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Emotions

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					Emotions
Emotions & Motives

   Emotions & motives closely related
   Emotions usually aroused by external
    & directed towards events
    – Motives internal and directed towards
      specific environmental objects that will
      meet specific need
   Emotion elicited by many stimuli
Definition of Emotion



   Emotion is a complex condition that
    arises in response to certain affectively
    toned experiences
Components of an
Emotion
   Affective state
   Physical reaction
   Thoughts & beliefs
   Facial expression
   Behavior (action tendencies)
Systems Perspective of
Emotions


   The components of an emotion are
    seen as having reciprocal effects on
    each other
Physiological Arousal &
Emotion
   Heightened arousal sign of anger &
    fear
   Study of spinal cord lesion damage
    showed higher the injury less the
    person could experience emotion
   Less autonomic arousal = reduction of
    feeling
James-Lange Theory

   Perception of bodily experiences =
    subjective feeling state
   Attacked by Canon:
    – Internal changes occur too slowly
    – Changing bodily sensations artificially
      doesn’t produce true emotional state
    – Bodily patterns don’t seem to discriminate
      one feeling state from another
Autonomic Patterns of
Feelings
   Heart rate faster for: anger, fear,
    sadness; slower for positive emotions
    of surprise, happiness, & disgust
   Skin temperature higher in anger than
    fear or sadness
   Physiological patterns hold across
    cultures
Cognition & Emotion

   Cognitive appraisal = interpretation of
    situation
   May account for most of differences in
    emotional states
Schachter & Singer

   Injected with epinephrine (adrenaline)
   One group of subjects informed of
    effects, other group not
   Exposed to either a “happy” or “angry”
    confederate
   Subjective feeling state influenced by
    cognitive framework
Cognition & Emotion

   Schachter-Singer weak effects,
    epinephrine effects can be unpleasant
   Arousal & appraisal = intensity of
    experience
   Arousal plays less role than appraisal
   Arousal & appraisal likely have
    subcomponents
Appraisal Theories

   Primary emotions elicited by specific
    appraisals of events
   Another appraisal theory uses primary
    dimensions of appraisal
Appraisal Theories – con’t

   Desirability of situation (pleasant or
    unpleasant), effort needed, certainty
    of situation, attention wanting to
    devote, amount of control one feels
    over situation, amount of control
    attributed to forces in situation
   6 dimensions for 15 emotions
Positive Emotions

   optimism is more distorted but more
    healthy & long-lived
   positive emotions may broaden and
    build our cognitive horizons and
    behavioral repertoires: creativity,
    social bonds, etc.
   builds up internal resources to draw
    upon in times of trouble
Emotional Expressions

   Six universal emotional expressions:
    happiness, anger, sadness, disgust,
    fear, & surprise
   Display rules vary by culture
   Rules may be misunderstood by other
    cultures
The Brain & Emotion

   Emotional information presented to
    right hemisphere processed faster
   Facial expressions processed by right
    hemisphere
   Voice patterns (pitch, timing, & stress)
    processed located in right hemisphere
Facial Feedback
Hypothesis
   Change facial expressions can change
    emotions
   Tends to be a weaker hypothesis (as is
    the James-Lange Theory).
Tendencies Toward
Behavior
   frustration-aggression hypothesis
    (psychoanalytical)
   study of veterans showed higher
    testosterone levels correlated with
    history of aggression
   men with extremely high testosterone
    more likely to have low-status
    positions (?)
Observed Aggression

   live or filmed models increased
    chances of aggression being displayed
   severe punishment by parents tends
    to increase chance of child becoming
    aggressive
   violent TV, cartoons, video games
    increases likelihood of aggression
Catharsis

   children & adults involved aggressive
    activities tend to increase or maintain
    aggression
   people who are angry become even
    more punishing if allowed successive
    aggression
   letting out anger in conversation
    appears to breed more aggression

				
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posted:9/6/2012
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