climbing now with a sort of frenzied
--- a frenzied mob of over a thousand student
--- make frenzied efforts
A self-contained community is one in
which all or nearly all the needs of the
community are met from within. There is
little need to go outside for material or
cultural desires. The Jewish ghettos are self-
contained not only by preference but also by
necessity, since Jews may have been
a good job ---coll. BrE
a fortunate state of affairs
This restaurant is not cheap, so it's a good
job you've brought plenty of money.
He's gone, and a good job too.
That's only for show ---
The Jew only pretends to work as a poor labourer.
show --- n. sth false or superficial, pretence
I make a show of interest, but I really
couldn't have cared less.
He put on a good show, but he didn't
He is not really ill; he is just putting on a
Orwell is probably referring to many occasions
in the 1600's in both England and America
when innocent women were tried and often
burned or otherwise punished for witchcraft.
By the very nature of the charge it was
impossible for the accused to defend herself,
just as it was for the Jews. And like the Jews
witches served as scapegoats for the ills of
society that couldn't be explained. Such trials
reached their peak in America at Salem,
Have you already sensed out the tone?
Orwell here is extremely bitter and ironical. He
didn't openly criticize the white colonialists who
paid no attention to the people who suffer from
poverty and misery. Instead, he pretends that they
have a sound reason to ignore such people. The
people simply cannot be seen because they are of
the color of the earth.
In a hot country…
You don’t even see the labore ploughing
South of Gibralter --- all countries or ear
in North Africa
East of Suez --- the middle-east Asian
It is only because of this…
“This” here stands for the fact that people
always miss the peasants laboring in the
fields because they have the color of the
earth. It is only because of this reason
that these poor starved countries are
accepted as tourist resorts.
What does Morocco mean ...
Morocco being a French colony, to many
Frenchmen Morocco has no more meaning than
a place where they might find a government job,
buy an orange grove with their money or invest
his money. To an Englishman Morocco means
nothing but a romantic, mysterious country
which he has read in the novels. Camels, castles
are the romantic bits in his mind by the novels.
wear away; eat into
If rock or soil erodes or is eroded by the
weather, sea or wind, it cracks and breaks
so that it is gradually destroyed.
Rain and rivers eroded the soft sand-stones.
barren; (of a place) in a ruined and neglected
1. If sth is desolate, it is empty of people and
lacking in comfort.
2. If sb. is desolate, they feel very sad, lonely
and without hope.
The forest was left desolate by the fire.
After the war the town was a desolate place.
She has been desolate since losing her job.
The land was desolated by floods.
We were desolated by the death of our
named from the French "Luzerne" (glow
worn - from its shiny seeds) is more
commonly called alfalfa. It is widely
cultivated and used as forage.
fodder --- n.
rough food for cattle or horses, gathered
from the fields and stored
spike --- n. long pointed piece of metal
with an outward or upward point
harrow --- n. heavy frame with metal
teeth or disks for breaking up ground
This is as much …equal to
The animals yoked to the plough had just
enough strength to plough the soil to a
depth of about four inches. They could
not make deeper furrows.
Marrakech is very dry. Even at a depth of
30 or 40 feet there is only but a trickle of
Miserable life of women
I suppose that …
The author gave the old woman a little
money. The response was a shrill wail for
she was greatly surprised. The old woman
was fully accustomed to her miserable
existence and to not being taken notice of
by any one, so she almost considered the
author to be doing something unnatural by
giving her the money.
She accepted her …
She took it for granted that as an old
woman she was the lowest in the society,
that she was only fit for doing heavy work
like an animal.
St. Bernard dog ---
A Saint Bernard dog is a large, strong dog,
the breed of which comes from
Switzerland. These dogs are often used as
a patrol dogs in the mountains. The name
comes from the monks of the Saint
Bernard monastery who made use of the
A mule about 60 inches or 5 feet high
infuriate --- v.
fill with fury or rage
outrage; aggravate; enrage; provoke
Donkey and Woman
Both are overloaded.
Both are willing creatures.
Both are small.
Both are ill-treated.
Both have an miserable end.
Donkey and Woman
Implication --- Women are worse treated.
Para. 22. As the storks …
The passive plodding ,earth-bound
blacks are contrasted with the glittering
white birds so great, pure and lofty who
sail above them in the sky. While the
former are weighed down by heavy
packs, are sweating and uncomfortably
hot, the latter are to soar unfettered in
the cool sky above
Stork -- north
Negro – south
clump and clatter
onomatopoeia words describing the sound
of boots and iron wheels as they moved
over the road.
The black soldiers were from Senegal.
Senegal: Republic of Senegal, a country in
western Africa, formerly part of French
West Africa, population – 5,085,388,
capital Dakar. It became independent in
second-hand or readymade clothing
With the eyes opened widely, as because
of surprise, fear, lack of sophistication
I saw how it was.
I understand the reason why.
This is the result of colonization
This wretched boy….
This miserable black boy is, as a result of the
colonization of his country, a French citizen.
Therefore he has been forced to leave his home
in the forest and come to a garrison town where
he ahs to do hard labor such as scrubbing floors
for the whites and where he will catch syphilis.
However this boy, instead of hating the whites,
has deep respect for them.
In this connection …
in this case.
While speaking of such things (while
speaking of the one thought which every
white man thinks…)
It doesn’t matter twopence:
It doesn’t matter a bit.
It doesn’t matter at all.
N.C.O. or NonCOs
Noncommissioned officer; an enlisted
person of any various grades in the armed
forces, from corporal 下士 to sergeant 军
The body of soldiers of an army, as
distinguished from the officers.
cattles / soldiers --- obedient
white bird/ scraps of paper
--- symbolic of freedom
Five examples to illustrate the fact
1. the burial of the poor people
2. an employee of the municipality
3. poor living and working conditions of the
4. poor natural conditions
5. miserable life of women
The cause of their poverty
"All colonial empires are in reality founded
upon this fact"
2. Racial discrimination
"The people have brown faces -- besides there
are so many of them" (para.3 )
"He is the same colour as the earth, …"
The cause of their poverty
3. Black people's ignorance
He showed his profound respect to his
" He ... has feelings of reverence before a
"Only the Negroes didn't know it“
4. Poor natural conditions
Sect.1 (para 1--2) Ex.1
objective presentation of Example 1
the burial of the people in Marrakech
Sect.2 (para 3 )
the thesis ---- “All colonial empires are founded
upon this fact”
the author's central idea
Colonialization is based on the fact that people
are very poor.
Sect.3 (para4--7) Ex.2
The Arabian government employee
is as poor as a beggar.
Sect.4 (para8--15) Ex.3
1) the living conditions of the Jews
2) the hard work the Jews do
3) biased attitude against the Jews
The specific example of the people
clamouring for a cigarette shows that
the people are so poor, yet people still
have rumours about them and have
great prejudice against them.
Sect.5 (para16--18) Ex.4
The country is very poor. The poverty was not noticed
by the white people. Because of their black color, the
white people didn't even see them.
1> The soils are poor. " dried-up soil"
" eroded soil"
" desolate" "waste"
" broken-up brick“
2> Everything is done by hand. "capital Ls“
3> The farming tools are rough.
"The plough is so frail, a rough iron
spike which stirs the soil to a depth of
about four inches.“
4> The farming animals are weak and the
peasants calculate carefully.
5> The natural conditions are poor. "dry"
They had to dig deep ditches.
Sect.6 (para19--21) Ex.5
the miserable life of women
The writer is describing objectively the
physical appearance of the old woman, yet
his anger comes through. Notice his choice of
( poor; old; mummified; reduced to bones;
leathery skin; bent double; crushing weight)
description of the black troops in general
and one black soldier individually.
It won't be long for the white people to
keep these black people in ignorance.
1. simple words, simple statements to
convey deeper meaning
2. the use of rhetorical questions which is
very effective in conveying his anger
3. terse, lucid prose style.
4. good diction