Leadership - PowerPoint 4 by hcj


									Social Psychology
     Lecture 5: Leadership
  (Chapter 9; Hogg & Vaughan)
At the end of the lecture …
•   Personality
•   Emphasis within Social Psychology
•   Types of Leadership
•   Contingency theories
•   Transactional Theories
•   Transformation Theories
•   Leader categorisation theory
•   Social Identity Theory
Personality Traits
• Tendency to personify leaders in terms
  of unique properties or characteristics..
• Social Psychology tells us that people
  tend to attribute others behaviour to
  underlying traits
• It is not the mere possession of some
  combination of traits, and other social
  psychologists have suggested that the
  search for the leadership personality is
• The great person theory of leadership ,
  in which effective leaders have special
  personalities, is generally not well
  supported. Everyone has the capacity,
  more or less, to be an effective leader if
  the situation is right.
• Some leadership behaviours or personal
  qualities may be more effective than
• Within Social Psychology leadership
  reflects task or situational demands
• Autocratic leadership
  – Organised, gave orders,
    aloof, focussed on task in
• Democratic leadership
  – Calls for suggestions,
    discussed plans,
    behaves like other
• Laissez-faire leadership
  – Leaves the group to its
    own devices, very low
    level of intervention
Figure 9.1       Leadership styles and their effects
Source: Based on Lippitt & White (1943)
• Bales (1950) identified two
  leadership roles:
   – socio-emotional leadership
   – task-oriented leadership.
• No one person could occupy
  both roles
• Person filling the task-oriented
  leadership role would be the
  dominant leader
• Task specialists would be
  centrally involved, giving
• Socio-emotional specialists
  tended to respond and pay
  attention to feelings of other
  group members
Leadership: Contingency theory
.Contingency theory maintains that the leadership
  effectiveness of particular leadership styles is contingent
  on situational factors.
• Some styles are better suited to some situations or tasks
  than others
• A leader of a country, is different to a leader of an
  organisation, to a leader on the football field, to a leader
  in a student workgroup
• Fiedler’s contingency theory (like Bales, 1950)
  distinguished between task-orientated leaders (value
  group success, get self-esteem from accomplishment)
  and relationship orientated leaders (relaxed, friendly,
• Where the task is very well or very poorly structured (high
  versus low situational control), task-oriented leaders do
  best; otherwise, socio-emotional leaders are best.
 Leadership: Other contingency theories
• Normative decision theory (Vroom &
  Jago, 1988). Three decision making
    • Autocratic (subordinate input not sought)
    • Consultative (subordinate input not sought but
      leader retains authority)
    • Group decision making (leader and subordinates
      are equal partners)
• Outcomes
    • Autocratic, fast and effective if support from
      subordinates is present and task is clear.
    • Where task is not clear, or less support use of
      other strategies is productive
Leadership: Other models
• Limitation of contingency theories is that
  they are somewhat static. They identify
  styles, but do little to look at the fluid nature
  of the work places, this is where other
  leadership models comes in.
   – Transactional Leadership: leader-member
     exchange (LMX) theory
   – Transformational Leadership: Charisma
   – Leader categorisation theory
   – Social Identity approach
leader-member exchange
(LMX) theory
• According to leader-member exchange (LMX) theory,
  effective leaders need to establish high-quality
  personalised relationships with individual group
• Role taking: The member joins the team and the leader
  evaluates his or her abilities and talents. Leader may
  offer opportunities to demonstrate capabilities.
• Role-making: In the second phase, the leader and
  member take part in an unstructured and informal
  negotiation whereby a role is created for the member
  and the unspoken promise of benefit and power in
  return for dedication and loyalty takes place. Trust-
  building is very important in this stage.
• Routinisation: In this phase, a pattern of ongoing
  social exchange between the leader and the member
  becomes established. Being a successful member
  usually includes being similar in many ways to the
 Transformational Leadership
• Transactional leaders appeal to self-
  interest, transformational leader inspire
• Three components to transformation
   – Individualised consideration: Attention
      to needs of follower’s needs, abilities and
      aspirations to help raise and improve
   – Intellectual stimulation: Challenging
      followers’ basic thinking, assumptions
      and practices to help them develop new
      practices and thinking
   – Charismatic/inspiring leadership:
      provides the energy, reasoning, and
      sense of urgency that transforms
leader categorisation theory

 • According to leader categorisation
   theory, we all have schemas of
   particular types of leaders
 • The effectiveness of a leader is a
   matter of the extent to which the leader
   matches the appropriate leadership
   schema with the situation.
social identity approach

• Linked to the social categorisation
• As people identify more strongly with a group,
  they pay closer attention to the group prototype
  (someone or something that serves to illustrate
  the typical qualities) and identify what or who is
  most prototypical of the group.
• Therefore the person who is most prototypical
  of the group is likely to become a leader, or a
  leader who maintains attitudes and behaviours
  consistent with the prototype will be successful
        Leader effectiveness as a function of group prototypicality of the leader
Figure 9.4
and salience of the group
Source: Based on data from Hains, Hogg & Duck (1997)
Applied Context 9.1   Norm talk and identity entrepreneurship
Revision Advice
• Identify core frameworks from the reading,
  and furnish with explanation.
At the end of the lecture …
•   Personality
•   Emphasis within Social Psychology
•   Types of Leadership
•   Contingency theories
•   Transactional Theories
•   Transformation Theories
•   Leader categorisation theory
•   Social Identity Theory

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