The Colony in the 18th Century
Closed Reading Terms
• The War of Spanish Succession
• Capitán Correa
• Miguel Hernández
• The Seven Years War
• Alejandro O’ Reilly
• The Atlantic Revolution
The War of Spanish Succession
• Carlos II died in 1700 and left no heir
• With the help of France, the Spanish court
selected Felipe V (grandson of Louis XIV)
• England, Holland, and Portugal opposed to the
• The war lasted from 1700-1713
Impact of the War in Puerto Rico
Provoked scarcity in the population
Solidified contraband like never before
Prohibited commerce between the English and
England started attacks against Spanish and French
colonies: attacked Arecibo, Loiza, and Guayanilla
• The most famous in Arecibo August 5, 1702.
• Forty landed and confronted 30 creole
soldiers under the command of Capitan
▫ They defeated the English attack.
▫ Only 1 creole soldier died
• In honor to the captain Arecibo is known as
the “Villa del Capitan Correa.”
Spain Defends Against Bucaneers
The War of Spanish Succession created
an economic crisis Strategy Against Contaband
Granted Corsican Licenses
to the Spanish and criollos
Sugar industry was
struggling Persecuted by ship foreign
The English and Dutch • Miguel Hernandez one of the most
continued with contraband important buccaneers 18th
English pirates continued to • Became extremely rich
attack Spanish galleons • Accused by envious white people of
debt and illegal commerce
• The government took his possessions
The Seven Years WarThe reforms by Felipe V
attempted to affect the
Causes economic well being of
England in the Caribbean
• The plan:
In the War of The reforms
Spanish by Felipe V
Succession, left a legacy Increase construction of ships
Spain lost of Spanish
Stretch of buccaneers Develop a system of Spanish
Gibraltar that impacted buccaneers
contraband Move the House of Contracts
from Sevilla to Cadiz
The Seven Years War
•In the middle of the 7 years War , Charles III became king
•Was able to consolidate the power of the new Spanish Empire
The Visit of Alejandro O’ Reilly
• The Borbon kings wanted to • The Company of
give more importance to the Barcelona was
territories they had forgotten.
established in 1755.
• To begin an agricultural
project in the island
• The company did not attend
the food needs of the
population in the Caribbean
• Spain surrendered to
The Visit of Alejandro O’ Reilly
• Charles III decided to send
Alejandro O’ Reilly to
investigate contraband to find Contraband was Contraband led to an
beneficial for Spain increase of goods
a way to attack it.
• O’ Reilly made a report and
justified contraband in the Reported the cicle of
island. People was more contraband: Dutch
dedicated to work acquired tobacco,
than before English the wood,
and Danish cattle
The Visit of Alejandro O’Reilly
• O’ Reilly reported that PR did not meet the
economic goals for Spain:
▫ There is no internal commerce
▫ There is no reciprocal dependence
▫ There is no equilibrium between the land given by
the government and the fruits that it produced.
The Atlantic Revolution
• The period between 1775 and • The colonies in the Americas
1825 now claimed their liberty.
• Started with the independence ▫ The Haitian Revolution
of the US ▫ Independence of Spanish
• The French Revolution had an America
impact in 1789
▫ Democratic concepts
PR in the 19th Century
PR and the Napoleonic Wars
• Napoleon took over Spain • The governors in the Spanish
• Put his brother Jose Bonaparte territories supported Fernando
to rule Spain. VII
• French invasion caused • During Bonaparte’s rule, the
discontent among the Spanish colonies could send a
people representative to the Junta
Suprema de Sevilla
The “Real Cedula de Cedula de Gracias-
• In 1814 Fernando VII incentive to immigrants
returned to the throne to come and invest in
• Eliminated the PR
representative bodies • Some immigrants
▫ More absolutist became naturalized
citizens to make
• Immigrants started to
• Criollos were at a
The “Real Cedula de Gracias”
Opened ports to
The Cedula allowed:all friendly
Opened foreign immigration as
long as they were Catholics
Permits to import slaves
Abolition of taxes over diezmos and
• Commercial agriculture expanded
• At the beginning of the 19th sugar cane production and
• The value and volume of exportations increased.
• Commercial agriculture flourished due to the arrival of
thousands of immigrants.
• Towards the end of the XVIII many political refugees
Transformation in Agriculture
• The criollo elite was displaced by foreigners
and plantation owners
• Lands occupied by peasants were acquired by
foreigners or bought by plantation owners.
• Plantations displaced small farmers.
• Subsistence products decreased
The Rebirth of the Slave Trade
• The growth of commercial • 3 phases:
agriculture required more ▫ Up to 1815- legal and illegal
• Between 1820 and 1840 the ▫ Between 1815 and 1835-
slave trade increases trade increased
▫ Between 1835 and 1845 -
slave trade decreases
The Decline of the Slave Trade
• Slave trade disappears towards the end of the
• England puts pressure for the end of the slave
• The English watched the African and
• England’s pressure made the price of slaves
• PR could not afford to buy slaves
• Slaves were the lowest • For black and mulattos it
class-”inferiors” to was difficult to obtain
• Discrimination against • At the top of society were
black and mulattos the plantation owners,
• For the elite it was merchants, and slave
offensive to have slave owners
ancestry • Peasants became
• People who had traces of aggregates and
African heritage were jornaleros.
Absolutism or Constitution
• In 1814 King Ferdinand VII derogated the constitution
and reestablished absolutism.
• Ferdinand VII is forced to proclaim the Constitution
• Representatives from P.R. called for more criollo
• In 1823 absolutism returns
• During the constitutional periods, political
ideologies emerge and 3 groups
• Liberals- to maintain relations with Spain but
with more participation from the people
• Conservatives –absolute monarchy and no
representation in the courts, and for the criollos
• Separatists-separation from Spain,
constitution, and rights for the citizens
Spain Gets Tougher
• Central and South America liberated from Spain
• PR and Cuba remained under Spain
• Capitan Generals governed like absolute monarchs
• Miguel de la Torre controlled the spread of revolutionary
ideas and promoted commercial agriculture
Economy and Commerce
• Colonialism is strengthened in the Antilles
• Peasants paid taxes
• The money from the taxes covered
• Growth of the economy and commerce
• Taxes on commerce
• Trade with the US increased from 1840’s
• PR depended on trade with the US
• US interest in Cuba and PR
• Aggregate-peasant without land that has
permission to live in the outskirts of a plantation
in exchange of work or the product of that work.
• Jornalero- rural worker that receives a salary
for his work. The work is conditioned to the
season of the agricultural product.
• Naturalization-adopt the nationality of
• Cedula de Gracias- incentive to immigrants
Political and Social Conditions
in the Mid 19 th Century
Closed Reading Terms
Facultades omnimodas- absolute powers given by
Spain to the governors of P.R. to decide on juridical,
administrative, and economic aspects.
Separatists-people who called for the separation
from Spain to create an autonomous nation politically
Sovereign-the power and right that a state has over
its own territory to carry its political affairs without
the intervention other nations.
Population increased due to
immigration and natural growth
At the beginning of the XIX there was a
At the end of the century, people
complained about the problems caused
New towns were created
Cultivated lands were expanded
The majority of Among the criollos, they
immigrants were single. married based on the
Some married the social class and the “color.”
daughters of prosperous The white criollos married
criollos or the daughters of white criollas, the mulattos
rich immigrants, or with mulattos.
returned to their country There were interracial
to marry. marriages.
They usually married
within their own ethnic
Rebellions in the XIX
took place in the north
and south during
revival of sugar.
They made their own
plans and conspiracies
were revealed and the
The predominant form
of rebellion was the
escape and they
committed acts of
vengeance against their
The rule of the jornalero 1849-
each person older than 16 who
didn’t have property had to
work for a salary.
They were required to carry a
notebook and write down
contracts and salaries
There were observations written
about the behavior and
performance of the worker from
the perspective of the employer.
There was anger toward the
Culture and Politics
Persecution of political Ramon Emeterio
dissidents Betances, Segundo Ruiz
New political and social Belvis,Maria Bibiana
philosophies emerged Benitez, Alejandrina
thanks to some Benitez Jose Julian
intellectual criollos. Acosta, Ramon
Baldorioty de Castro,
Alejandro Tapia y
Rivera, Eugenio Maria
de Hostos y Julio
In the exterior, They called for
to study and became
abolition of the
familiar with ideas notebook and
about individual rights slavery.
and democracy. Abolitionist groups
When they returned, emerge.
intellectuals, longed for
freedom of the country. Julio Vizcarrondo
They sympathized with was a supporter of
the poor, slaves, and abolition
Population of Slaves
Brasil Cuba PR
Abolition and Separatism
In Brazil, Cuba and PR slavery remained
towards the end of the XIX
The economic crisis in the 1860’s is going to
weaken slavery in P.R.
With the US Civil War, things had changed
The spirit of separation emerged when the
Spaniards were defeated in Santo Domingo.
Ramon Emeterio Betánces was the main
abolitionist and separatist.
Informative Council more powers to the
of 1865 –to examine colonies
conditions in P.R. and decentralization
Cuba Representation in the courts
Representatives from Reduce taxes
the Antilles and Spain. Free trade
Help for farmers
P.R. representatives -
There were discrepancies
Segundo Ruiz Belvis, about abolition of slavery
Francisco Mariano The petitions were denied
Quinones,Jose Julián and liberals were persecuted
The Road to Autonomy
The Causes of el
“Grito de Lares”
The government increased taxes
In 1867, a hurricane casued destruction affecting
Ramon Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz
Belvis escaped from the country and organized a
rebellion from abroad
Revolutionary councils emerged in different towns
The plan was to create a rebellion that would be
supported from abroad and by the population.
Leaders of el Grito de Lares
El Grito de Lares
September 23, 1868 rebels The invasion was led by
took the town of Lares. Betances, but it was
They took the town and intercepted by the Spanish
imposed a provisional Many were arrested.
government led by Francisco
Ramirez Medina Some leaders were given
the death penalty but
The republic of PR was
declared, they liberated the ended up in prison.
slaves and the jornalero The majority of the
notebook. accussed received
The revolutionaries amnesty by governor Jose
continued toward Pepino Laureano Sanz.
where they were defeated.
The Glorious Revolution
are going to emerge in Political Parties:
Spain and Cuba. Conservative Party
The war of 10 years took supported Spanish
place in Cuba. control
In Spain, there was a Liberal Party
rebellion against Elizabeth
II, the Glorious Free trade
Revolution More local powers
The political system became Abolition of
more liberal: slavery
Created political parties Conservative and liberal
Allowed representatives newspapers emerge
to the courts.
Abolition, Economy, and
In 1873, emerges the 1st Sugar cane plantation
Spanish Republic Coffee took more
They abolished importance
slavery and the Some of the sugar
jornalero notebook growers switched to
The plantation owners coffee.
were uncertain about Coffee became the main
the changes. exportation product.
The republic did not last
In 1874 the monarchy under the Borbons
Allowed more freedom of the press.
The urban population increased.
Popular barrios emerge
Artisans and urban workers
Created cooperatives to bring protection to its
Representation in the courts.
Candidates were nominated by political parties
Criollo participation was minimal.
Criollos boycotted peninsular merchants.
Many autonomous liberals supported the
boycott against Spanish business.
They were repressed.
The Autonomous Letter
Liberals moved toward autonomy.
They were persecuted by the
governor Romualdo Palacios.
Palacios was removed due to his
The Liberal Party becomes the
autonomist party in 1887.
Luis Munoz Rivera The autonomous party
proposes pact with divides:
Spanish political party Barbosa forms the
to give us autonomy Autonomous Orthodox
Jose Celso Barbosa Fusionist Party in Spain
(anti-pactista) opposed promises to give
to the pact since the autonomy if they reach
political party was pro power.
monarchy. They reach power and
they give autonomy to
Cuba and P.R..
Approval of Autonomist Letter
The autonomous government did not last long thanks to the
Spanish American War.
Amnesty-to give someone an official pardon for
Autonomy-political ideology in the XIX that called
for maintaining political relations with Spain but
with more local authority and decisional power for
Boycott- to end the relationship with a country or
social sector by denying to do work or buy certain
Casino-an association of people that belong to the
same class, work, or specialty and that share the
Commute-change a sentencing for another