Managing Peace and Security

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					Managing Peace and Security

    Diplomacy and Deterrence
1.1 Why do Conflicts occur among
• All countries protect their national interests
• Conflicts occur when countries disagree
  on issues
• Disagreements arise over the following:
  – Competing Territory
  – Conflict over scarce natural resources
  – Conflict over ideological differences
         Competing Territory
• Control over land can mean a lot to a
  country esp. if
  – The land is important to their defence
  – The land represents national pride
• Sometimes countries try to control land
  that isn’t theirs
• If a territory is claimed by two countries, it
  can result in conflict.
        Conflict over Border
• In 1947, India inherited a border drawn by
  the British
• China disagreed with the border
• Difficult in having a clear border because
  most of the frontier is inaccessible
• Two border regions became areas of
  – Aksai Chin Plateau (West)
  – North Eastern Frontier Agency (East)
         Conflict over Border
• Late 1950s, China was unwilling to
  negotiate seriously with India and commit
  to a fixed border
• In 1958, China built a road on the Aksai
  Chin Plateau and India protested that
  China had violated India’s territorial rights
• China disagreed saying that the border
  was not fixed
        Conflict over Border
• In 1959, tension worsened when fighting
  broke out
• By mid-1961, China occupied more
  territories of India it regarded as its own
• India demanded the return of the territories
• 1962, war broke out
• India and China signed an agreement in
  2005 to address the issue but it has not
  been resolved
 Conflict over scarce resources
• Natural resources are unequally
  distributed around the world
• Some countries have more, some have
• Those with less might use force to gain
  more, especially when these resources
  are necessary for survival
 Conflict over scarce resources
• During the 1970s, Iceland and Britain were
  in conflict over fishing grounds
• Iceland depended on fishing for survival
  and felt threatened when fishermen from
  other European countries overfished
  around Iceland
• Fish stocks decreased around Iceland
 Conflict over scarce resources
• In 1975, Iceland extended its zone of
  control over fishing from 50 nautical miles
  to 200 nautical miles
• No countries could fish within that
  boundary without Iceland’s permission
• Britain refused to acknowledge the
• Iceland cut diplomatic ties with Britain in
  Feb 1976
 Conflict over scarce resources
• Ties only restored in June 1976 after an
  agreement was signed
• Britain could only catch a fixed amount
• Iceland’s patrols could stop boats to check
Conflict over ideological differences
• Different values and beliefs among
  countries can cause conflict
• Countries can come into conflict if they
  feel that their ideologies are being
Conflict over ideological differences
• North Korea and South Korea fought a war
  because N. Korea believed in communism
  and South Korea believed in Democracy
• Korea was divided at the 38th Parallel after
• The northern part was temporarily
  occupied by the USSR while the South
  was occupied by USA
Conflict over ideological differences
• The UN called for an election in 1947 to
  establish a government to unite Korea
• The USSR refused and installed a
  communist regime in the North
• North Korea invaded the South in 1950 to
  unite Korea under communism
• The USA, its allies and the UN defended
  South Korea
Conflict over ideological differences
• UN forces forced the North Koreans back
• In Aug 1953, an agreement to stop fighting
  was signed by all parties and a
  demilitarised zone between North and
  South was created.
2.2 Why is Deterrence necessary?
• Being militarily self-reliant is important
• Singapore experienced the Japanese
  occupation and Indonesian Confrontation
• Without a strong military force, people do
  not feel secure and foreign companies are
  not willing to invest
• Singapore government realised this when
  the British pulled out in 1966.
    2.3 How is Deterrence practised?
•   A citizen armed force
•   3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces
•   Singapore’s Defence Industry
•   Total Defence
•   Multi-Agency coordination on security
•   Military co-operation with other countries
      A Citizen Armed Force
• Singapore could not afford a large
  professional army
• The government decided to build a citizen
  armed force through enlistment
• In 1967, National Service was introduced
• Singaporeans learn to defend the nation in
  their time in NS
• Singaporeans also bond through their
  experiences in NS
      A Citizen Armed Force
• Upon completion of NS, these men would
  continue to serve as operationally-ready
  NS men for 10 years.
• During their training, they would undergo
  refresher courses and maintain their
  3rd Generation Singapore Armed
• Warfare has become more complex
• Therefore, SAF consistently enhances its
  capabilities in warfare through R&D
• SAF started a project with research
  institutes and local unis to create the 3G
• 3G SAF works towards maximising
  defensive capabilities through modern
 Singapore’s Defence Industry
• SAF needs the latest technology to build
  an effective fighting force
• Singapore does this by building its own
  defence industry, making SAF self-reliant
• The defence industry started in 1967 with
  the establishment of Chartered Industries
  of Singapore (CIS)
• CIS has now developed into a successful
  defence company
 Singapore’s Defence Industry
• Defence Science and Technology Agency
  (DSTA) formed in 2000 to provide cost-
  effective and modern technology to the
• Focuses on buying and upgrading
  weapons, as well as developing new
• Conducts research with other countries
             Total Defence
•   Civil Defence
•   Economic Defence
•   Social Defence
•   Psychological Defence
•   Military Defence
  Total Defence: Civil Defence
• Important to know what to do in a civil
• Example: Hotel New World Disaster
Total Defence: Economic Defence
• Today’s economy requires Singaporeans
  to adjust to changing demands
• Constant need to upgrade skills
• Singapore Workforce Development
  Agency (WDA) formed in 2009
• WDA works with other agencies to help
  workers upgrade their skills
 Total Defence: Social Defence
• Active strengthening of Social ties through
  various organisations (CDC and IRCC)
• Activities include visit to places of worship
  and inter-faith dialogues
• Helps ensure that unity will not be broken
  during testing situations
    Total Defence: Psychological
• Having pride and loyalty and wanting to
  stand up and defend Singapore
• Having will and mental strength to
  overcome challenges
• Example: SARS
    Multi-Agency coordination
• National Security Coordination Secretariat
  (NSCS) set up to coordinate various
  government agencies
• Close networking strengthens Singapore’s
  national security
• NSCS meets regularly to plan national
  security policies and strategies.
• Also works with commercial and private
  parties to combat threats
  Military Co-operation with other
• Singapore actively fosters friendly ties with
  armed forces of other countries through
  – Bilateral military agreements and exercises
     • Agreements with France, Australia, India
     • Exercises with Malaysia and Indonesia
  – Multi-lateral military agreements and
     • Five Power Defence Arrangements
     • Exercises conducted every year
     • Members consult one another on deterrence
 3.1 Why is Diplomacy necessary?
• Countries are connected to one another
• Countries use diplomacy to pursue mutual
• Enables countries to cooperate and solve
• Resolve conflicts peacefully
• Allows countries to help one another
 3.2 How is Diplomacy practised?
• Bilateral Relations
• Regional Relations
• International Relations
         Bilateral Relations
• Country-to-Country relationship
• Singapore has been actively involved in
  expanding bilateral relations
• Benefits
  – Trade – Japan, Germany, USA
  – Technology acquisition
         Bilateral Relations
• Further promote political, economic and
  cultural ties
  – Malaysia
  – Indonesia
• Singapore able to speed up economic and
  social development
          Bilateral Relations
• Singapore willing to help others
  – Vietnam
  – Nepal
  – Aceh (Tsunami Relief)
• Singapore gains world recognition and
          Regional Relations
• Association of countries in a region
• Combining strengths of member countries, the
  association becomes stronger
• Be in a better position when dealing with others
• Examples:
  – European Union (UN)
  – South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
  – Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• 1967, five countries formed ASEAN
  – Indonesia
  – Malaysia
  – The Philippines
  – Singapore
  – Thailand
• ASEAN Declaration signed in Bangkok 8
  Aug 1967
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• 1960s, SE Asia was going through various
• SE Asian leaders saw the need for a regional
  – Maintain stability
  – Build trust
• ASEAN is a venue for resolving disputes among
  member countries
• ASEAN Is a united and collective voice to
  strengthen bargaining power with other
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• ASEAN Initiatives
  – ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)
    •   SE Asia is attractive to investors
    •   However, intense competition from India & China
    •   Economic Integration is necessary
    •   ASEAN launched AFTA in 1992
    •   Aims to remove import taxes
    •   Long term plan: integrate Asian economies into a
        single production base. Remove import taxes by
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• ASEAN Initiatives
  – ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
    • Created in 1994
    • Involves countries in Asia-Pacific region
    • Maintain peace by promoting political and security
    • Avenue for peaceful discussion and security issues
    • Participants include China, Japan, North Korea,
      India, New Zealand, Australia, USA and Canada
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• ASEAN Initiatives
  – Education and Professional Exchange
    • One of Singapore’s contribution to ASEAN is
      technical knowledge
    • Provides technical training
    • Singapore offers scholarships under Singapore
      Cooperation Programme (SCP)
    • No bond involved and allows students from any
      ASEAN country to study in Singapore universities
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• ASEAN Initiatives
  – Economic cooperation and assistance
    • Help narrow economic gap between member
    • Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI)
       – Five-year aid package
       – S$80 million
       – Selected member countries
  Regional Relations (ASEAN)
• ASEAN Initiatives
  – Environmental Collaboration
    • Indonesian Forest Fires in 1997
    • Created serious haze problem in the region
    • Singapore offered assistance in the monitoring of
      fires through satellite images
  International Relations (UN)
• Formed 26 June 1945
• Membership of 192 countries
      Singapore and the UN
• 117th Member on 21 September 1965
• Gave Singapore recognition as a
  sovereign state
• UN helped Singapore by sending experts
  in economic and social development
  – Dr. Albert Winsemius
UN Law of the Sea Conference
• Defines how countries can draw territorial sea
• States rights of landlocked states to access the
• Provides guidelines to safeguard the marine
• Protects freedom of scientific research
• Prof. Tommy Koh was President of the Third UN
  Conference of the Law of the Sea
           UN Security Council
• Five permanent members
    – United States, United Kingdom, France, China and
•   10 rotating members
•   Singapore was a rotating member 2001-2002
•   Singapore served as President of the Council
•   Showed confidence member states have in
  UN Peacekeeping operations
• Help countries torn by conflicts
• Peacekeeping operations are auhorised
  by UN Security Council
• Peacekeepers are soldiers, military
  officers, police officers and civilian
• Singapore has been involved since 1989
• 2005 – S’pore involved in 13 operations in
  11 different countries

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