PSE4U Exam Review 2012 by lanyuehua


									PSE4U Exam Review — Student Handout
Exam Review - Key Learnings

These key learnings have been identified as most important for you to take away from this course. The
exam will reflect your level of understanding in all of these areas:

       describe the structure and function of the human body and of the physiological principles relating
        to human performance
       use biomechanical principles to analyze skills and improve movement
       demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which nutrition and training principles affect human
       demonstrate an understanding of individual differences in performance, growth and development
       demonstrate an appreciation for how the nervous system gathers information, stores it and
        responds to it
       use the principles of biomechanics to analyze a skill
       Investigate the evolution of physical activity and sport through the Olympic movement
       analyze the relationship of society and culture to sports and physical activity through the Olympic

Units and Topics for Review

       planes and axis of rotation (e.g. sagittal plane, transverse axis)
       terms of direction (e.g., proximal, distal)
       terms of movement (e.g., flexion, extension)
       classification of bones
    anatomical structure of bone
       types of muscles (e.g., smooth, cardiac, skeletal)
       muscle actions (e.g., agonist vs. antagonist)
       anatomical structure of muscle
       knowledge of key muscles and bones (for discussion if required)
       ** no origins or insertions

Function of Muscular and Skeletal Systems
    classification of joints (e.g., synovial)
      joint types (e.g., hinge)
      acute and chronic injuries (very general)
      types of contractions (e.g., isotonic, isometric)
      muscle fibre types (e.g., slow twitch and fast twitch)
      properties of muscles (e.g., contractibility)
      basic neuromuscular function, theories, and components (sliding filament, excitation-contraction,
       actin, myosin)

Nervous System and the Control of Movement
    the components of the nervous system
          o CNS>PNS
          o Autonomic nervous system – sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
          o Somatic nervous system
    reflex arc – 5 parts of the reflex arc
    proprioceptors and the control of movement – Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles
          o the stretch reflex – sequence of nerve impulses and motions
                   reciprocal inhibition
          o polysynaptic reflexes
                   withdrawal reflex; crossed-extensor reflex
    spinal chord injuries – quadriplegia, paraplegia, rehabilitation
    concussions and head injuries
Cardiorespiratory System and Energy Production
    gross anatomy of the heart (very general)
    circulation (e.g., systemic, pulmonary)
       pathway of conduction and cardiac cycle
       heart functions (e.g., stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, venous return)
       gross anatomy of the respiratory system (very general)
       mechanics of respiration
    blood, blood components
       pathway of nutrients and oxygen to the muscles
       three energy systems
    cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic (e.g. VO2 max) adaptations to training (chronic effects,
       acute responses)


Nutrition and Ergogenic Aids
    six nutrients (CHO, protein, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water)
        energy nutrient balance
        importance of hydration
        caloric balance
        BMR, RMR, and BMI
        performance-enhancing methods and substances (e.g., blood doping, steroids, creatine,
        caffeine) very general

Training Principles and Technology
       components of fitness (e.g., skill related vs. health related)
       physical and health benefits of training
       training principles (e.g., F.I.T.T., Borg scale, Karvonen Method THR)
       training methods (e.g., interval, Fartlek, plyometrics)
       fitness testing and assessment

Use of Biomechanical Principles: Skill analysis and test
       Newton’s Laws
       levers
       seven biomechanical principles (e.g., stability, maximum effort)
    Flight of objects; Forces

UNIT 3: Issues in Physical Activity and Sport – London Olympic Presentations
    Profiled Athletes
    societal and cultural factors that influence physical activity and sport in Canada and
    Present theories, concepts, relationships, and insights regarding sport and activity represented at
       the London Olympics 2012

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