United States History EOI Review Standard I Process Skills This review covers the content for the 2014 End of Instruction Exam for U.S. History. Students are also expected to be able to demonstrate process skills such as the interpretation of primary sources including maps, charts, graphs, political cartoons, photographs, and documents. What 3 amendments are known as the Civil War Amendments because they dealt with issues related to the Civil War? 13 th, 14 th, & 15 th What amendment abolished slavery? 13th Amendment What amendment established equal protection of the law? 14th Amendment What amendment protects voting rights for men? 15th Amendment What two systems of labor exploitation replaced the slave system? Sharecropping Tenant Farming How were the poor farmers kept bound to the landowners? Debt Which cartoonist popularized characters like the Republican Elephant and the Democratic Donkey? Thomas Nast What radical group engaged in violence to stop the protection of African-American rights (as well as those of other non-WASP groups)? Ku Klux Klan What organizations became the center of religious, social, and political life for African- Americans after the Civil War? Churches Who reintroduced horses to the Americas? Spanish How was land traditionally “owned” by most Native Americans? Communally What was the concept among most Plains Tribes that involved demonstrating bravery in battle? Counting Coup Who were the tribal leaders considered to be most in touch with the spirit world? Shaman What discovery in Colorado and the Dakotas drew non-Indians into Indian land in areas where farming was highly unlikely? Gold At what incident were over 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho killed in Colorado by U.S. troops in 1864? Sand Creek Massacre At what incident were over 80 U.S. troops killed by a band of Sioux led by Crazy Horse along the Bozeman Trail in the Bighorn Mountains in 1866? Battle of the 100 Slain Fetterman Massacre What treaty signed by Red Cloud relocated most Sioux to the reservation along the Missouri River in 1868? Treaty of Fort Laramie What Sioux leaders refused to sign the Treaty of Fort Laramie? Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse What two tribes were subdued during the Red River War? Kiowa & Commanche Who did the Sioux defeat at the Battle of Little Bighorn? 7th Cavalry Led by George Armstrong Custer Where did the band of Sioux led by Sitting Bull find refuge for a time? Canada What resource crucial to the Plains Tribes was almost completely destroyed during the 19th Century? Buffalo What book by Helen Hunt Jackson condemned the unjust treatment of Native Americans? A Century of Dishonor What was the aim of Grant’s Peace Policy? Assimilation of Native Americans What two passivist religious groups worked with the tribes as part of Grant’s Peace Policy? Quakers & Mennonites What was the purpose of the Dawes Act? Allotment of Indian Land Who was the Sioux that worked with Henry Dawes to implement the assimilation policies? Dr. Charles Eastman (Ohiyesa) When active resistance no longer worked, what form did resistance to assimilation take? Passive (Language, Traditions, …) Who was the Paiute prophet that led the Ghost Dance Movement? Wovoka (Jack Wilson) What hope did the Ghost Dance offer Native Americans? whites would disappear buffalo would return traditional life would be restored Fear of the Ghost Dance among the whites helped to trigger what 1890 massacre? Battle of Wounded Knee What 1980 Supreme Court decision allowed Congress to pay the Sioux $600 million as “just compensation” for the loss of their Black Hills land? U.S. v Sioux Nation What was the Sioux reaction to the decision in U.S. v Sioux Nation in 1980? refused to accept the $600 million refused to give up claim to the land What cattle trail went from San Antonio to Abilene? Chisholm Trail Who were the predecessors of the American Cowboy? Mexican Vaqueros Gauchos of the Pampas What emancipated group made up about 25% of the cowboys on the cattle trails? Freedmen Who cared for the extra horses on the cattle drives? Wrangler Who managed the cattle drives? Trail Boss Who invented barbed wire? Joseph Glidden What type of entertainment was organized by Buffalo Bill Cody? Wild West Show What type of beef cattle replaced the open-range Longhorns? Texas Hereford (Go SOONERS!) What act of Congress allowed people to claim public land for free under certain conditions? Homestead Act Who were the freedmen that moved west? Exodusters In what creative way was “public” land opened for settlement in Oklahoma? Land Runs Who wrote the Frontier Thesis about how the frontier had shaped the American character? Frederick Jackson Turner In what state is Yellowstone National Park mostly located? Wyoming In what state is Yosemite National Park located? California How did naturalist John Muir want to conserve nature? Complete Wilderness Preservation For what purpose did Teddy Roosevelt believe nature should be preserved? Public Good What act of Congress started the western federal water projects? National Reclamation Act (Newlands Act) As the southwest was irrigated, who supplied a great deal of the farm labor? Mexican Immigrants What type of temporary housing was often constructed in areas where lumber was in short supply be early settlers? Soddies What crop was often the first crop for early settlers because of its versatility? Turnips What misnomer applied to the Southern Great Plains because it was believed that agriculture would be very difficult there? “Great American Desert” Who invented the steel plow? John Deere Who produced the early reaper that vastly improved the efficiency of the grain harvest? Cyrus McCormick What act of Congress made the establishment of the land grant colleges possible, including Oklahoma A & M (OSU)? Morrill Act What were the large single-crop farms that were operated like big businesses? Bonanza Farms What type of farm operation remains dominant in the U.S.? Family Farms Populism was most associated with what group of people? Farmers Populism worked to end the unfair practices of what powerful businesses? Railroads What was the 19th Century paper currency not backed by gold or silver? Greenbacks What organization did Oliver Hudson Kelley start in 1867? Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) What farmer-owned organizations did the Grange help farmers establish? Cooperatives Support for what monetary policy was part of the Populist Party Platform? Increased Money Supply Support for what type of tax was part of the Populist Party Platform? Progressive Income Tax The Populist Party supported what type of elections for U.S. senators? Popular Election What method of elections did the Populist Party support? Secret Ballot (Australian Ballot) Which political party adopted much of the agenda of the Populist Party (People’s Party)? Democratic Party What lending practice along with business greed helped start the Panic of 1893? Over-Extended Credit Which Democrat ran against Republican William McKinley in 1896? William Jennings Bryan Who made the famous Cross of Gold Speech? William Jennings Bryan Who was William McKinley’s second Vice-President? Teddy Roosevelt (Youngest President) What are the 4 factors that transformed the U.S. into a leading industrial power? Abundant Natural Resources Government Support of Business Entrepreneurial Spirit PUBLIC EDUCATION What did Canadian Abraham Gesner develop? Oil Distilling Method What was the first large-scale product made from petroleum? Kerosene What process was developed by Edwin Drake using a steam engine? Oil Drilling What was the huge oil discovery near Beaumont, Texas in 1901? Spindletop What was the first commercial oil well in Oklahoma? Nellie Johnston #1 (Near Bartlesville) What was the huge oil field discovered south of Tulsa in 1905? Glenn Pool What was Tulsa’s nickname in the 1920s? “Oil Capital of the World” What 2 resources found in abundance in the U.S. were used to make iron and steel? Iron Ore & Coal What product made from iron is more flexible, lighter, and more rust-resistant? Steel What is the name of the process of making steel that injects air into the molten metal to remove the carbon impurities? Bessemer Process What New York construction project made of steel linked Manhattan and Brooklyn across the East River? Brooklyn Bridge (suspension bridge) What was the first steel-framed skyscraper (designed by Wm le Baron Jenney)? Home Insurance Building (Chicago) Where was Thomas Edison’s industrial research laboratory? Menlo Park, NJ What was the purpose of George Westinghouse’s company? Electricity Production & Distribution Who invented the telephone? Alexander Graham Bell & Thomas Watson Who invented the typewriter? Christopher Sholes How did the government encourage the railroad companies to build the transcontinental railroad? Land Grants Which railroad company built from the west using thousands of Chinese immigrant laborers? Central Pacific Which railroad company built from the east using thousands of Irish immigrant laborers? Union Pacific Where did the eastward and westward construction of the transcontinental railroad meet? Promontory Point, Utah (Golden Spike) What did Professor C.F. Dowd suggest? Time Zones (Railroad Time) What did George Pullman’s company manufacture? Railroad Cars What was Pullman, Illinois? Company Town (controlled workers 24-7) What did Granger laws restrict? Unfair Railroad Practices What was the purpose of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)? Regulation of Business (abolished in 1995) What is the economic system in which individuals control the production and distribution of goods, services, and information? Capitalism What was Andrew Carnegie’s “goose that lays the golden eggs”? Investment Who wrote On the Wealth of Nations about free trade? Adam Smith What sets a fair price for a good or service in a market economy? Supply & Demand What market force improves the quality of a good or service? Competition What is the French term for the concept of free trade with no government regulation? laissez-faire For what two general purposes is it necessary to regulate business? Maintain Fair Competition Prevent Worker-Abuse What was Herbert Spencer’s explanation of the gap between the rich and the poor? Social Darwinism What phrase was coined by Herbert Spencer? “Survival of the Fittest” According to Social Darwinism, why are some people rich and others poor? development of characteristics necessary for economic success What concept was combined with Social Darwinism to explain the gap between the rich and poor? Protestant Work Ethic What are the two general ways to create monopolies? Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration What type of integration includes taking control of the stages of production and distribution of a particular product? Vertical Integration What type of integration includes taking control of numerous companies producing the same good or service? Horizontal Integration Who were the ruthless and shrewd business owners that created monopolies? Robber Barons (Vanderbilt, Carnegie, Morgan, Rockefeller) What type of companies were formed to buy the stock of a collection of companies in order to create a monopoly? Holding Companies (Morgan’s U.S. Steel) What were the organizations formed to control a collection of companies producing the same good or service as one company? Trusts (Rockefeller’s Standard Oil) What 1890 act of Congress attempted to regulate the trusts? Sherman Antitrust Act What is the term for a wealthy person who gives back to society? Philanthropist What was Andrew Carnegie’s most notable philanthropic venture? Carnegie Libraries (Carnegie gave away 90% of his earnings) What was Cornelius Vanderbilt’s most notable philanthropic venture? Vanderbilt University (Nashville, TN) What university did John D. Rockefeller help found? University of Chicago What system of production replaced the cottage industry? Factory System What were the workshops in the tenements called? Sweatshops What were the 3 primary reasons children were employed in early factories? income needed for family worked for lower wages smaller hands What was the usual consequence of being seriously injured on the job in the early factories? Loss of Employment What was the biggest advantage of hiring women as factory workers? worked for lower wages What did the National Labor Union persuade Congress to adopt? 8-Hour Workday (for government employees) What method of collective bargaining did the Knights of Labor favor over strikes? Arbitration John L. Lewis was the President of what union from 1920 to 1960? United Mine Workers John L. Lewis was instrumental in electing members of what political group to office? Progressives (Franklin Roosevelt, …) What was the movement of skilled workers who formed the first successful labor unions? Craft Unionism Samuel Gompers helped to organize what national labor union of skilled workers? American Federation of Labor (AF of L) What organization merged with the AF of L in 1955? Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO – Largest U.S. Union) What is the economic system in which the government controls the means of production of goods, services, and information? Socialism Who wrote the Communist Manifesto? Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels What was the slogan of International Socialism? “Workers of the World Unite!” According to Marxist philosophy, the end of capitalism will lead to the end of what else? The State (Government) Including National Boundaries Marxist ideology states that everyone should contribute to society according to his or her what? Ability Marxist ideology states that everyone should receive from society according to his or her what? Need According to Marxist philosophy, what temporary guardian of the people needs to be established to stamp out capitalism? Dictatorship of the Proletariat What was the primary reason for the failure of communism? Less Productive Than Capitalism What organization was established by socialists in Chicago in 1905 headed by William Haywood? Industrial Workers of the World “Wobblies” Who was a major spokesman for the Wobblies that ran for President as the Socialist Party candidate several times? Eugene Debs In what 2 ways was Sooner Socialism different from International Socialism? Used the Democratic Process Based on Christianity The Panic of 1873 led many companies to do what that prompted labor unrest? Cut Wages Workers for what railroad started the Great Railroad Strike of 1877? B & O Railroad How was the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 stopped? By Force (using state militias and federal troops) Where did the Haymarket Square Riot of 1886 take place? Chicago What happened to four of the leaders of the Haymarket Square Riot as a result of the violence? Convicted & Hanged Workers from what company organized the Homestead Strike of 1892? Carnegie Steel Who did the Carnegie Steel Company hire to battle the striking workers during the Homestead Strike? Pinkerton Agency Guards Which labor leader was arrested during the Pullman Strike? Eugene Debs What happened to the strikers during the Pullman Strike? Fired & Blacklisted Who are workers hired to replace strikers? Scabs What laws, meant to break the trusts, were used against union workers in the court injunctions used to stop union activities? Antitrust Laws What act of Congress strengthen antitrust laws and barred courts from issuing injunctions to stop union activities? Clayton Antitrust Act What union-breaking strategy was upheld in Coppage v Kansas? “Yellow Dog Contracts” (workers agreed not to join union) Who marched 80 injured mill children to Teddy Roosevelt’s home to protest the cruelties of child labor in 1903? Mary Harris “Mother” Jones Where was the 1911 industrial fire that killed 146 women? Triangle Shirtwaist Factory (New York City) Why were many of the workers in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory unable to escape the inferno? Doors Were Locked Why was the FDNYC unable to properly fight the fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory? Ladders Were Too Short What charges were brought against the owners of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory? Manslaughter (acquitted) What is the biggest push and pull factor for migration? Economic Opportunity The U.S. frontier and economic boom provided what for the growing European population during the nineteenth century? Safety Valve What is the term for migrants who earn money by working in a foreign country and then return home? “Birds of Passage” From where did the early European immigrants come to the U.S.? Britain From where did the majority of European immigrants to the U.S. come during the 1840s and 1850s? Germany & Ireland What is the number one European source country for migrants to the U.S.? Germany From where did the majority of European immigrants to the U.S. come during the 1880s? Germany, Ireland, Scandinavia From where did the majority of European immigrants to the U.S. come during the 1900s? Italy, Russia, Poland, the Balkans How did the U.S. restrict immigration beginning in the 1920s? Quotas U.S. immigration policy favored immigrants from what part of Europe? Northern & Western What event marked the end of European mass migration to the United States? World War I Chinese immigrants took part in what 2 major endeavors during the nineteenth century? Transcontinental Railroad California Gold Rush The U.S. annexation of what territory encouraged Japanese immigrants to come to the west coast? Hawaii What act of Congress helped to create more farmland in the Southwest, generating a need for farm laborers which encouraged migration from Mexico to the U.S.? National Reclamations Act (Newlands Act) At what famous site were many of the immigrants arriving on the east coast processed? Ellis Island At what famous site were many of the immigrants arriving on the west coast processed? Angel Island What 4 things did immigrants need to demonstrate when arriving in the U.S.? Physical Health Mental Competence Plan for Employment No Serious Criminal History Why was immigrant processing more harsh at Angel Island? Racial Prejudice (against Asians) The Nativism Movement sought to keep immigrants from which places out of the U.S.? Non-WASP Countries (White Anglo-Saxon Protestants) Who was exempt from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1892? students, teachers, merchants, tourists, government officials What did the Japanese government agree to do in the Gentlemen’s Agreement made with Teddy Roosevelt? Stop Sending Unskilled Workers What did the U.S. agree to do in the Gentlemen’s Agreement? Desegregate San Francisco Schools For what two reasons did the U.S. cities populations rapidly grow around the turn-of-the-century? International Migration Urbanization What inventions improved the efficiency of agriculture, prompting urbanization? Steel Plow McCormick’s Reaper What formed in U.S. cities as a result of large numbers of migrants coming from particular countries? Ethnic Communities Who were the internal migrants during the Great Migration out of the South? African-Americans (To Detroit, Chicago, …) Who wrote How the Other Half Lives about the plight of the cities that included shocking photos of the tenements? Jacob Riis Where were street cars introduced? San Francisco Where was the first subway system built? Boston Mass transit made what demographic change possible? Suburbanization What is the most common disease caused by unclean water? Cholera Who were the private waste collectors in the early industrial cities? Scavengers What city was the first to implement a fulltime paid police force? New York City What 1871 disaster prompted the enactment of new building codes in U.S. cities? Great Chicago Fire What turn-of-the-century movement preached salvation through service to the poor? Social Gospel Movement Who co-founded Chicago’s Hull House? Jane Addams What did settlement houses like Hull House provide? Services (education, nursing, culture) During the Gilded Age, who controlled city politics in the U.S.? Political Machines What city’s political machine was controlled by “Big Jim” Pendergast? Kansas City Who was the City Boss of Tammany Hall in New York? Boss Tweed What did the political machines provide for the people of the cities? Services Assimilation of Immigrants What is the term for personally profiting from one’s political office? Graft The city bosses were usually popular among city residents. When they weren’t, how did they win elections? Voter Fraud Who was the cartoonist that helped arouse public outrage or the corruption of Tammany Hall and Boss Tweed? Thomas Nast What is the system of hiring government workers based on merit using examinations? Civil Service System Who led the opposition to the Civil Service System during the Hayes Administration? Stalwarts (led by Roscoe Conkling) Who assassinated President Garfield? Charles Guiteau (thought he should have been awarded a job in the Administration) What act of Congress established the merit system of hiring government workers based on examinations? Pendleton Civil Service Act Who gained political influence as a result of the implementation of the Civil Service System? Big Business Who lost political influence as a result of the implementation of the Civil Service System? Political Machines As business gained more influence in government around the turn-of- the-century, what tax was used to “protect” American manufacturing? Tariff (Import Tax) Who designed New York City’s Central Park? Frederick Law Olmstead Where was the first Ferris Wheel? Chicago’s White City (1893 World’s Columbian Exposition) What is Boston’s park system that was created by draining the Back Bay Area? Emerald Necklace What does a web-perfecting press produce? Newspapers Who invented the powered airplane? Wright Brothers Who invented the Kodak Camera? George Eastman The founding citizens supported public education because of the link between education and what? Democracy As the U.S. economy matured, business supported public education because of the need for what? Educated Workers Public education became more important for agriculture with the transition to what? Scientific Researched-Based Farming Who trained at normal schools? Teachers The Morrill Act supported the establishment of what type of colleges? Agricultural & Mechanical (like Oklahoma A & M/OSU) Parochial schools were established by what religious group that didn’t want their children to receive a Protestant Education? Catholics What was a major culture-busting purpose of the early Native American schools established by the federal government? Assimilation Booker T. Washington believed that African-Americans should learn what as part of a gradual process of improving status? Useful Trades W.E.B. du Bois believed that African-Americans should immediately seek what type of education? Liberal Arts Education What did the Niagara Movement founded by W.E.B. du Bois become? NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) What were two of the principle methods used to keep African- Americans from voting? Poll Taxes & Literacy Tests What Amendment outlawed poll taxes? 24th Amendment What protected whites from the poll taxes and literacy tests? Grandfather Clauses What are segregation laws often called? Jim Crow Laws What Supreme Court Case established the Doctrine of Separate But Equal? Plessy v Ferguson (1896) What Supreme Court Case overturned the Doctrine of Separate But Equal? Brown v Board of Education What happened to thousands of African-Americans who were suspected of violating racial etiquette? Lynched (hanged without trial) What was the process of keeping people like southern sharecroppers and Mexican miners obligated to their employers? Debt Peonage What has the urban lifestyle of the turn-of-the century that included leisure time been termed? “Mass Culture” Where is Coney Island? New York What provided both enjoyment and personal transportation in the turn-of-the-century cities? Bicycles Who made chocolate affordable for the masses? Hershey Where was Coca-Cola formulated? Atlanta What type of literature did those like Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst produce for mass consumption? Sensationalized Literature “Yellow Journalism” Who wrote The Gilded Age? Mark Twain Where was the first shopping center opened? Cleveland What type of store did Marshall Field first open in Chicago? Department Store Woolworths was what type of store? Chain Store What catalog stores first made it possible for rural residents to shop without leaving the farm? Sears & Montgomery Ward What service did the Grange lobby to have established that aided rural shoppers? Rural Free Mail Delivery What did Florence Kelley work to end? Abuses of Child Labor What did the Illinois Factory Act do? Prohibited Child Labor in Factories With what part of the Progressive Movement is Carry Nation most associated? Prohibition (Anti-Saloon League) What Amendment established the prohibition of the sale and distribution of liquor? 18th Amendment (repealed by the 21st Amendment) “Taylorism” and the “Fordist System” are associated with what manufacturing process? Assembly Line Production Scientific management studies were often used as evidence to pass legislation or to decide court cases that improved working conditions in the form of what documents? Brandeis Briefs What did Henry Ford help to create by paying his workers $5/day? More Customers Who were the journalists that wrote about business corruption? Muckrakers Which muckraker wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company? Ida M. Tarbell Who first converted privately owned gasworks, waterworks, and transit line to publically owned utilities? Socialist Mayors What is the process of the people directly proposing legislation? Initiative Petition What is the process of the people choosing to vote on proposed legislation? Referendum What is the process of the people choosing to throw an elected official out of office before the end of his or her term? Recall Who chooses party candidates for office in a direct primary? Party Members (not political machines) What Amendment established the direct popular election of U.S. Senators? 17th Amendment For what was Susan B. Anthony fined $100? Voting (never paid the fine) What did the liquor industry fear about women gaining protection for their right to vote? Prohibition What did many business owners fear about women gaining the protection for their right to vote? End of Child Labor What were the first 4 states to protect women’s right to vote? WY, CO, UT, ID What Amendment was used to argue in favor of equal protection for women’s right to vote? 14th Amendment What was Teddy Roosevelt’s progressive reform program called? The Square Deal Because he was the first to use the Office of President to improve the conditions of life for the common people, what is Teddy Roosevelt credited with beginning? The Modern Presidency Teddy Roosevelt rose to fame as part of what group during the Spanish-American War? Rough Riders Teddy Roosevelt became the youngest President when which President was assassinated? William McKinley How did Teddy Roosevelt end the 1902 Coal Strike? Forcing Arbitration on Both Sides What is the term for the President’s ability to use his or her office to persuade Congress and the public? “Bully Pulpit” Who wrote The Jungle about the Chicago meat-packing industry operated by those like Gustavus Swift and Philip Armour? Upton Sinclair What act of Congress began the regulation of the meat-packing industry? Meat Inspection Act What act of Congress began the process of regulating the safety of our food supply and implementing truth in labeling? Pure Food and Drug Act Although he broke 90 trusts during his Administration, William Howard Taft lost support of may progressives when he compromised on what? Lowering the Tariff (Payne-Aldrich Tariff) What position in government did William Howard Taft assume after being President? Chief Justice of the U.S. Into what two parties did the Republican Party split during the 1912 Presidential Election? Conservatives (Republican Party) Progressives (Bull Moose Party) Who ran as the Republican Party Candidate in the 1912 Election? Taft Who ran as the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) Candidate in the 1912 Election? Teddy Roosevelt Who ran as the Socialist Party Candidate in the 1912 Election? Eugene Debs Who ran as the Democratic Party Candidate in the 1912 Election? Woodrow Wilson (won the election) What was Wilson’s progressive reform program that was an attack on the triple wall of privilege (trusts, tariffs, high finance)? New Freedom Woodrow Wilson was the President of what university before becoming President of the U.S.? Princeton What Amendment legalized the progressive income tax (graduated income tax)? 16th Amendment What system of banker’s banks was established during the Wilson Administration? Federal Reserve System Who called the Clayton Antitrust Act the Magna Carta of Labor because it made unions legal and exempt from antitrust laws? Samuel Gompers President Wilson increased the use of the “bully pulpit” by setting the precedent of delivering what speech in person each year? State of the Union Address Which leader of the Women’s Suffrage Movement tired of playing nice and organized an around the clock picket line at the White House? Alice Paul (Congressional Union) What Amendment protects women’s right to vote? 19th Amendment (1920) Standard II What is the term for stronger countries taking over weaker ones for military and economic gain? Imperialism What is the concept which assumes that countries need to continuously grow and expand or they will die? Organic State Theory Who wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History which advocated building a modern fleet, constructing the Panama Canal, and establishing bases in the Pacific and the Caribbean? Admiral Alfred T. Mahan By what name was the U.S. Fleet known during the Age of Imperialism? The Great White Fleet Who directed the Great White Fleet to circumnavigate the world as a show of U.S. naval power from 1907 to 1909? Teddy Roosevelt For what two economic reasons did the U.S. seek new territories during the Age of Imperialism? Raw Materials & Markets Which Asian nation was an imperialist power during the Age of Imperialism? Japan (not to be confused with China which was a target of imperialism) As new technologies improved efficiency, what often caused economic hardships like unemployment? Overproduction (which is not a bad thing if people somewhere need what is being produced) During the Age of Imperialism, what was seen as a solution to overproduction? Exports What concept from a Kipling poem assumed that Europeans and European-Americans had a responsibility to “civilize” the rest of the world? “The White Man’s Burden” From whom did the U.S. purchase Alaska for $7.2 million in 1867? Russia Who negotiated the purchase of Alaska for the U.S.? Secretary of State William Seward “Seward’s Folly” What territory became the 49 th state in 1959? Alaska Which islands in the Pacific did the U.S. come to control during the Age of Imperialism? Midway, Hawaii, Guam, Philippines Which islands in the Caribbean did the U.S. come to control during the Age of Imperialism? Cuba & Puerto Rico What was the principle economic interest of the U.S. in Hawaii prior to annexation? Sugar What did the U.S. sugar planters avoid paying as a result of the annexation of Hawaii? Tariffs What U.S. base highlighted the military advantage of annexing Hawaii? Pearl Harbor What was Queen Liluokalani’s agenda when she assumed power in Hawaii? “Hawaii for Hawaiians” Who led the U.S. takeover of Hawaii? Ambassador John L. Stevens Who led the post-Liluokalani government in Hawaii? Sanford B. Dole Under what conditions would President Cleveland agree to support the annexation of Hawaii? If a majority of Hawaiians supported annexation Who was President when Hawaii was annexed by the U.S.? William McKinley What territory became the 50 th state in 1959? Hawaii From whom did President Pierce try to purchase Cuba? Spain Cuban revolutionary Jose Marti warned the Cuban people to be mindful about the imperialist ambitions of which country that supported “Cuba Libre”? The U.S. What inhumane tactic did Spanish General Weyler use to deal with the Second Cuban Revolt? Put 300K Cubans in internment camps What is the term used for reporters and publishers who produced exaggerated, untruthful, or sensationalized stories in order to sell copy? Yellow Journalists “Yellow Journalism” helped to trigger which conflict? Spanish-American War Who published The New York Journal during the Age of Yellow Journalism? William Randolph Hearst Who published The New York World during the Age of Yellow Journalism? Joseph Pulitzer What well-know artist did Hearst hire to sketch the events happening in Cuba to be used in his publications? Frederic Remington What letter written by a Spanish minister and published by The New York Journal was seen as insulting to President McKinley? de Lome Letter What ship exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898? USS Maine “Remember the Maine” Where did the first military engagement of the Spanish- American War take place? Philippines Who led the U.S. Fleet that destroyed the Spanish Fleet in the Philippines in just a few short hours during the Spanish- American War? Commodore George Dewey Who helped U.S. troops defeat the Spanish in the Philippines during the Spanish-American War? Filipinos Who led the Rough Riders in Cuba during the Spanish- American War? Teddy Roosevelt Who made up the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regiments during the Spanish-American War? African-American Troops Why were the Rough Riders given credit for capturing San Juan Hill rather than Kettle Hill in the newspapers? San Juan Hill sounded better (Yellow Journalism) What did Secretary of State John Hay call the Spanish-American War? “A Splendid Little War” What treaty ended the Spanish- American War? Treaty of Paris (III) How much did the U.S. pay Spain for the Philippines? $20 Million How did President McKinley justify the annexation of the Philippines? U.S. would civilize the Filipinos Why did Booker T. Washington oppose the annexation of the Philippines? Believed we should deal with race relations at home first Why did Samuel Gompers oppose the annexation of the Philippines? Feared Filipino immigrants would take American jobs What were the three options regarding the status of Puerto Rico following its acquisition by the U.S.? Independence, Statehood, Other What act of Congress ended military rule in Puerto Rico and established a civil government? Foraker Act In the Insular Cases, what did the Supreme Court say was not automatic in newly acquired territories? U.S. Citizenship The people of Puerto Rico are citizens of which country today? The United States What is the status of Puerto Rico today? Commonwealth (Colony of the United States) The Teller Amendment stated that the U.S. had no intentions of taking over which territory? Cuba What document gave the U.S. the right to intervene in Cuba and to establish military bases on the island such as Guantanamo Bay? The Platt Amendment The Platt Amendment was an amendment to which constitution? The Cuban Constitution Who led the three-year revolt against U.S. rule in the Philippines? Emilio Aguinaldo On what date did the Philippine Islands gain their independence from the U.S.? July 4, 1946 The Open Door Notes issued by Secretary of State John Hay dealt with trading rights in which country? China What was the European name of the Chinese secret society that unsuccessfully rebelled against foreign intervention during the Age of Imperialism? The Boxers What did the U.S. do with most of its share of the funds from the Boxer Protocol? Returned it to the Chinese (earmarked for education) What U.S. policy was based on the beliefs that (1) growth depended on exports, (2) the U.S. had a right to intervene to keep markets open, and (3) closing an area to U.S. trade was a threat? The Open Door Policy William Jennings Bryan, Grover Cleveland, Jane Addams, Andrew Carnegie, and Mark Twain were all part of what group during the Age of Imperialism? Opposition to Imperialism (such as the Anti-Imperialism League) What is the term for countries that are controlled by foreign companies such as those that were controlled by U.S. fruit companies in Central American? Banana Republics Who assassinated President McKinley? (Anarchist) Leon Czolgosz Teddy Roosevelt won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating a peace between which two countries? Russia & Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth) For what two purposes did the U.S. build the Panama Canal? Military & Economic Who began the construction of the Panama Canal? France From what country did Panama gain its independence with U.S. help? Colombia What type of diplomacy, associated with Teddy Roosevelt, includes limited rhetoric backed by a show of great force? Big Stick Diplomacy In what document did Teddy Roosevelt state that the U.S. would use force to protect its interests in Latin America? Roosevelt Corollary (to the Monroe Doctrine) What type of diplomacy, associated with the Taft Administration, includes the use of U.S. economic power to persuade other countries? Dollar Diplomacy What type of diplomacy, associated with Woodrow Wilson, includes a concern for American values such as democracy? Missionary Diplomacy In the pursuit of whom did President Wilson send troops led by General John J. Pershing into Mexico? Poncho Villa What are the four widely-accepted causes of World War I? Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, & the Alliance System What is the feeling of loyalty one has to his or her nation? Nationalism What is an action based on nationalism? Patriotism What is an act of patriotism in which one puts his or her moral principles aside? Blind Patriotism In an extension of nationalism, ethnic ties caused Russia to see itself as the protector of which group of people? Slavic People (including the Serbs) What is the predominant language spoken in Austria? German Imperialism led to what among the European powers, Japan, and the U.S. prior to World War I? Competition The Alliance System established what deterrent to war? Balance of Power The Alliance System caused what phenomenon as World War I began? Dominoing of War Declarations What was World War I called before it was called World War I? The Great War What World War I alliance included Britain, France, Italy, Russia, and the United States? The Allies What World War I alliance included Germany, Austria- Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire? The Central Powers The assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo can be seen as a _____ to World War I. catalyst Gavrilo Princip was a Serbian national and a member of what “terrorist” group? The Black Hand What was the German war plan during World War I which included dealing a quick blow to France and then dealing with Russia? The Schlieffen Plan What type of warfare developed as the prolonged stalemate occurred during World War I? Trench Warfare What two new weapons made a significant impact during World War I? Tanks & Aircraft What was the area between the trenches in trench warfare called? “No Man’s Land” What do we call “shell shock” today? PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) Who was the U.S. “Ace of Aces” that faced Germany’s Flying Circus during World War I? Eddie Rickenbacker What is aerial combat called? Dog Fighting What is the term for the focusing of all of a country’s resources on a war effort as well as attacking non-military targets? Total Warfare What is the effort made by governments to control public opinion through the dissemination of information? Propaganda How did the socialists view World War I? Capitalist Imperialism Who ran against Woodrow Wilson for President in 1916? Justice Charles Evans Hughes What policy, supported by a majority of Americans prior to World War I, meant that the U.S. would stay out of the affairs of other countries in conflict? Isolationism On what isolationist slogan did Woodrow Wilson run for reelection in 1916? “He Kept Us out of War” What were the German u-boats? Submarines What document encouraged Mexico to go to war against the U.S. and promised a German alliance in re-conquering territory lost in the Mexican-American War? Zimmermann Note In asking Congress for a declaration of war, for what did President Wilson say the world must be made safe? Democracy What act of Congress started the military draft during World War I? Selective Service Act Who led the American Expeditionary Force during World War I? General John J. Pershing What nickname was given to U.S. infantrymen during World War I? Doughboys What World War I war hero changed his mind about being a conscientious objector when he decided the war was a just war? Alvin York What is the term for the preparation for war? Mobilization What agency was established during World War I to regulate production and transform civilian manufacturing to military? War Industries Board Why was Daylight Savings Time implemented during World War I? To conserve fuel Who headed the Food Administration during World War I? Herbert Hoover In what two ways was the war effort financed during World War I? Income Taxes & War Bonds George Creel headed what propaganda agency during World War I? Committee on Public Information What were hamburgers called during World War I? “Liberty Sandwiches” What acts of Congress made it illegal to speak out against the war or the government during World War I? Espionage & Sedition Acts Who was the first woman elected to Congress? Jeannette Rankin (voted against the declarations of war for both world wars) What was the Global Pandemic of 1918-1919? Influenza (killed more than World War I did) When did the armistice ending the fighting in World War I begin? 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11 th month in 1918 Who were the “Big Four” Allied Powers at the end of World War I? U.S. (Wilson), Britain (George), France (Clemenceau), Italy (Orlando) In what post-war speech did President Wilson call for a reduction of weapons, self- determination, and an international organization aimed at maintaining peace? Fourteen Points Speech What was the agenda of Georges Clemenceau of France at the Paris Peace Settlements? To punish Germany What was the agenda of David Lloyd George of Britain at the Paris Peace Settlements? To stop the spread of communism What disappointed Vittorio Orlando of Italy at the Paris Peace Settlements? Lack of Italian territorial gains What treaty ended World War I? Treaty of Versailles (aka Paris Peace Settlements) What strategic error was made by the Treaty of Versailles that helped lead to World War II? Humiliation of Germany Why was the U.S. not part of the League of Nations? Senate never ratified the treaty Why was Germany not a member of the League of Nations? Excluded by the treaty What political movement was seriously weaken as a result of its opposition to World War I? Socialism Some of the Wobblies formed what political party following the Russian Revolution? U.S. Communist Party What was the fear of the spread of communism following the Russian Revolution? The First Red Scare What was the hunting down of suspected communists by the U.S. Attorney General and J. Edgar Hoover following the Russian Revolution? Palmer Raids (Mitchell Palmer) Standard III Who wrote the poem that paid for the defense of Sacco and Vanzetti? Edna St. Vincent Millay Who was the Secretary of State under Harding that called for a moratorium on the construction of warships at the Washington Naval Conference? Charles Evan Hughes In what agreement did the European powers, Japan, and the United States agree to denounce war as an instrument of national policy? Kellogg-Briand Pact What act of Congress made it impossible for Britain and France to sell enough goods to the U.S. to repay their debt? Fordney-McCumber Tariff Who was the American banker that devised the plan in which U.S. banks loaned money to Germany so they could pay their war debt to Britain and France who could then pay the U.S. Charles G. Dawes Who was the Secretary of Commerce in the Harding Administration? Herbert Hoover Who was the Secretary of the Treasury in the Harding Administration? Andrew Mellon Who were the group of President Harding’s friends that used their offices for personal gain? “Ohio Gang” In what scandal during the Harding Administration did Secretary of the Interior Albert B Fall transfer control of some government oil fields to private companies? Teapot Dome Scandal Who said, “The chief business of the American people is business”? “Silent Cal” Coolidge What early highway linked Chicago to California? Route 66 What tunnel links New York City to Jersey City? Holland Tunnel Who said, “We are the only nation in history to go to the poorhouse in an automobile”? Will Rogers What was the name of Charles Lindbergh’s airplane in which he flew the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic? Spirit of St. Louis What was the name of Wiley Post’s airplane in which he was the first to solo fly around the world? Winnie Mae What airline was the first to offer passenger flights across the Atlantic? Pan American What professionals do advertising agencies hire to formulate persuasive messages based on an understanding of human behavior? Psychologists Kiwanis, Rotary, and Lions Clubs are what type of organizations? Civic Clubs To increase sales, how did businesses in the 1920s make it possible for people to buy goods for which they did not have the money? Installment Plans What act of Congress established the Prohibition Bureau? Volstead Act What were the illegal clubs that served alcohol during Prohibition? Speakeasies Who illegally manufactured and/or sold alcohol during Prohibition? Bootleggers In what two ways were people able to legally obtain alcohol during Prohibition? As Medicine For Religious Services For what crime was Al Capone convicted and sent to prison? Tax Evasion For what two reasons did many in government favor the repeal of Prohibition? Difficult to Enforce Needed Taxes Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson were associated with what movement? Christian Fundamentalism What state first made the teaching of evolution illegal? Tennessee What organization organized and supported the defense of science teacher John T. Scopes? ACLU What was the trial of John T. Scopes commonly called? Scopes Monkey Trial Who took the lead in the defense of John T. Scopes? Clarence Darrow Who took the lead in the prosecution of John T. Scopes? William Jennings Bryan What was not at question in the trial of John T. Scopes? Scopes’ guilt or innocence (he admitted his guilt) At the Scopes Trial, Darrow called Bryan to the stand as what? An expert on the Bible Who were the “liberated” women of the 1920s? Flappers Who opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S.? Margaret Sanger Who defeated Jack Dempsey in the “Fight of the Century”? Gene Tunney What was the first major “talkie”? The Jazz Singer What was the first major animated “talkie”? Steamboat Willie Who termed the 1920s, “The Jazz Age”? F. Scott Fitzgerald Who were the group of writers that soured on American culture and moved to Europe (Fitzgerald, Hemmingway, Eliot, …)? The Lost Generation (termed by Gertrude Stein) What Tulsa neighborhood was destroyed by the Race Riot of 1921? Greenwood (Black Wall Street of America) James Weldon Johnson composed what “black national anthem”? Lift Every Voice and Sing What newspaper was published by the NAACP? The Crisis Who founded the UNIA which promoted the “Back to Africa” movement? Marcus Garvey What was the literary and artistic movement that celebrated African-American culture in the 1920s? The Harlem Renaissance At what Harlem club did those like the “Empress of the Blues,” Bessie Smith, perform? The Cotton Club Who was the poet from Joplin, Missouri who wrote The Weary Blues Langston Hughes What philosophy suggests that government should not attempt to regulate the economy and should allow free market principles to operate freely? Laissez-Faire What percentage of people owned stocks in 1929 3% In what type of market does the value of stocks increase? Bull Market In what type of market does the value of stocks decrease? Bear Market What is the term for buying stocks on credit? Buying on Margin What is October 29, 1929, the day the Stock Market crashed, commonly called? Black Tuesday What caused half of the nation’s banks to fail during the Great Depression? Reckless Investments Runs on the Banks How high did unemployment get during the Great Depression? 25% What was the highest U.S. tariff in history? Hawley-Smoot Tariff What was the unintended consequence of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff? Seriously reduced international trade What was the only decade in history in which the U.S. had a net out-migration? 1930s What organizations provided relief during the early period of the Great Depression? Churches & Charities How high did African-American unemployment get during the Great Depression? 50% Latinos faced an increased danger of what during the Great Depression? Deportation For what were women often scorned during the Great Depression? Working outside their homes Which farmers faced the most likelihood of being displaced during the Great Depression? Tenant Farmers & Sharecroppers As prices fell, what did farmers who were in debt face? Foreclosure What environmental disaster made the Great Depression worse? The Dust Bowl What natural phenomenon helped cause the Dust Bowl? Drought What human action helped cause the Dust Bowl? Plowing up the native grasses What derogatory term was used for those who migrated to places like California to escape the Dust Bowl from OK, CO, NM, KS, & ? TX Okies Who wrote the Grapes of Wrath about the Joad Family’s experience during the Great Depression? John Steinbeck What detrimental situations were faced by children during the Great Depression? Many schools closed Childhood diseases increased Who was elected President in 1928? Herbert Hoover What was Herbert Hoover’s campaign slogan? “A chicken in every pot and car in every garage” What were hoboes sometimes called during the Great Depression? “Hoover Tourists” What were the shantytowns sometimes called during the Great Depression? Locust Grove (not really, they were called Hoovervilles) What did Herbert Hoover believe weakened people’s self-respect and moral fiber? Handouts What dam, built on the Colorado River, created Lake Meade? Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam) Who were the Bonus Marchers in 1932? World War I Veterans What was the collection of programs initiated during the Roosevelt Administration aimed at taking the country out of the Great Depression? The New Deal For what three groups was Eleanor Roosevelt a major advocate? Women, Children, & Minorities What amendment to the Constitution moved the Presidential Inauguration date to January 20th? 20th Amendment What was the group of professors, lawyers, and journalists put together by FDR called? “Brain Trust” What was the initiation of the New Deal programs early in FDR’s Administration called? First Hundred Days How did FDR begin to restore faith in banks? Declared a Bank Holiday (closed banks, investigated, reopened solvent banks) What were FDR’s talks with the American people called? Fireside Chats What agency regulates the Stock Market? SEC (Securities & Exchange Commission) What agency insures bank deposits? FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) What project reworked existing dams and built new ones in the Tennessee Valley? TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) What agency built on the success of the TVA in providing electric serve to rural areas? REA (Rural Electrification Administration) What agency built roads, parks, and flood control projects? CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps) What agency assists people in securing home loans? FHA (Federal Housing Administration) How did FDR feel about deficit spending? Necessary Evil Deficit spending to stimulate the economy is part of which economist’s ideas? John Maynard Keynes What is the very important aspect of Keynesian Economics too often overlooked? Pay the debt off during good times What conservative organization believed that FDR’s policies interfered too much with the free market? American Liberty League What was FDR’s plan to deal with the rejection of many of his programs by the Supreme Court? “Pack the Court” Who was FDR’s first appointment to the Supreme Court who began to tip the balance of the Court in a liberal direction? Hugo S. Black Who was the popular and corrupt governor of Louisiana who planned to challenge FDR for the presidency? Huey Long What was Huey Long’s proposed nationwide social program plan? “Share-Our-Wealth” What was Huey Long’s campaign slogan? “Every Man a King” What book by Robert Penn Warren is a fictionalized account of Huey Long’s career? All the King’s Men What was the aim of the Second Hundred Days? More Extensive Relief What Second New Deal policy created as many jobs as possible as quickly as possible and included professionals such as artists and writers? WPA (Works Progress Administration) What 1930s act of Congress protected the rights of workers to join unions and to collectively bargain? Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act) What 1930s act of Congress set a standard workweek and minimum wage? Fair Labor Standards Act Where did the 1937 Memorial Day Massacre take place? Chicago What 1930s act of Congress established the national retirement insurance program? Social Security Act Who was the first African- American cabinet member? Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins During the FDR Administration, government policy dealing with Native Americans moved away from assimilation toward what? Autonomy What was the new make up of the Democratic Party during FDR’s time that included minority groups and labor unions? The New Deal Coalition What organization refused to allow African-American singer Marian Anderson perform in their concert hall, prompting Eleanor Roosevelt to resign from the organization? Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) What Frank Capra film presented the accomplishments of the New Deal? Mr. Deeds Goes to Town Who wrote War of the Worlds? H.G. Wells Who painted American Gothic? Grant Wood Who wrote This Land is Your Land and other songs about his experiences during the Great Depression? Woody Guthrie Who took the photograph Migrant Mother? Dorothea Lange What finally brought the country out of the Great Depression? Mobilization for World War II Standard IV What was the democratic government in Germany following World War I? Weimar Republic Who was the dictator of Spain following the Spanish Civil War? Francisco Franco Who was the Fascist ruler of Italy following World War I? Benito Mussolini Who ruled the Soviet Union after Lenin’s death? Stalin Of what political party did Adolph Hitler become the leader? National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) The totalitarian regime led by Tojo in Japan was made up of what group? Militarists What region of China did Japan invade after World War I? Manchuria What African country did Italy invade after World War I? Ethiopia What former German territory did Nazi Germany first occupy in violation of the Treaty of Versailles? Rhineland Why was the U.S. not a member of the League of Nations? Senate did not ratify the treaty What perceived injustice did the Nye Commission bring to light? Huge profits made during WWI Why did the girl scouts change the color of their uniforms after World War I? To seem less militaristic With what region did FDR’s Good Neighbor Policy deal? Latin America What acts of Congress attempted to keep the U.S. out of the military affairs of other countries? Neutrality Acts What country was willingly annexed into the Third Reich in 1938? Austria What territory in Czechoslovakia did Britain and France allow Nazi Germany to occupy at the Munich Conference? Sudetenland What did Winston Churchill call Chamberlain’s willingness to give Hitler some of what he wanted in hopes he would not take more? Appeasement What did Nazi Germany do very soon after Hitler was appeased at the Munich Conference? Took the rest of Czechoslovakia With whom did Hitler sign a non-aggression pact in order to give Nazi Germany time to build its forces? Stalin What territories did the Soviet Union acquire prior to Hitler breaking the non-aggression pact? Baltics, Finland, Eastern Poland Who wrote Mein Kampf? Adolph Hitler Where was Hitler’s lebensraum? Western USSR What geographic theory states that a country must continually grow or it will die? Organic State Theory What country became the first victim of the Nazi blitzkrieg in September of 1939? Poland Because of the high degree of control the Nazi Regime had over it, what country was chosen as the location of the Nazi death camps? Poland What was the Nazi plan to do away with the European Jews referred to by the leadership? The Final Solution . . . to the Jewish Question Who was the most famous Jewish scientist that migrated to the U.S. just prior to the Holocaust? Albert Einstein What was the name of the ship carrying mostly Jewish refugees that was turned away by the Cuban and American governments in 1939? The Saint Louis What was the defensive fortification built by the French along their border with Germany? Maginot Line What was the early phase of World War II in Europe called that was also known as sitzkrieg? Phony War From what French city were almost 400,000 Allied troops rescued mostly by small fishing craft during World War II? Dunkirk What was the southern part of occupied France in which a French government was set up that was a puppet government of the Nazis? Vichy France Who established the French government-in-exile during World War II? Charles de Gaulle What is the German Air Force? The Luftwaffe What is the British Air Force? Royal Air Force (RAF) What was the pre-Lend-Lease policy that allowed the sale of weapons to countries that paid cash and provided their own transportation? “Cash-and-Carry” What was the agreement among the Axis Powers that was an attempt to keep the U.S. out of World War II? Tripartite Pact What 1940 act of Congress ended U.S. neutrality and made it possible to supply the Allies with weapons without immediate payment? Lend-Lease Act How did FDR refer to the U.S. in explaining the importance of the Lend-Lease Policy? “The Arsenal of Democracy” How did U.S. shipping manage to successfully deal with the u-boat wolf packs? Convoys What agreement about war aims did FDR and Churchill sign on the USS Augusta? Atlantic Charter What was the charter of war aims signed by 26 Allied nations? Declaration of the United Nations The Japanese invasion of what territory prompted the U.S. to cut off trade with the country prior to World War II? Indochina On what date did the Japanese attack the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii? December 7, 1941 “A Day Which Will Live In Infamy” What response did the Japanese expect from the attack on Pearl Harbor? U.S. Fear of War with Japan What structure was established to allow women volunteers serve in the U.S. Army? Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) How did FDR prevent the planned march on Washington led by A. Philip Randolph to demand rights for African-Americans to work and fight for their country? Issued an executive order limiting discrimination The production of what symbol of freedom and prosperity was halted during World War II in order to produce military vehicles? Civilian Automobiles What organization was responsible for the development or improvement of wartime technologies such as radar, sonar, penicillin, and pesticides? Office of Scientific Research & Development Who wrote the letter to FDR warning him of the need to develop the atomic bomb before the Nazis? Albert Einstein Who directed the Manhattan Project? Robert Oppenheimer Where was the first test atomic explosion? Alamogordo, NM Who were the pioneer African-American aviators during World War II? The Tuskegee Airmen Who was the Supreme Allied Commander of U.S. Forces in Europe during World War II? Dwight David Eisenhower What was the code name of the D-Day Invasion of German-occupied Europe? Operation Overlord When was D-Day? June 6, 1944 Where did 3 million Allied troops land on D-Day? Normandy Who led the air assault on D-Day? Omar Bradley Who led the land assault on D-Day? George Patton What was the last major German offensive during World War II? The Battle of the Bulge What was May 8, 1945? V-E Day (Victory in Europe) What was Douglas MacArthur’s famous quote when he was ordered to leave the Philippines? “I shall return” What was the U.S. strategy in the Pacific during World War II in which the islands occupied by Japan were retaken one at a time? Island-Hopping Strategy Who led U.S. forces to victory in the Pacific during World War II? Chester Nimitz What was the turning point in the War of the Pacific during World War II? Battle of Midway What was the first major defeat of Japan on land during World War II? Guadalcanal Who were the Japanese suicide pilots during World War II? Kamikazes Who made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan? President Harry Truman What was the name of the plane that delivered Little Boy to Hiroshima? The Enola Gay What was the name of the bomb dropped on Nagasaki? Fat Man Where did the formal surrender of Japan take place, ending World War II? USS Missouri What was September 2, 1945? V-J Day (Victory in Japan) What principle was firmly established by the Nuremberg War Trials? Individual Responsibility Where did the “Big Three” meet to plan their post- World War II strategy? Yalta, USSR Who directed the seven-year U.S. occupation of Japan following World War II? Douglas MacArthur What is the Japanese Constitution called? MacArthur Constitution What part of the Japanese Constitution prohibits the building of an offensive military force? Article IX What act of Congress provided education, training, and loans to veterans? The G.I. Bill Where did the 1943 Zoot-Suit Riots take place? Los Angeles What executive order issued by FDR was upheld by the Case of Korematsu v U.S.? Internment of Japanese-Americans Standard V At what European river did U.S. and Soviet troops meet to celebrate the World War II victory? Elbe River What peacekeeping organization was formed in San Francisco following World War II? United Nations What was the conflict between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. lasting from 1945 until 1991 that did not include any direct military engagements? Cold War Who called the separation of Europe into a communist sphere and a non-communist sphere following World War II an “iron curtain”? Winston Churchill President Truman’s vision of a new world order following World War II was based on what concept? Self-Determination What was the principle Cold War foreign policy objective? Containment of Communism What post-World War II doctrine stated that the U.S. would provide aid to those people resisting subjugation? Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan primarily provided funds to rebuild which region of the world? Western Europe How was West Berlin supplied when Stalin cut off access to the city? Berlin Airlift What military alliance was formed by the U.S., Canada, and the countries of Western Europe following World War II? NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) What military alliance was formed by the U.S. and the countries of Southeast Asia to stop the spread of communism? SEATO/Manila Pact (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) What was the military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe following World War II? The Warsaw Pact What was the first proxy war of the Cold War? Korean War What stopped the Soviets from vetoing the UN Security Council resolution that authorized the use of force to defend South Korea? Soviets were boycotting the UN What is the boundary between North and South Korea? 38th Parallel What river forms the border between China and North Korea along which 300 Thousand Chinese troops met coalition forces led by Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War? Yalu River Why did President Truman fire Douglas MacArthur? Insubordination (insisted that he be allowed to invade China & use nuclear weapons) How did the Korean War end? Stalemate What agency investigated government employees and dismissed those it suspected to be communists? Loyalty Review Board What Congressional Committee investigated suspected communists inside and outside of government? HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee) What was the group of writers, directors, and producers who refused to cooperate with HUAC and went to prison? Hollywood Ten Who did Richard Nixon help prosecute after the statute of limitations expired, earning him notoriety as an anti-communist? Alger Hiss (convicted for perjury) What couple was executed for espionage after the Soviet tested their first atomic bomb? Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Who was the radical anti- communist Republican Senator from Wisconsin that went too far when he accused the U.S. Army of “coddling communists”? Joseph McCarthy (for whom McCarthyism was named) During what military operation did the U.S. test the first hydrogen bomb? Operation Ivy Who developed the strategy of brinkmanship which used the threat of nuclear war as a deterrent to war? John Foster Dulles (Eisenhower’s Secretary of State) What organization was formed during the Cold War to gather intelligence and to weaken governments that were unfriendly to the U.S.? CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) What region of the world did the Eisenhower Doctrine promise to defend? Middle East (Southwest Asia) What was the first manmade satellite launched into orbit by the Soviets in 1957? Sputnik I Who committed the U.S. to landing a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s? John F. Kennedy Who was the pilot of the U-2 plane shot down over the Soviet Union during the Cold War? Francis Gary Powers What government program provided unemployment payments, education, and loans to returning veterans following World War II? G.I. Bill What prevented the predicted Post-World War II depression? High Demand for Goods What post-World War II act of Congress overturned many of the rights previously won by labor unions? It was passed over President Truman’s veto. Taft-Hartley Act Who was the first African- American to play in the majors? Jackie Robinson (Brooklyn Dodgers) Who did President Truman defeat to win reelection in 1948? Thomas Dewey & Strom Thurmond What was President Truman’s collection of domestic proposals that included national healthcare called? Fair Deal Who defeated Adlai Stevenson (D) for the Presidency in 1952? Dwight David Eisenhower (R) Who made the “Checkers Speech” to refute allegations of corruption during the 1952 Presidential Campaign? Richard Nixon What major infrastructure program began during the Eisenhower Administration? Interstate Highway System What Supreme Court Case overturned the Plessy v Ferguson Decision? Brown v Board of Education What Supreme Court Decision ended segregated public schools? Brown v Board of Education What is the practice of selling the rights to operate a business with the condition of following corporate policies? Franchising What was the biggest spike in population in U.S. history? Baby Boom Who develop the polio vaccine? Jonas Salk Who wrote controversial advice about child-rearing practices in the 1950s? Dr. Benjamin Spock Who painted idealistic images of American life like After the Prom? Norman Rockwell Who wrote The Feminine Mystique? Betty Friedan Who was the Cleveland D.J. that helped make rock ‘n’ roll popular? Alan Freed Who were the nonconformists of the 1950s? Beatniks Who wrote the beat movement poem Howl? Allen Ginsberg Who wrote the beat movement novel On the Road? Jack Kerouac What act granted citizenship to Native-Americans? Snyder Act of 1924 What act of Congress changed the government’s policy in dealing with Native-Americans from assimilation to autonomy? Reorganization Act of 1934 What organization was formed in 1944 to work for equal rights for Native-Americans and to maintain Native traditions? National Congress of American Indians What was the failed purpose of the termination policy that began in 1953? End the Reservation System Who did John F. Kennedy defeat in the presidential race in 1960? Richard Nixon According to the rules of debate, who “won” the (first) televised presidential debates between Kennedy and Nixon? Nixon Who gained more political support as a result of the televised presidential debates between Nixon and Kennedy? Kennedy What did President Eisenhower warn the country about in his Farewell Address? Military-Industrial Complex Why did many African-Americans decide to support Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election? RFK helped arrange for the release of MLK from jail By what Medieval name was the Kennedy White House known? Camelot For what book did John F. Kennedy receive a Pulitzer Prize? Profiles in Courage Who was President Kennedy’s closest advisor? Robert Kennedy (Attorney General) How was the policy of “flexible response” different from “brinkmanship”? Included Non-Nuclear Options After Fidel Castro became the ruler of Cuba, upon what country did Cuba become dependent? Soviet Union What presidential administration planned the Bay of Pigs Invasion? Eisenhower Who ordered the Bay of Pigs Invasion which failed? JFK What military action was taken by JFK against the USSR and Cuba when it was discovered that the Soviets had placed nuclear missiles in Cuba? Quarantine Who was the Soviet leader that decided to withdraw the missiles placed in Cuba rather than face war with the United States? Khrushchev From what country did the U.S. secretly agree to withdraw nuclear missiles during the Cuban Missile Crisis? Turkey What did the East Germans do when Khrushchev decided against closing western access to West Berlin? Built the Berlin Wall (1961-1989) What was JFK’s vision of progress called? The New Frontier What international humanitarian organization of volunteers was established by JFK? Peace Corps What was the first artificial satellite launched into orbit by the United States? Explorer I Who was the first American in space? Alan Shepard What was the first communications satellite? Telstar When did the U.S. first land a man on the moon? July 20, 1969 (Neil Armstrong) Where was JFK assassinated on November 22, 1963? Dallas, Texas Who did the Warren Commission confirm as the lone assassin of President Kennedy? Lee Harvey Oswald Who administered the oath of office to President Lyndon Johnson on Air Force One? Sarah Hughes (only woman to administer the oath) What was Lyndon Johnson’s persuasive technique often called? “LBJ Treatment” What was LBJ’s vision for racial equality and the war on poverty? The Great Society What act of Congress in 1964 prohibited discrimination? Civil Rights Act of 1964 What EOA program provided job training for at-risk teens? Job Corps What EOA program provided early childhood education for at-risk pre-schoolers? Head Start What federal healthcare programs provide medical insurance for the elderly and the poor? Medicare & Medicaid Who did President Johnson defeat in the 1964 Presidential Election? Barry Goldwater (R) What was the “Daisy Commercial”? LBJ’s Political Ad (against Barry Goldwater) Who was the Chief Justice of the United States when the civil rights cases of the 1950s and 1960s were decided? Earl Warren What Supreme Court Decision required that the states draw their political districts based on the concept of one person – one vote? Baker v Carr What Supreme Court Decision required that the states integrate their school systems? Brown v Board of Education (of Topeka, Kansas) What Supreme Court Decision established the Exclusionary Rule? Mapp v Ohio What Supreme Court Decision requires that a person being charged with a crime be given legal representation? Gideon v Wainwright What Supreme Court Decision requires that a person being charged with a crime be made aware of his or her rights? Miranda v Arizona What NAACP attorney became the first African-American to serve on the Supreme Court? Thurgood Marshall What is the term for legal segregation? de jure Segregation What is the term for segregation in fact, but not by law? de facto Segregation The Brown v Board of Education Decision that overturned the “doctrine of separate, but equal” established by the Plessy v Ferguson Decision was based on what Amendment? 14th Amendment (Equal Protection of the Law) Who was the Governor of Oklahoma that willingly led the integration of the state’s public schools because he believed it was the Christian thing to do? Raymond Gary Federal troops were used to force the integration of what Arkansas school when Governor Orval Faubus attempted to prevent integration? Central High in Little Rock Who refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus in 1955, sparking the Bus Boycott? Rosa Parks What organization that practiced peaceful civil disobedience was led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.? Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC) What was the organization of students who practiced peaceful civil disobedience during the Civil Rights Movement? SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee) What organization first successfully used the sit-in to change the policies of discriminatory businesses? CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) Who was the Douglass High School teacher in Oklahoma City that organized her students in the sit-in that changed the policy of Katz Drug Store? Clara Luper Who were the mostly college aged protestors who tested the enforcement of Supreme Court Ruling requiring integration of buses and bus terminals? Freedom Riders What was the speech given by MLK as part of the March on Washington in 1963? “I Have a Dream” What was the Summer of 1964 during which civil rights workers helped African- Americans in Mississippi to register to vote called? Freedom Summer What act of Congress outlawed literacy tests for voting? Voting Rights Act of 1965 What Amendment outlawed poll taxes? 24th Amendment What leader of the Nation of Islam disagreed with nonviolence as a means of achieving equality? Malcolm X What phrase was coined by Stokely Carmichael? “Black Power” What organization that advocated self-defense was founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale? Black Panthers What did the Kerner Commission determine was the number one cause of urban violence in 1968? White Racism What did the Civil Rights Act of 1968 end? Discrimination in Housing What policies adopted by many companies and universities gave preferential consideration to members of groups that had been discriminated against in the past? Affirmative Action Who was the Vietnamese nationalist that worked for Vietnamese independence from the French, …? Ho Chi Minh After what document did Ho Chi Minh model the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence? U.S. Declaration of Independence What political ideology did Ho Chi Minh adopt, putting him at odds with the United States? Communism What line of latitude formed the boundary between North and South Vietnam after the Geneva Accords? 17th Parallel Who formed a government friendly to the U.S. in South Vietnam after the division of the country? Ngo Dinh Diem What was the North Vietnamese Army? Vietminh What was the South Vietnamese Army? ARVN Army Who were the communists in South Vietnam that battled U.S. and ARVN forces during the Vietnam War? Vietcong (V-C/Charlie) Who was LBJ’s Secretary of Defense that devised a great deal of the country’s Vietnam policies? Robert McNamara Who was the commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam through most of the war? William Westmoreland What was the code name of the first major bombing operation against the North during the Vietnam War? Operation Rolling Thunder What infrastructure network was built by the Vietcong that aided in their efforts against U.S. and ARVN forces? Tunnels What nickname is often used for those who support military action? Hawks What nickname is often used for those who oppose military action? Doves During the Vietnam War, men could defer being drafted by doing what? Going to College During the Vietnam War, what group of men were drafted at higher rates than others? Poor The Vietnam War was the first war in which what technology played a major role in shaping public opinion? Television “Living Room War” Which two major architects of the country’s efforts in Vietnam gave up their jobs in frustration? Secretary of Defense McNamara President Johnson 1968 MLK Assassinated RFK Assassinated Tet Offensive Violence at the Democratic Convention Brown Berets Organized School Walk-Out NY Radical Women Crowned a Sheep Richard Nixon was Elected President Who were the candidates in the 1968 Presidential Election? Richard Nixon (R) * Hubert Humphries (D) George Wallace What exit strategy for the Vietnam War was formulated by Henry Kissinger? Vietnamization Where was the massacre led by Lt. William Calley, Jr. during the Vietnam War? Village of My Lai At what Ohio university were four killed and nine wounded by National Guard troops during violent protest on the campus? Kent State What were the documents released to the press by former Defense Department worker Daniel Ellsberg about the secret bombing of Cambodia during the Vietnam War? Pentagon Paper (published in the NY Times) What was President Nixon’s goal in leaving Vietnam? “Peace with Honor” What happened when U.S, forces left Vietnam in 1973? South Fell to the North What was Saigon, the capital of the former South Vietnam, renamed after the war? Ho Chin Minh City What was the U.S. casualty count from the Vietnam War? 58,000 Deaths 300,000 Wounded What 1973 act of Congress limited the President’s ability to wage war without the approval of Congress? War Powers Act Who helped organize the United Farms Workers? Cesar Chavez Russell Means of what group organized the march known as the “Trail of Broken Promises”? AIM (American Indian Movement) In 1973, Aim led a group of Sioux in a return to what place? Wounded Knee What organization was formed by Betty Friedan in 1966? NOW (National Organization of Women) Who began publishing Ms Magazine in 1972? Gloria Steinem What Supreme Court Decision prohibits states from making abortions illegal during the first trimester? Roe v Wade What proposed Amendment would ban discrimination based on gender? ERA (Equal Rights Amendment) Phyllis Schlafly was a leader in the opposition to what movement? Feminism What was the 1972 law that requires equal access to educational programs including athletics for both genders? Title IX What counter-culture phrase was coined by Harvard Psychology Professor Timothy Leary? “Tune In, Turn On, and Drop Out” Where was the hub of the counter-culture movement of the 1960s? Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco With what type of art is Andy Warhol most associated? Pop Art What did Richard Nixon call those who wanted order restored? “Silent Majority” What new approach to federal grants was initiated by President Nixon in which states were given more control of the funds? New Federalism Who did President Nixon nominate as Chief Justice when Earl Warren retired? Warren Burger What Amendment established the procedures for filling vacancies in the Office of President and Vice-President? 25th Amendment What Amendment lowered the voting age to 18? 26th Amendment What is the economic phenomenon in which the country experiences high unemployment and inflation at the same time? Stagflation What organization imposed an oil embargo against the U.S. in 1973? OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) What was the period of time called in which the Communist and Non-Communist World worked to peacefully coexist? Era of Détente What was the first nuclear arms limitation agreement negotiated by President Nixon? SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) What organization orchestrated the reelection of President Nixon in 1972? CReeP (Committee to Reelect the President) CReeP organized a break-in of what complex in which the Democratic Party was headquartered in Washington, D.C.? Watergate Who did President Nixon defeat in a landslide in the 1972 Election? George McGovern Who were the reporters from the Washington Post that kept working the Watergate story until it received the attention of the public and Congress? Woodward & Bernstein Who was identified as Woodward and Bernstein’s secret government source in 2005? Mark Felt (#2 in the FBI) What was the Nixon Administration forced to turn over to Congress in U.S. v Nixon? Oval Office Recordings Who was Richard Nixon’s Vice- President that resigned prior to the Watergate Scandal? Spiro Agnew Who became President when Richard Nixon resigned in 1974? Gerald Ford How did President Ford protect former President Nixon and attempt to “heal” the nation after the Watergate Scandal? Pardoned Nixon The study of history is a search for our true identity in order to give us a reference point to create a better future.
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