Audiences and Institutions

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					   Institutions and Audiences
         Exam Technique

•To understand the format and timings
       required for the paper.
     •To practice essay planning
 Key terminology and Case Studies

• Your success in this exam will depend
  on your correct use of both the key
  terminology and concepts and also
  your case studies in questions

• With that in mind lets remind ourselves
  what we mean by key terminology and
  some of the case studies….
    Key concepts - Recap test….
•   What is meant by “Convergence”?
•   What is the term used to describe the process by which Technologies are getting smaller and
•   What is the term used to describe the process by which Technologies are getting smaller and
•   What is meant by P2P downloading?
•   What makes illegal downloading difficult to control/regulate?
•   What sort of person is a “technophile”?
•   What is the ‘means of production’?
•   What does ‘user generated content’ mean and where might you put it?
•   Who established Napster and in what year?
•   What year did downloading go mainstream? What proof do you have of this?
•   Who is the biggest retailer of legal downloads?
•   What impact has downloading had on traditional retail channels? Do you have any proof to back
    this up?
•   Besides releasing singles and albums what other media products can artists use to get their
    songs heard? Specific examples?
•   What does a record companies A&R department do?
•   What is meant by ‘digital zeitgeist’?
•   Who are the big 4 and how much of the industry do they control?
•   What is the difference between a major record label and an independent one?
   A reminder about the paper.
• The important details:

• The whole paper is 2 hours long.
• There are two sections to the paper:
• Section A: Key Media Concepts – TV
• Section B: Institutions and Audiences
• Question 1 TV Drama
• 30 mins approx. watching of unseen clip
• 45 mins answering the essay question. No choice of question just
  one and it will relate to one or more areas of representation (Gender
  / Age / Ethnicity / Sexuality / Class / Physical Ability / Regional
  Identity) and how this representation is created through the technical
  aspects (Cinematography, Mise en scene, Editing and Sound)
• Question 2 Institutions and Audiences
• 45 mins, no choice of questions just one. It will be a general
  question about the media industry that you have studied and you will
  answer it in relation to the music industry.
• Both questions are worth 50 marks
• The exam is worth 50% of your AS grade in total
      Question 2 – Institutions and
• Always refer to the case study material that we have
  looked at in class and that you have researched on
  your own in detail. This is what you will revise for!
• Read question properly, highlighting keywords.
  Ensure you understand the wording before
  attempting to answer.
• The question will be very broad. Non-specific. Tailor
  your knowledge to it.
• Avoid rushing to answer it in twenty minutes, you
  should allow the full 45 minutes otherwise you will
  not have covered the issues in enough depth!
• Write in continuous prose, not points.
• Remember to revise key terminology and apply it to
  your answer.
               Case Study Material
• Keep researching!:
•   Task: Go to the BBC site, Guardian or Times online and find a recent
    topical article that’s is specific to our case studies and subject matter.

•   The examiner will see that you have extended your learning beyond
    what the teacher has taught/given you and that you are up to date on
    what’s going in the world of media tech and music.

•   Review your in class and case study notes and start to think about
    how you can apply it to exam question.

•   The question will either be industry    based, audience based
    or a combination of the two.
               Essay planning
• Spend at least 5 minutes planning before you start
• Every essay should start with a strong general
  introduction where you break down what is being asked.
  (say what you are going to say!)
• The main body should then take individual relevant
  points one by one (say it).
• The essay should then be tied together by a strong
  conclusion, that answers the original question based on
  what you have stated in the main body (remind the
  reader what you have said).
• Remember PEE – point, evidence and explain.
• Make sure you come back to the question throughout
  and are always answering what is being asked!
               For example….
• To what extent have new technologies changed the
  way that audiences consume the media in the media
  industry that you have studied?

• Intro –NMT’s? changing the way? Audiences?
  Consuming of the media? To what extent – a lot or a

• New technologies such as…

• Within the music industry these new technologies have
  changed the way that these audiences have consumed
  music to a great extent over recent years. This essay will
  explore some of the ways how.
                  For example….
• Main body (some points) Remember this question is about
  “consuming” not “creating”:
• Impact of digital files versus hard versions (CD, Vinyl etc)
• Compression
• Convergence
• Portability
• Streaming / User Generated Content sites, less ownership?
• Downloading not traditional shopping, trading of files – P2P (legal vs
  illegal), burning of CD’s etc
• Cross media opportunities – computer games, ring tones, TV show
  placement – multichannel TV, specific shows targeting specific
• Particular impact on the youth market
• Technophiles and Early Adopters

• Any other suggestions?
           For example….
• Conclusion – Come back to your
  introduction and the question asked…

• New Technologies have changed the way
  that audiences consume music to a great
  extent. We have seen that…..

• Finish on a strong note! – As technology
  continues to evolve and develop this
  process only looks set to continue.
                  Your turn….
•   In groups, plan the intro / main body / conclusion for
    one of these questions:

A) Discuss the issues raised by institutions’ need to target
    specific audiences within a media industry which you
    have studied.
B) What effect has new technology had on media
C) Discuss the ways in which media products are produced
    and distributed to audiences within a media area which
    you have studied.
D) How are media products marketed and distributed within
    the media industry that you have studied?
E) How has the audience relationship with your media
    industry changed over recent years?

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