La colonia en el siglo XIX

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					The Colony in the 18th Century

Section 1
Closed Reading Terms
•   The War of Spanish Succession
•   Capitán Correa
•   Miguel Hernández
•   The Seven Years War
•   Alejandro O’ Reilly
•   The Atlantic Revolution
The War of Spanish Succession
• Carlos II died in 1700 and left no heir
• With the help of France, the Spanish court
  selected Felipe V (grandson of Louis XIV)
• England, Holland, and Portugal opposed to the
• The war lasted from 1700-1713
Impact of the War in Puerto Rico

  Provoked scarcity in the population

  Solidified contraband like never before

  Prohibited commerce between the English and
  Spanish possessions

  England started attacks against Spanish and French
  colonies: attacked Arecibo, Loiza, and Guayanilla
English Attacks
• The most famous in Arecibo August 5, 1702.
• Forty landed and confronted 30 creole
  soldiers under the command of Capitan
  ▫ They defeated the English attack.
  ▫ Only 1 creole soldier died
• In honor to the captain Arecibo is known as
  the “Villa del Capitan Correa.”
Spain Defends Against Bucaneers
The War of Spanish Succession created
an economic crisis                      Strategy Against Contaband

                                         Granted Corsican Licenses
                                         to the Spanish and criollos
  Sugar industry was
  struggling                             Persecuted by ship foreign
  The English and Dutch                  • Miguel Hernandez one of the most
  continued with contraband                important buccaneers 18th
                                         • Mulatto
  English pirates continued to           • Became extremely rich
  attack Spanish galleons                • Accused by envious white people of
                                           debt and illegal commerce
                                         • The government took his possessions
The Seven Years WarThe reforms by Felipe V
                                   attempted to affect the
Causes                             economic well being of
                                   England in the Caribbean
                                 • The plan:
 In the War of   The reforms
 Spanish         by Felipe V
 Succession,     left a legacy     Increase construction of ships
 Spain lost      of Spanish
 Stretch of      buccaneers        Develop a system of Spanish
 Gibraltar       that impacted     buccaneers
                 contraband        Move the House of Contracts
                                   from Sevilla to Cadiz

                                   Develop monopolistic
The Seven Years War
•In the middle of the 7 years War , Charles III became king
•Was able to consolidate the power of the new Spanish Empire

 •   +
 •   ++++

 •   +
The Visit of Alejandro O’ Reilly
• The Borbon kings wanted to        • The Company of
  give more importance to the         Barcelona was
  territories they had forgotten.
                                      established in 1755.
                                    • To begin an agricultural
                                      project in the island
                                    • Failed:
                                      • The company did not attend
                                        the food needs of the
                                        population in the Caribbean
                                      • Spain surrendered to
The Visit of Alejandro O’ Reilly

 • Charles III decided to send
   Alejandro O’ Reilly to
   investigate contraband to find    Contraband was        Contraband led to an
                                    beneficial for Spain    increase of goods
   a way to attack it.
 • O’ Reilly made a report and
   justified contraband in the                             Reported the cicle of
   island.                          People was more         contraband: Dutch
                                    dedicated to work        acquired tobacco,
                                       than before          English the wood,
                                                             and Danish cattle

                                                    To control
                                                suggested watching
The Visit of Alejandro O’Reilly
• O’ Reilly reported that PR did not meet the
  economic goals for Spain:
 ▫ There is no internal commerce
 ▫ There is no reciprocal dependence
 ▫ There is no equilibrium between the land given by
   the government and the fruits that it produced.
The Atlantic Revolution
• The period between 1775 and     • The colonies in the Americas
  1825                              now claimed their liberty.
• Started with the independence     ▫ The Haitian Revolution
  of the US                         ▫ Independence of Spanish
• The French Revolution had an        America
  impact in 1789
  ▫ Democratic concepts
PR in the 19th Century
Section 2
PR and the Napoleonic Wars
• Napoleon took over Spain         • The governors in the Spanish
• Put his brother Jose Bonaparte     territories supported Fernando
  to rule Spain.                     VII
• French invasion caused           • During Bonaparte’s rule, the
  discontent among the Spanish       colonies could send a
  people                             representative to the Junta
                                     Suprema de Sevilla
The “Real Cedula de Cedula de Gracias-
  • In 1814 Fernando VII       incentive to immigrants
    returned to the throne     to come and invest in
  • Eliminated the             PR
    representative bodies    • Some immigrants
    ▫ More absolutist          became naturalized
                               citizens to make
                               businesses easier.
                             • Immigrants started to
                               occupy important
                             • Criollos were at a
The “Real Cedula de Gracias”
Opened ports to
The Cedula allowed:all   friendly

    Opened foreign immigration as
    long as they were Catholics

         Permits to import slaves

             Abolition of taxes over diezmos and
• Commercial agriculture expanded
• At the beginning of the 19th sugar cane production and
  coffee increased.
• The value and volume of exportations increased.
• Commercial agriculture flourished due to the arrival of
  thousands of immigrants.
• Towards the end of the XVIII many political refugees
Transformation in Agriculture
 • The criollo elite was displaced by foreigners
   and plantation owners
 • Lands occupied by peasants were acquired by
   foreigners or bought by plantation owners.
 • Plantations displaced small farmers.
 • Subsistence products decreased
The Rebirth of the Slave Trade
• The growth of commercial    • 3 phases:
  agriculture required more     ▫ Up to 1815- legal and illegal
  labor                           trade
• Between 1820 and 1840 the     ▫ Between 1815 and 1835-
  slave trade increases           trade increased
                                ▫ Between 1835 and 1845 -
                                  slave trade decreases
The Decline of the Slave Trade
 • Slave trade disappears towards the end of the
 • England puts pressure for the end of the slave
 • The English watched the African and
   American coasts.
 • England’s pressure made the price of slaves
 • PR could not afford to buy slaves
• Slaves were the lowest     • For black and mulattos it
  class-”inferiors” to         was difficult to obtain
  society                      jobs
• Discrimination against     • At the top of society were
  black and mulattos           the plantation owners,
• For the elite it was         merchants, and slave
  offensive to have slave      owners
  ancestry                   • Peasants became
• People who had traces of     aggregates and
  African heritage were        jornaleros.
Absolutism or Constitution
• In 1814 King Ferdinand VII derogated the constitution
  and reestablished absolutism.
• Ferdinand VII is forced to proclaim the Constitution
• Representatives from P.R. called for more criollo
• In 1823 absolutism returns
Political Ideologies
• During the constitutional periods, political
  ideologies emerge and 3 groups
• Liberals- to maintain relations with Spain but
  with more participation from the people
• Conservatives –absolute monarchy and no
  representation in the courts, and for the criollos
• Separatists-separation from Spain,
  constitution, and rights for the citizens
Spain Gets Tougher
• Central and South America liberated from Spain
• PR and Cuba remained under Spain
• Capitan Generals governed like absolute monarchs
  under Spain
• Miguel de la Torre controlled the spread of revolutionary
  ideas and promoted commercial agriculture
Economy and Commerce

• Colonialism is strengthened in the Antilles
• Peasants paid taxes
• The money from the taxes covered
  government expenses
• Growth of the economy and commerce
• Taxes on commerce
• Trade with the US increased from 1840’s
• PR depended on trade with the US
• US interest in Cuba and PR
• Aggregate-peasant without land that has
  permission to live in the outskirts of a plantation
  in exchange of work or the product of that work.
• Despotic-tyrant
• Jornalero- rural worker that receives a salary
  for his work. The work is conditioned to the
  season of the agricultural product.
• Naturalization-adopt the nationality of
  another country.
• Cedula de Gracias- incentive to immigrants
Political and Social Conditions
in the Mid 19 th Century

Section 3
Closed Reading Terms

 Facultades omnimodas- absolute powers given by
 Spain to the governors of P.R. to decide on juridical,
 administrative, and economic aspects.
 Separatists-people who called for the separation
 from Spain to create an autonomous nation politically
 and economically
 Sovereign-the power and right that a state has over
 its own territory to carry its political affairs without
 the intervention other nations.

 Population increased due to
 immigration and natural growth
 At the beginning of the XIX there was a
 small population
 At the end of the century, people
 complained about the problems caused
 by overpopulation
 New towns were created
 Cultivated lands were expanded
 Social Structure

The majority of                Among the criollos, they
immigrants were single.        married based on the
Some married the               social class and the “color.”
daughters of prosperous        The white criollos married
criollos or the daughters of   white criollas, the mulattos
rich immigrants, or            with mulattos.
returned to their country      There were interracial
to marry.                      marriages.
They usually married
within their own ethnic
The Slaves

 Rebellions in the XIX
 took place in the north
 and south during
 revival of sugar.
 They made their own
 plans and conspiracies
 were revealed and the
 leaders punished
 The predominant form
 of rebellion was the
 escape and they
 committed acts of
 vengeance against their
Jornaleros (Workers)

                The rule of the jornalero 1849-
                each person older than 16 who
                didn’t have property had to
                work for a salary.
                They were required to carry a
                notebook and write down
                contracts and salaries
                There were observations written
                about the behavior and
                performance of the worker from
                the perspective of the employer.
                There was anger toward the
Culture and Politics

 Persecution of political   Ramon Emeterio
 dissidents                 Betances, Segundo Ruiz
 New political and social   Belvis,Maria Bibiana
 philosophies emerged       Benitez, Alejandrina
 thanks to some             Benitez Jose Julian
 intellectual criollos.     Acosta, Ramon
                            Baldorioty de Castro,
                            Manuel Alonso,
                            Alejandro Tapia y
                            Rivera, Eugenio Maria
                            de Hostos y Julio

 In the exterior,            They called for
 intellectuals dedicated
 to study and became
                             abolition of the
 familiar with ideas         notebook and
 about individual rights     slavery.
 and democracy.              Abolitionist groups
 When they returned,         emerge.
 intellectuals, longed for
 freedom of the country.     Julio Vizcarrondo
 They sympathized with       was a supporter of
 the poor, slaves, and       abolition
Population of Slaves

   300,000                        Brasil
             Brasil   Cuba   PR
Abolition and Separatism
 In Brazil, Cuba and PR slavery remained
 towards the end of the XIX
 The economic crisis in the 1860’s is going to
 weaken slavery in P.R.
 With the US Civil War, things had changed
 The spirit of separation emerged when the
 Spaniards were defeated in Santo Domingo.
 Ramon Emeterio Betánces was the main
 abolitionist and separatist.
                           Asked for:
 Informative Council           more powers to the
 of 1865 –to examine          colonies
 conditions in P.R. and       decentralization
 Cuba                         Representation in the courts
 Representatives from         Reduce taxes
 the Antilles and Spain.      Free trade
                              Help for farmers
 P.R. representatives -
                           There were discrepancies
 Segundo Ruiz Belvis,      about abolition of slavery
 Francisco Mariano         The petitions were denied
 Quinones,Jose Julián      and liberals were persecuted
 Acosta, etc…
The Road to Autonomy

      Section 4
    The Causes of el
   “Grito de Lares”

The government increased taxes
In 1867, a hurricane casued destruction affecting
Ramon Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz
Belvis escaped from the country and organized a
rebellion from abroad
Revolutionary councils emerged in different towns
The plan was to create a rebellion that would be
supported from abroad and by the population.
Leaders of el Grito de Lares
El Grito de Lares
September 23, 1868 rebels      The invasion was led by
took the town of Lares.        Betances, but it was
They took the town and         intercepted by the Spanish
imposed a provisional          Many were arrested.
government led by Francisco
Ramirez Medina                 Some leaders were given
                               the death penalty but
The republic of PR was
declared, they liberated the   ended up in prison.
slaves and the jornalero       The majority of the
notebook.                      accussed received
The revolutionaries            amnesty by governor Jose
continued toward Pepino        Laureano Sanz.
where they were defeated.
The Glorious Revolution
Revolutionary movements
are going to emerge in           Political Parties:
Spain and Cuba.                      Conservative Party
The war of 10 years took                 supported Spanish
place in Cuba.                           control
In Spain, there was a                Liberal Party
rebellion against Elizabeth
II, the Glorious                         Free trade
Revolution                               More local powers
The political system became              Abolition of
more liberal:                            slavery
     Created political parties   Conservative and liberal
     Allowed representatives     newspapers emerge
     to the courts.
Abolition, Economy, and
 In 1873, emerges the 1st   Sugar cane plantation
 Spanish Republic           Coffee took more
     They abolished         importance
     slavery and the        Some of the sugar
     jornalero notebook     growers switched to
 The plantation owners      coffee.
 were uncertain about       Coffee became the main
 the changes.               exportation product.
     Started to

 The republic did not last
 In 1874 the monarchy under the Borbons
    Allowed more freedom of the press.
 The urban population increased.
 Popular barrios emerge
    Artisans and urban workers
 Created cooperatives to bring protection to its

Representation in the courts.
Candidates were nominated by political parties
in Spain.
Criollo participation was minimal.
Criollos boycotted peninsular merchants.
Many autonomous liberals supported the
boycott against Spanish business.
   They were repressed.
The Autonomous Letter

 Liberals moved toward autonomy.
   They were persecuted by the
   governor Romualdo Palacios.
 Palacios was removed due to his
 repressive measures.
 The Liberal Party becomes the
 autonomist party in 1887.
         Autonomist Party

Luis Munoz Rivera         The autonomous party
proposes pact with        divides:
Spanish political party   Barbosa forms the
to give us autonomy       Autonomous Orthodox
(pactistas)               Party
Jose Celso Barbosa        Fusionist Party in Spain
(anti-pactista) opposed   promises to give
to the pact since the     autonomy if they reach
political party was pro   power.
monarchy.                 They reach power and
                          they give autonomy to
                          Cuba and P.R..
Approval of Autonomist Letter

  The autonomous government did not last long thanks to the
  Spanish American War.

 Amnesty-to give someone an official pardon for
 political crimes
 Autonomy-political ideology in the XIX that called
 for maintaining political relations with Spain but
 with more local authority and decisional power for
 the colonies
 Boycott- to end the relationship with a country or
 social sector by denying to do work or buy certain
 Casino-an association of people that belong to the
 same class, work, or specialty and that share the
 same ideals.
 Commute-change a sentencing for another

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