Lecture _3 Organelles of the Eukaryotic Cell by ert554898

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									Lecture #3 Organelles of the
      Eukaryotic Cell
 Unit: Cellular Structure & Function
           Eukaryotic Cells
Eukaryotes-
organisms like
plants or animals
that have cells with
a nucleus and
other organelles.

Organelles - little,
specialized organs
found in all
eukaryotic cells,
not prokaryotic.
   Eukaryotic Organelles
Nucleus-“central office” of the cell that
 contains
       DNA where most cell activity is started
• DNA carries instructions for how to build
  something. What?
• Nucleus is surrounded by a porous
  membrane. Why?
• The nucleolus, is found
  in the nucleus and
  makes the ribosomes.
  Eukaryotic Organelles



• Mitochondria- “powerhouse” of the cell
  where cellular energy (ATP) is generated.
• Supplies cell with energy through cellular
  respiration
• Some cells have more than others—why?
• Contain DNA
   Eukaryotic Organelles
• Cellular respiration- process in mitochondria in
  which carbs (like glucose) and oxygen are
  consumed, releasing carbon dioxide, water, and
  energy for life (ATP).
• C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2 → CO2 + H2O + energy (ATP)
• This is why we breathe oxygen and how we use carbs
  to get energy!!!
• Plants and animals all respire


                         Oxygen
                         and glucose in
                                          Carbon dioxide,
                                          water, and ATP
                                          produced
   Eukaryotic Organelles




• Endoplasmic reticulum -“highway” system
  throughout inside of cell.
• Materials can travel on it throughout the cell.
• Rough ER (has ribomsomes) vs. Smooth ER.
 Eukaryotic Organelles
• Golgi apparatus-“packaging center” of
  the cell.
• Puts finishing touches on proteins and
  prepares them for shipment out of the
  cell.
Eukaryotic Organelles

• Lysosome –“recycling center”
• Repairs damaged cell parts.
• Sometimes parts are beyond repair.
  Eukaryotic Organelles
• Vacuoles-
  “storerooms” in
  plant and animal
  cells. What would
  they store?
• Larger in plant
  cells than animal
  cells. Why?
• If they shrivel, so
  does the cell
              Plant vs Animal
              Eukaryotic Cells
• Cell wall for structure   • Cell membrane only.
  AND cell membrane.        • Small vacuoles.
• Larger vacuoles.
                            • No chloroplasts.
• Chloroplasts
Plant vs Animal
Eukaryotic Cells
            Plant
        Eukaryotic Cells

•Cell wall -surrounds the
plant cell membrane
•Is made of cellulose,
 a carb—paper is this.
•Give plant cells support
and structure
•Protect cell from bursting
if vacuole absorbs a lot of
water
            Plant
        Eukaryotic Cells
• Chloroplast-organelle
  where photosynthesis
  occurs.
• Have DNA like mitochondria
• Chlorophyll-green
  pigment in chloroplasts
  that gathers sunlight
  needed for this process
             Plant
         Eukaryotic Cells
•Chloroplasts found only in
photosynthetic organisms
(plant cells, some bacteria,
some protists)
  • Chloroplasts make an energy
    source (carbs) that a plant’s
    mitochondria can use to create
    ATP energy.
  • Animals get carbs for energy from
    plants we eat.
Photosynthesis in Plant Cells
  Source of energy for ALL life on Earth!!!
  Reactants
  1. Water                    Products
  2. Carbon Dioxide           1. Oxygen gas
  3. Sunlight                 2. Glucose (a carb)
Photosynthesis in Plant Cells
Photosynthesis in Plant Cells
       Photosynthesis


       Cellular Respiration
     Endosymbiotic Theory
Endosymbiotic Theory -
  mitochondria and
  chloroplasts were
  once prokaryotic
  cells that were taken
  in by other
  prokaryotes.
• Creation of first
  eukaryotic
  “organelles”
• Prokaryotes evolved
  into eukaryotes

								
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