Docstoc

roman-empire

Document Sample
roman-empire Powered By Docstoc
					Chapter 5: An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China
(753BCE-600CE)

ANCIENT ROME
Rome

LOCATION AND
AGRICULTURE
        THE ANCIENT ROMANS
I. LOCATION: On the Mediterranean Sea
     -Created a natural crossroads for trade &
       cultural exchange with other groups
     - Later, conquest of the Mediterranean Sea
     -Alps provided Italy protection from
      invaders
     - Agriculture: Main occupation of Roman
       citizens from 753 BCE to 31 BCE
      -rivers & fertile soil allowed for a variety of
       crops
                 Agriculture of Rome
 Supported a larger population than ancient
  Greece
 Early Romans were subsistence farmers
    ◦ They produced enough to support their family
   Later, in the 2nd and 3rd century BCE, there
    was a shift to plantation farming
    ◦ Called LATIFUNDIA
    ◦ Most farmers were commercial merchants who
      exported product
    ◦ Other smaller farmers had become soldiers in the
      vast Roman army
Chapter 5 Rome

BEGINNINGS OF THE
REPUBLIC
       The Early Republic (753 BCE–
                   31BCE)
 Actual archaeological research shows the
 Palatine Hill being occupied by 1000 BCE
 - Etruscan immigrants arrived as early as
 the 7th century BCE

 Popular myth says that Rome was founded
 by Romulus
 ◦ an orphan raised by a she wolf with his twin brother
   Remus
               Republic of Farmers
 Early Rome had kings in addition to the
 Senate
 ◦ Romulus
 ◦ Tarquinus Superbus – a tyrant
 ◦ Brutus “The Liberator” – deposed the tyrant and
   established the republic (507 BCE)
    Called “res publica” or public possession


 The basis of wealth was LAND and the
 wealthy had political power
 ◦ Members of the Senate
                  The Senate
 At first an advisory council to the king,
  became increasingly the governing body
  of Rome
 Consuls: Two consuls ran the Senate and
  led the armies during wars
 Senators: Were men of property &
  wealth
 ◦ Members served for life
 ◦ Made the laws of the state
Chapter 5

     MYTHOLOGY AND
        RELIGION
        The Ancient Roman Religion
 Upper class (aristocracy) performed rituals to
  the gods to win their favor
 Romans sought to keep balance between the
  gods and man
    ◦ Called the “Pax Deorum” (peace of the gods)
 Early Romans believed in invisible forces called
“numinia”
  - Vesta: the living energy of fire; dwelled in the
  hearth
 - Janus: protector of the door
          The Pantheon of Gods
 The Romans had hundreds of different
 gods
 ◦ This entire collection of all their gods was
   called the Pantheon.


 The Romans believed in many
 different gods and goddesses. For
 everything imaginable they had a god
 or goddess in charge.
 ◦ A Roman soldier would pray to Mars for
   strength in battle.
            The Pantheon
 The temple of the Roman gods
 Cross later added as a sign of Christianity
        Religion and Mythology
  They adapted much of their mythology from
  the Ancient Greeks
 Integral to art, politics, and culture
 Similar to Ancient Greek gods:
       a)Jupiter - Zeus
       b)Juno - Hera
       c)Neptune - Poseidon
       d)Apollo - Apollo
       e)Mars - Aries
       f)Venus – Aphrodite
       g) Minerva - Athena
    THE ANCIENT ROMANS




The god of love –
 Cupid (Roman)
and Eros (Greece)
Chapter 5

        ROMAN SOCIAL
           SYSTEM
         Ancient Roman Society
 The Roman Family: The Basic Unit of
  Society
 The family included several generations
  and domestic slaves

 The oldest living male exercised control
 over all the relatives
 ◦ Called: the paterfamilias
    THE ANCIENT ROMANS
 SOCIAL SYSTEM: Early Roman History
 Very unequal; the upper class had many
  rights and privileges that were not
  enjoyed by the lower class
   A) Patricians-nobility
      -small number
   B) Plebeians-majority of the population
       -landowners
       -merchants
       -small farmers
   C) Slaves-people who were conquered
         The Ancient Romans – Social
                   System
   Only patricians were allowed to become
    members of the governing body (Senate)
    ◦ Senators passed their seats down to their sons
    ◦ This allowed for patricians to keep all power
 Conflict between the classes was called the
  “Conflict of Orders”
 Later History: In about 450 BCE the Twelve
 Tablets included a provision for plebeian reps.
 to Senate
  - Called :Tribunes
    Ancient Roman Social Order
 Complex Ties of Obligation: Patron/Client
 Patrons: Men of power and property
    ◦ Expected to:
    ◦ Provide protection & legal advice to clients
    ◦ Loans of money to clients
   Clients: sought protection and help of
    patrons
    ◦   Expected to:
    ◦    follow patrons into battle as needed
    ◦   Work his land
    ◦   Support him politically
           Clients and Patrons
 A middle class CLIENT may be a
  PATRON of lower class men
 ROLES of WOMEN:
 Early Rome: Women treated like a child
 legally; subject to her paterfamilias or the
 paterfamilias of her husband’s family
 (similar to the Indian Joint Family)
 Later Rome: They enjoyed more rights
    ◦ Some married women were left under their
      OWN father’s jurisdiction AND independent
      after his death
               Women’s Rights
   There were many instances of strong women
    with an influence over their son’s or husbands

   Poems from the first century BCE on express
    love and respect for an educated woman
Roman Women
Extra Credit: QUIZ GRADE 
 Research one of the following Ancient
  Roman women and explain why they
  were seen as powerful or influential in a
  one page (TYPED) report:
 Atia Balba Caesonia
 Servilia Caepionis
 Octavia the Younger
 Give a brief background of their lives as
  well
Chapter 5

ROMAN ENGINEERING
 Roman Architecture
 Like Greece many of our current
  architecture comes from Ancient Rome
 The Romans were masters of
  engineering and architecture
 ◦ Many of the structures built before the common
   era (BCE) are still standing today
 The Aqueducts: -used      to supply water to
 a large area
 ◦ Channeled water from a source many miles away
 ◦ Used only the force of gravity
 ◦ Over or underground conduits
AQUEDUCTS
Engineering
 Central to its architecture was the
  invention of the ARCH
 (hint: this is why we call building
  construction ARCHitecture)
Architecture and Engineering
 Another Roman marvel was the
    invention of the COLESSEUM
 Similar, possibly adapted from, to the
  Greek amphitheater
 Used for mass entertainment
Roman Architecture
                     The Roman
                     Collesseum
                     -most of our
                     Modern day
                     Arenas are
                     Modeled after
                     This
Roman Architecture
               Gladiator shows
               Would draw large
               Crowds. Reenacting
               Famous battles.
GLADIATORS
  OTHER ROMAN ACHIEVEMENTS
 Science:
 Claudius Ptolemy - makes up a theory on
 the revolution of planets

 Medicine: Public   Health
 public baths
 public water system (aqueducts)
  OTHER ACHIEVMENTS
 Hadrian’s Wall - Built during the rule of
 emperor Hadrian(begun in 122 AD) it
 was the first of two fortifications built
 across Great Britain.
 ◦ The wall was the most heavily fortified border in
   the Empire.
 ◦ many of the gates through the wall would have
   served as posts to allow trade and levy taxes
 The Roman Road – Connected a vast
 empire (won through conquest)
 ◦ Allowed for safe trade; protected by soldiers
   throughout the empire
Chapter 5 ROMANS

EXPANSION OF THE
EMPIRE
             Expanding Rome
 Mainly through military conquest
 Army:
 Fighting formation was more flexible than a
  Greek phalanx
 Equipment similar to the hoplites
 Famous for training & discipline
 Conquered:
 By 290 BCE the whole of Italy
 Between 264 – 202 BCE fought in three
    wars against Carthage (Northern African)
    Background on Carthage – Chapter
    Three (Pages 94-97)
 Phoenician – established in 814 BCE
 Religion: Worshipped Baal and Tanit


   Economy and Trade: A naval and trading
    power
    ◦ Heavily fortified & large
    ◦ About 400,000 in the population
   Ethnically diverse – Sub-Saharan Africans,
    Berbers and other Mediterranean people
    ◦ Intermarried
             THE PUNIC WARS
• The Punic Wars: Help spread Roman culture
•Three Punic Wars fought between Rome
    and Carthage

    -Hannibal: general in the Carthage Army
        -invaded Rome via the Alps
        -defeated by Roman Navy; strong

•Rome unchallenged in the Mediterranean
 region
    THE ANCIENT ROMANS
• This led to the conquest of lands around
  the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

•Spread Greco-Roman culture

• Changed the character of the Roman
  army; became more diverse

• Created great wealth – now controlled
all Carthaginian sea posts
Hannibal of Carthage
Chapter 5 Romans

   FROM REPUBLIC TO
 EMPIRE (31 BCE – 330 CE)
   “THE PRINCIPATE”
        THE ANCIENT ROMANS
• Gaius Julius Caesar was a war general
     -led Rome during the conquest of
     Gaul (France) and Britain (59-51 BCE)
     - Loved by his troops and the people
• Became governor of Gaul

• Caesar challenged the Senate; civil war ensued
     -troops loyal to the senate vs. troops loyal to
      Caesar (Caesar won)
• By force the Senate made him “Consul for Life”
           Murder of Julius Caesar
 The Senate HATED Julius Caesar
   In 44 BCE the Senate conspired to
    murder him (Brutus & Cassius)
    ◦ He challenged their power
    ◦ Gave rights to many disenfranchised people and
      created jobs
    ◦ He was murdered on the Senate floor – stabbed
      27 times
     THE ANCIENT ROMANS
 Augustus Caesar was Rome’s Best Ruler
 Fought in a civil war (against Marc
 Antony) for sole rule
  Came to power after his uncle’s murder
  Named “Princeps” – the first among equals
  His rule called the Principate


 Established the “Pax Romana”
  Roman Peace a time of peace and stability
  “The Golden Age of Rome”
                  Pax Romana”
            “The200 years
 Lasted for over
 Stabilized the frontier (from attack)
  ◦ Fortified walls and roads
 Beautified Rome (with buildings)
 Created a uniform system of $
 Created a system of government -
 survived for years
THE ANCIENT ROMANS
 Returned stability to the social
  classes
 Increased emphasis on the family
 Created a civil service employment
  system
 Developed a uniform rule of law
 Succeeded by several good
  emperors-five good rulers follow him
  ◦ The last is Marcus Aurelius
AUGUSTUS CAESAR
             THINK!!!
 American culture leads the world in
  GLOBALIZATION
 For an extra credit QUIZ GRADE…write
  a one page (typed) paper on how the
  ROMANIZATION of the Ancient world
  (page 151) is similar to the
  GLOBALIZATION led by America
  today
Chapter 5 Romans

 FROM PROSPERITY TO
       DECLINE
   (235 CE – 476 CE)
             The Decline of Rome
 Third Century Crisis: (235 – 284 CE)
   Economy: The cost of defense and the
    devaluation of the Roman coin

   Military: The changes in the army
    membership and discipline
    ◦ ie: prisoners of war and mercenaries


 Moral    decay: People lost faith in the
    ideals of Rome and the family unit
        More Problems: Late Rome
 Political Problems: Imperial succession
    and civil contact
    ◦ A succession of corrupt rulers
    ◦ Caligula and Nero (set the capital city on fire)
      weakened the empire
 Invasion: Barbarian Attacks
 Germanic Peoples: Ostrogoths &
  Visigoths
 The Mongolian Huns: Attila (terrorized
  Rome)Burned 70 cities
              A New Religion
 Jesus of Nazareth lived in Judea,
 Israel – ruled by the Romans (1 CE)
 ◦ Archaeologists actually believe he was born in
   4 BCE


 Preached that he was the Jewish
 Messiah
 ◦ A revolutionary message not well received by
   the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem
 ◦ Turned over to the Roman governor – Pontius
   Pilate (sentenced to crucifixion)
  The Growth of Christianity
 Spread first in the Jewish region by
 Jesus’ followers after his crucifixion
 ◦ Called the Apostles
 ◦ Main apostle was Paul of Tarsus (a Jew)
    Spoke both Greek and Aramaic
    Spread Christian message to the entire Greco-Roman
     world
    Used the roman roads, protection and citizenship to
     help spread the gospel
      GOSPEL : Christian word of God
Christianity
 Founder – Jesus of Nazareth
 Message of Love and Acceptance
  ◦ Appealed to women, poor and
    disenfranchised
  ◦ Spread rapidly
 Holy Book – The Bible
  ◦ First five books – The Hebrew Torah
  ◦ Old Testament – Jewish history
  ◦ New Testament – Teachings of Jesus & letters
    from apostles
         History of Christmas
   How do our Christmas celebrations in
    the modern world represent the
    ROMANIZATION of the religion?
             Diocletian's Solution
   Diocletian instituted reforms

 Diocletian divided the empire into Eastern
  and Western halves (284 BCE)
 He believed it too large for one ruler
    ◦ East: Greek speaking Greece, Anatolia, Syria,
      and Egypt
    ◦ Further from attacks and more prosperous
    ◦ West: Latin Speaking Italy, Gaul, Britannia, and
      Spain
    ◦ In decline
               End of An Age
         The Re joined the empire
 Constantine:
 Made Christianity the official religion
 of the Roman Empire
 ◦ built a large empire at Byzantium
 Moved the capitol to Byzantium and
 renamed it Constantinople
 ◦ The city of Constantine


 The last emperor for Rome 476 AD
  ◦ Over taken by Germanic invasions

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:13
posted:9/7/2012
language:Unknown
pages:56