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									Teaching Courseware:
New Business English
  Intensive Reading

     Book One

         A



                       1
全
国新    New Business English
商编商     Intensive Reading
务务          Book One
英英语
语精
研读             A
究第
会一
推册
荐
教
材



                             2
1 Essentials of Business   4 Jobs and Occupations




  2 Marketing      3 Career     5 Eating Habits
                                                    3
New Business English
   Intensive Reading
                         Unit One
       Book One
                       Essentials of
                       Business          Picture--Word
                                       Associating Game
                        Unit Two
                       Marketing         Unit One

          A              Unit Three      Unit Two
                       Career
                                         Unit Three
                         Unit Four
                       Jobs and          Unit Four
                       Occupations
                                         Unit Five
                         Unit Five
                       Eating Habits
                                                          4
        Unit One --- Reading I
       The Nature of Business

Warm--up
   Text
   Translation
   Notes
                 New Words
                 Examples
                            Exercises
                            Extended Activities

                                                  5
                            Text
         The Nature of Business
1. Business is the human activity related to material things.
It is necessary for civilization. It is found in all societies,
even the simplest ones. Business may include the
production of goods: Making airplanes, building buildings,
and constructing paper boxes are examples of production.
It can also provide the financing for these activities.
Lending money, trading stocks and bonds, and selling
insurance policies relate to the securing of capital for
business activities. Other forms of business include
merchandising , which is the selling of products, and
providing various services, such as accounting, distributing ,
and repairs. Business, then, is the activity of producing and
distributing goods and services.


                                                                  6
2. In our study of business, it is necessary to understand the
four basic factors of production. These four factors are land,
labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. What is meant by these
four terms?

3. In order to produce things, it is necessary to use land. Here,
the term land is used in the most general way. It refers not only
to a piece of real estate where we might build a factory, but it
also means all the raw materials used for production. Some of
these raw materials are found on the earth’s surface, such as
trees, which yield wood for lumber. Other raw materials are
found under the earth’s surface in mines and oil wells, and still
other raw materials may be extracted from the air. All the raw
materials for production come from the land, the air, and the
oceans.


                                                                    7
4. Labor refers to the use of mental or physical work to produce
goods. Most labor changes raw materials into finished products
and then distributes these to buyers. In industrialized countries,
labor is generally more mental than physical. For example, in
both manufacturing and agriculture, machines accomplish the
very tiring physical work that unskilled laborers used to do.

5. In other countries, computers programmed robots and other
forms of data processing equipment perform many of the jobs
which used to require a lot of mental labor. Therefore, to a
certain extent the next factor, capital, can be used to replace
labor or reduce the amount of physical and mental labor that
humans have to use in order to conduct business.




                                                                     8
6. In everyday language, capital means several things. The
most general meaning is wealth or money. But it also refers to
the equipment that money purchases . As one of the basic
factors of production, capital is all of the things that workers
use in production and distribution. It includes their tools,
machines, and buildings such as factories and
warehouseswhere goods are produced and stored. Capital,
therefore, refers to anything that helps to produce and
distribute goods.

7. Putting together land, labor, and capital to make something
of value, is called entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur is the
person responsible for controlling and directing the other three
factors. The entrepreneur does not make things with his own
hands unless he is also a worker. In a business the workers
take orders from the entrepreneur. He is the leader, and the
employees follow his direction.
                                                                   9
8. Entrepreneurship includes some other important activities. The
entrepreneur is responsible for initiating business activity. He must
begin his business by bringing together the land, labor, and
capital. Next, he must manage the business by deciding the
general polices for business operation. In order to be successful,
an entrepreneur must also be innovative . He must look for new
products or new ways of making things, and new methods of
distribution, or he must offer new services. He must be able to
decide on the value of things that other people invent, whether it
is a new toy, a new method of filing, or a new way of advertising.
Finally, he bears all the risks of the business.
9. Everyone connected with a business shares in the risks of the
business. When a company goes bankrupt , that is, becomes
unable to pay its debts, it causes problems for many


                                                                        10
people. It is hard for the employees who may have to seek work
elsewhere; the customers must look for another place to buy the
products; creditors usually lose some of the money to the
company. But the entrepreneur takes the biggest risk if the
business succeeds or fails. He must pay them up to the limit of
his ability to pay. If he is skillful—and lucky—the money he
receives from his business venture will pay for the land, labor,
and capital, and there will still be some extra money remaining
for him. This extra money is the profit. If the money he receives
from the business venture is not enough to pay all of the costs,
the difference is the loss.




                                                                    11
译 文:
          商 务 的 性 质
1 商务是与物质相关的人类活动。商务对人类文明是必要的。它
存在于所有社会形态中,即使是最简单的社会。商务会包括商品
生产,例如制造飞机、修建房屋和生产纸盒。它也包括为生产活
动提供金融财政服务。如贷款、股票和债券交易、销售有关获取
商务资本的保险单。其他形式的商务包括买卖交易,这是销售产
品和提供各种服务,例如会计、分销和维修。所以,商务是生产
和销售商品以及服务的活动。

2 我们研究商务时,有必要了解生产的四个基本要素。这四个因
素是土地、劳动力、资本和企业家素质。这四个术语是什么意思
呢?

3 要想生产东西,使用土地是必须的。这里,土地这个术语被广
义使用。它不仅指我们可能建工厂的一块房地产,而且还指所有

                                12
用于生产的所有原材料。我们发现一些原材料在地球表面,如用
来生产木材的树木。发现其他原材料在地表下面,在矿山和油井
里,还有其他原料,可以从空气中提取。所有用于生产的原材料
都来自于土地、空气和海洋。

4 劳动力是指使用脑力和体力来生产商品。大部分劳动力用在
把原材料变为成品和分销这些产品到买家的过程。在工业化国家
中,一般是脑力劳动多于体力劳动。例如,在制造业和农业上,
机器完成那些非常累人的体力工作,而过去常由没什么技能的人
去做。

5 在另外一些国家,电脑给机器人编程序,还有其他形式的数
据处理设备做许多过去耗费大量脑力劳动的工作。因此,在一定
程度上,下一个因素,资本,可以用来取代劳动力或减少人们用
于商务活动的体力和脑力劳动的数量。



                               13
6 在日常用语中,资本有几种意思。最普通的意思是财富或金钱。
但它也指钱购买的设备。作为生产的基本要素之一,资本指工人
用于生产和分销商品的一切东西。它包括工具、机器、建筑物,
例如工厂和生产、储存商品的仓库。因此,资本指帮助生产和销
售商品的一切东西。

7 把土地、劳力、资本整合成有价值的东西,就是所谓的企业家
素质。企业家是指负责控制和指导其他三个因素的人。企业家不
用自己干活,除非他也是一名工人。在商业中,工人执行企业家
的命令。他是领导人,员工听他指挥。

8 企业家素质包括其他一些重要活动。企业家负责启动商业活动。
他必须通过整合土地、劳力和资本来开始他的业务。下一步,他
必须通过为商业运作做大的决策来管理企业。为了成功,企业家
还必须创新。他必须寻求新产品或新的生产方法,新的

                                14
分销方式或提供新的服务。他必须能够判断人们发明创造的价值,
不论它是一个新玩具,一个新的归档方法,或一种新的广告方式。
最后,他承担业务的所有风险。

9 每个与业务相关的人都分担业务的风险。当公司破产时,也就
是说,公司没有能力偿付其债务时,许多人会有麻烦。员工会很
困难地到别处找工作;顾客必须寻找其他地方购买产品;债权人
通常会失去投资该公司的一些钱。但是,无论成功或失败,企业
家承担的风险最大。他必须竭尽所能支付。如果他精明能干、运
气好,那么,他从公司经营中获得的钱在支付土地、劳力和资本
之后,还有一些多余的钱。这笔额外款项就是利润。如果他从公
司经营中获得的钱,不足够以支付所有的成本费用,那么,这个
差额就是亏损。

                     译者:周荆洪

                                15
                        Warm--up
I. Work with your group and think out as many words,
  phrases or expressions as possible about business.

People or Organizations Engaged in Business:
 Company, firm, enterprise, joint-venture, corporation,
 individual company, collective factory, private company,
 conglomerate ,manager, merchant, salesman,
 businessman;

Places to Conduct Business Activities:
  Market, department store, supermarket, stock exchange,
  hotel, restaurant, bank;

Other Terms Frequently Used in Business Operation:
 Sell, buy, goods, order, profit, interest, invoice, check, bill,
 consumer, customer.

                                                                    16
II. Pairwork:

 1) Are you interested in business? Why or not?
 2) What activities do you think can be labeled as business
activities?
 3) Have you ever been involved in any business activities
before?
 4) What do you think is important for success in today’s
business world?

 Good management, adequate planning, sufficient financial
resources, healthy cash flow, controlled spending and the
ability to collect money owing, effective marketing, a good
product and service.



                                                              17
                             Notes

1. Provide the financing for: conduct the business of providing
   money for.
2. Insurance policies: documents which show the condition of an
    insurance contract (保险单).
3. The securing of capital: Here it means “getting money for
   some business”.
4. To a certain extent: to a certain degree.
5. Up to: as far as; to and including.
  e.g. Please count from 1 up to 10.
  Everyone works, from the boy who sweeps the floor up to the
  President.


                                                                  18
     New Words

1.relate v. 联系;涉及
2.construct v. 构成
3.finance v. 理财;融资
4.stock n. 股份
5.bond n. 有息债券

6.insurance n. 保险
7.secure v. 获得
8.capital n. 资本
9.merchandise v. 买卖
10.accounting n. 会计学




                       19
11.distribute v. 分发
12.factor n. 因素
13.entrepreneur n. 企业家
14.refer v. 提及
15.estate n. 作某种用途的地区 real estate 房地产

16.yield v. 出产
17.extract v. 取出
18.manufacture v. 大量制造
19.accomplish v. 完成
20.data n. 数据




                                        20
21.process v. (用计算机)处理
22.conduct v. 经营
23.purchase v. 购买某物
24.warehouse n. 货舱
25.initiate v. 开始;实施
26.innovative a. 革新的

27.share n. 股份
28.bankrupt a. 破产的
29.creditor n. 债权人
30.limit n. 限度
31.venture n. (尤指有风险的)工作项目
32.profit n. 利润




                             21
1.relate…to / with …联系起来
2.refer to 提到;涉及
3.be extracted from 从…中提取
4.be responsible for 对…负责;负责(某事)
5.make…of value 使某物更有价值

6.look for 寻找
7.decide on 决定
8.distribute…to / among… 在…中分发;分配
9.pay for 为…而付钱




                                    22
                  Unit   One
What words can you associate with the pictures?




     relate v.           bond n.
     construct v.        stock n.
     accomplish v.       distribute v.
                                            23
finance v.      insurance n.
extract v.      capital n.
accounting n.   factor n.

                               24
venture n.   process v.
limit n.     share n.
estate n.    bankrupt a.
                           25
data n.       creditor n.
initiate v.   secure v.
purchase v.   conduct v.
                            26
refer v.        entrepreneur n.
warehouse n.    yield v.
venture n.      manufacture v.
innovative a.   profit n.
                                  27
     New Words

1.relate v. 联系;涉及
2.construct v. 构成
3.finance v. 理财;融资
4.stock n. 股份
5.bond n. 有息债券

6.insurance n. 保险
7.secure v. 获得
8.capital n. 资本
9.merchandise v. 买卖
10.accounting n. 会计学




                       28
11.distribute v. 分发
12.factor n. 因素
13.entrepreneur n. 企业家
14.refer v. 提及
15.estate n. 作某种用途的地区 real estate 房地产

16.yield v. 出产
17.extract v. 取出
18.manufacture v. 大量制造
19.accomplish v. 完成
20.data n. 数据




                                        29
21.process v. (用计算机)处理
22.conduct v. 经营
23.purchase v. 购买某物
24.warehouse n. 货舱
25.initiate v. 开始;实施
26.innovative a. 革新的

27.share n. 股份
28.bankrupt a. 破产的
29.creditor n. 债权人
30.limit n. 限度
31.venture n. (尤指有风险的)工作项目
32.profit n. 利润




                             30
1.relate…to/with …联系起来
2.refer to 提到;涉及
3.be extracted from 从…中提取
4.be responsible for 对…负责;负责(某事)
5.make…of value 使某物更有价值

6.look for 寻找
7.decide on 决定
8.distribute…to / among… 在…中分发;分配
9.pay for 为…而付钱




                                    31
                           Examples
1.relate v. 与……有关
   e.g. The report seeks to relate the rise in crime to an increase
   in unemployment.

2. v + ing as subject: The –ing form of the verb can be used as
    the subject of sentence.
   e.g. Seeing is believing.
   Taking good photos requires patience as well as keen eyes.
   Watching television at spare time is a good entertainment.

3. 辨析 capital &money:
   Capital is the money or property that you use to start a
   business or to make more money.
   Money is what you earn by working and you use in order to
   buy things.
   e.g. The recycling industry is making huge capital investments
   in equipment.
                                                                      32
  Do you have enough money to pay for the sandwiches?
  capital intensive industries 资本密集产业
  venture / risk capital 风险资本
  money bags 有钱人
  money makes a mare go 有钱能使鬼推磨
  money worshiper 金钱至上主意者
4. entrepreneurship   n. 企业家素质
  它指的是一种发展的、革新的经营观念,以及将这种观念贯
彻在市场的能力。
   Successful entrepreneurs have an unshakable belief in
themselves and in their ideas. They have drives干劲, and can
always bounce back after frustrations挫折. That is, no matter
what goes wrong, they can get up and try again.


                                                              33
5. refer to : 提到,涉及;指(的是)
   e.g. We agreed never to refer to the matter again.
   Although she didn’t mention any names, everyone knew who
she was referring to.

6. “Where…” relative clause: “Where” can be used to introduce a
relative clause.
   e.g. This is the hotel where we spent our honeymoon.
   This is the place where I hid the key.

  The other adverbs that can introduce relative clause are “when”
and “why”.
  e.g. She remembered the day when Paula had first walked into
her office.
  I don’t know the reason why he was late.


                                                                    34
7.extract vt. 拉出;提取
  e.g. He extracted an envelope from his inside pocket.
  Oils are extracted from the plants.

8. distribute vt. 分发;分配;散布
   Synonym: give out
   e.g. Clothes and blankets have been distributed among
the refugees(难民).

9. accomplish vt. 完成;达到;实现
   e.g. I don’t think our visit really accomplished anything.




                                                                35
10. of value: 值钱的,有价值的
   e.g. The thieves took nothing of value.
   I hope this book will be of value to both teachers and
students.

11. be responsible for: 为……负责;是造成……的原因
   e.g. Police believe that the same man is responsible for
three other murders in the area.
   We are determined to bring the people responsible to
justice正义\审判.

12. not…unless…: 除非……,就不会……
   e.g. Do not leave the building unless you are instructed to
do so.
   Don’t call me at the office unless it’s absolutely necessary.

                                                                   36
13. initiate vt. 开始;发动
  e.g. initiate a reform 开始改革
  They have decided to initiate legal proceedings进程\
行为 against the newspaper.对报纸提起诉讼

14. innovative a. 创新的;有新意的
  e.g. It’s an innovative approach to language teaching.

15. look for: 寻找 synonym: search for
  e.g. Could you help me look for my contact lens?
  If you are looking for a bargain, try the local market.




                                                            37
16. decide on / upon something: 对……作出决定
  e.g. Have you decided on a date for the wedding?

17. “whether…” confessional cause: “Whether” can be used to
introduce a confessional clause (让步从句)
   e.g. I will go, whether you come with me or stay at home.
   Whether he is right or wrong, he usually wins the argument.

18. bear vt. 负担, 忍受,带给(bear, bore, borne)
  Synonym: stand
  e.g. She was afraid she wouldn’t be able to bear the pain.
  Make the water as hot as you can bear.




                                                                 38
19. 辨析pay & pay for:
  The most frequently used format is “pay (sb.) for (sth.)”.
  e.g. How soon can you pay me for the work?
  Did you pay for that car?

  “pay for” may also mean “receive punishment or suffering for
(为……而手惩罚;为……而吃亏/ 倒霉 )”。
  e.g. These people must be made to pay for their crimes.
  He paid dearly for his unfaithfulness不忠 to her.
  I’ll let him pay for ruining毁坏 my chances.

  On the other hand, “pay” means giving someone money for
something you buy or for a service.
  e.g. How much would you like to pay?
  You’d get a discount折扣 for paying cash.
  I paid him$5 to cut the grass.


                                                                 39
After “pay” you can use the following words as
object: bill, cash, cost, credit存款\贷款, debt, dollar,
expenses开支, fee费\酬金, fine罚金, interest利息,
loan借款, money, price, salary薪水, rent租金, sum
金额, tax税, wage工资.

The other phrases using “pay” are: pay attention to ,
pay respect to sb., pay sb. a visit, or pay a visit to a
place.




                                                           40
                      Exercises

I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
III. Complete the following statements with the words or expressions
you have learned in this text.
IV. Give the English or phrases according to the meanings provided.
V. Put the following expression from the text in the blanks to
complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
VI. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined
words with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
VII. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.

                                                                   41
1. What does “business” mean in the text?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   It means the human activity related to material things. It’s
necessary for civilization. And it is found in all societies, even the
simplest ones. It’s the activity of producing and distributing
goods and services.

 2. What are the four basic factors of production?
  The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   They are land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship.




                                                                         42
3. What does the term “land” in this text refer?
    The key comes from Paragraph 3:
    Here, the term land is used most general way. It refers not
only to a piece of real estate where we might build a factory, but
it also means all the raw materials used for production.
Some materials are on the earth’s surface, and some are under
the surface. And some raw materials may be extracted from the
air. All the raw materials for production comes from the land, the
air, and the oceans.

4. What does the term “labor” refer to in this passage?
  The key comes from Paragraph 4:
  It refers to the use of mental or physical work to produce
goods. Most labor changes raw materials into finished products
and then distributes these to buyers.


                                                                     43
5. What is the general meaning of “capital” in everyday
   language?
  The key comes from Paragraph 6:
  It means several things. The most general meaning is wealth
   or money.

6. What does the term “capital” refer to according to this
   passage?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   But it also refers to the equipment that money purchases. It’s
   all the things that workers use in production and distribution.
   It refers anything that helps to produce and distribute goods.




                                                                     44
7. What is called entrepreneurship?
   The key comes from Paragraph 7:
   Putting together land, labor, and capital to make something
   of value, is called entrepreneurship.

8. What responsibilities should an entrepreneur take?
   The key comes from Paragraph 7:
   The entrepreneur is the person responsible for controlling
   and directing the other three factors. He is the leader, and
   the employees follow his direction.




                                                                  45
9. What kind of problems will a company cause to people
   when it goes bankrupt?
      The key comes from Paragraph 9:
      It means the company becomes unable to pay its
   debt, it causes problems for many people. It’s hard for
   the employees who have to seek work elsewhere; the
   customers must look for another place to buy the
   products; creditors usually lose some money to the
   company. But the entrepreneur takes the biggest risk if
   the business succeeds or fails. He must pay them up
   to the limit of his ability to pay.




                                                             46
10. When will the entrepreneur make a profit and when
   will he suffer a loss?
      The key comes from Paragraph 9:
      If he is skillful---and lucky---the money he receives
   from his business venture will pay for the land, labor,
   and capital and there will still be extra money
   remaining for him. This extra money is the profit. If the
   money he receives from the business venture is not
   enough to pay all of the costs, the difference is the loss.




                                                                 47
1. What may business include ?
  a. Selling products.
  b. Delivering products.
  c. Manufacturing products.
  d. All of the above.

2. Which of the following is NOT categorized as “Land”?
  a. Oil.
  b. Trees.
  c. Factories and warehouses.
  d. A piece of real estate.




                                                          48
3. Which statement is NOT true according to the passage?
  a. Capital not only means money or wealth but also
   refers to the equipment that money purchases.
  b. The entrepreneur only needs to give orders and
   never makes things with his own hands.
  c. In a highly industrialized country, labor is generally
   more mental than physical
  d. Customers also share in the risks of business.




                                                              49
4. Which of the following business activities occur first?
   a. Deciding the general polices for business operations.
   b. Bearing all risks of the business
   c. Looking for new products of new ways of making things.
   d. Bringing together the land, labor, and capital.

5.Who takes the biggest risk when a business goes bankrupt?
  a. The creditor
  b. The customer
  c. The employee            Key: d. c. b. d. d
  d. The entrepreneur




                                                               50
     Business
1.__________is the activity of making and distributing goods and
 services
_________.

   Land
2.______refers to the sources of raw materials needed for
production.

    Labor
3.__________is the use of mental or physical work to produce
  goods
________.

     Capital
4._________means not only wealth, but all the things that workers
use in production and distribution which are purchased with money.

    Entrepreneurship
5._________________is the activity of controlling and directing the
other factors.




                                                                      51
6.If the money a company receives is not enough to pay for all of
                                  loss
the costs, the difference is the ______.

                       bankrupt                          debts
7.When a company goes _________ it is unable to pay its ______.

      innovative
8.An ___________company is one which continues to provide new
goods and services.

                       initiates
9.The entrepreneur __________ business activities by bringing
                                                 business
together lad ,labor, and capital to begin a new _________venture.




                                                                    52
1. distribute 分发 to separate into parts and give a share to each person
2. accomplish 完成 to succeed in doing

3. manufacture 大量制造 to make goods on a large scale
4. conduct 经营 to do; to carry on (business)

5. bankrupt 破产的 not having enough money to pay debts
6. secure 获得 to make sure of getting (sth.)

7. merchandise 买卖 to buy and sell (goods)
8. capital 资本 money used in business




                                                                   53
9. finance 财政,金融 to work in the business of providing money
10. profit 获利 financial gain

11. initiate 开始,实施 to put into operation
12. share股份 the part belong to or owed to a particular person

13. data 数据 information collected for examination and consideration
14. extract 取出 to take or get (sth.) out

15. process ( 用计算机) 处理 to perform operation on (sth.) in computer




                                                                      54
decide on           refer to  look for        extracted from
responsible for     pay for   up to           to a certain extent
related to / with   go bankrupt

                                           look for
1. With the help of the Internet, you can _________ specific
   research information in every country from Australia to the
   United States of America.

                                                          up to
2. A company employee is subject to imprisonment for _______ 5
   years and a $10,000 fine if he is involved in a bribe.

3. A survey of medical cost reveals that 16 percent of US families
                              pay for
   go into debt each year to ________ their medical treatment.

                    extracted from
4.The oil which is ______________ seeds is used for cooking.



                                                                     55
5. The real sin against life is to destroy beauty ,even one’s
   own, for that has been put in our care and we
        responsible for
   are______________ its well being.

6. The terrorists blast in the market has led to many small
               going bankrupt
   business ______________.

                                        related to
7. In this report the rise of crime is __________ the increase
    in unemployment.




                                                                 56
8. Straightening the road has reduced the risk of accidents
          to a certain extent
   and _________________has made it safer.

                referred to
9. The speaker __________ the young man sitting at the back
   as an up-and-coming business tycoon .(正在崛起的商业巨
   头)

10. while still not able to overcome these problems ,he has
           to decide on
   failed ___________ some much-needed measures on his
   own.




                                                              57
1. Some raw materials may be taken from the air.
                              be extracted
2. To do business successfully involves a lot of factors.
     conduct
3. The entrepreneur could stand all the possible losses of the
    business.                        bear all the risks
4. This letter is about the sale of the house.
                relates to
5. If the company cannot pay its debts, many people will lose their
    jobs.                goes bankrupt
6. He failed to obtain the top job with the bank.
                 secure



          .
                                                                      58
1.a.They will go ahead with their plans, even at the risk of
offending the local people.                            n.
  b. Anyone traveling without a passport runs the risk of being
arrested .                                          n.
  c. The businessman is crazy to risk his money on an
investment like that.              v.

2.a.The mayor will perform the opening ceremony for the
International Movie Festival. v.
  b. Every decent person should know that one should always
perform what one promises.       v.
  c. The news said that the company’s performance was
disappointing last year.                    n.




                                                                  59
3. a. The shopkeeper said he would replace the radio
set if we were not satisfied.          v.
   b. George has replaced Edward as captain of the
team.                 v.
   c. We must find a replacement for Sue while she is
away on holiday.            n.

4. a. The climbers had reached the limit of their
endurance.                            n.
  b. The parents asked their kids to keep spending
within limits. n.
  c. The government place to limit land development in
order to preserve the environment. v.




                                                         60
5. a. You must accept your share of responsibility for
the failure of the firm.         n.
   b. Their supreme desire is to be together –to share
each other’s emotions, fancies, and dreams.         v.
   c. We still have the largest market share, but the
competition is growing fast.             n.




                                                         61
             Extended Activities

B. Function and Structure: Meeting People
    Key to Ⅰ: Greeting People
1. Hi, Tim!
   Not bad.
2. Hi, Jane!
   What’s happening?

3. Hi, Mark! How are you doing?
   Yeah, a lot of people have colds. It’s this crazy
weather -- cold one minute and hot the next.

4. Good morning, Mr. Edwards.
   How are you?


                                                       62
Key to Ⅱ: Say Good-bye

1.You, too. See you later.

2. Me too. See you tonight.
   So long.

3.You’re welcome, David. Have a good time.   Good-bye.

4. I hope so, too. Have a good day.
   Bye.




                                                         63
C. Practical Reading: Timetable
   Key to I:
               Stone   Mount   Trent   Keel
               Dep.    Dep.    Dep.    Arr.
               06:15   07:15   09:30   10:55
               06:50   --      --      11:10
               07:15   08:15   10:30   11:55
               07:50   --      --      12:10
               08:15   09:15   11:30   12:55
               08:25   09:25   11:40   13:05
               08:50   --      --      13:10
               09:15   10:15   12:30   13:55
               09:25   10:25   12:40   14:05
               09:50   --      --      14:10

                                               64
C. Practical Reading: Timetable
   Key to II:
1. 12:55
2. 1 hour 25 minutes
3. The 12:30 train from Trent.
4. 07:15, 10:15.

D. Additional Vocabulary
  Key:
1-1;    2-7;     3-2;     4-12; 5-11;
6-6;    7-18;    8-3;     9-4;  10-5;
11-14; 12-17;   13-8;    14-20; 15-15;
16-13; 17-9;    18-16;   19-10; 20-19.



                                         65
                 Unit Two --- Reading I
               Marketing and Promotion




•   Warm--up
•   Text
•   Translation
•   Notes
•   New Words
•   Examples
•   Exercises
•   Extended Activities
                                          66
                     Text
           Marketing and Promotion
1. When a company starts to sell goods in a new market, they
often do some market research or a preliminary study to see if
the project is feasible . They research the market potential or do
a feasibility study to see if they will make money by selling in
the new market. In other words, they want to see if the product
is viable.

2. One way to assess the market potential is to take a stand at
a trade fairwhere companies can exhibit samplesof their
products and see what response they get from
prospectivecustomers. The trade fair is an exhibition of goods,
and a company exhibits a



                                                                     67
sample of its product at its stand. This is also a form of
publicity and the company representative will probably
hand out publicity brochures to promote the product further.
Often journalists write about the trade fair and sometimes
companies hold a press conference if they want to promote
a particular model or range. Each different type of car, bike,
etc. is a model. All the different models made by a company
make up its range . The full range of goods is normally
displayed in the company’s cataloguewhich is a booklet or
brochure.

3. Another way of promoting or publicizing a new product is
to place advertisements in magazines or newspapers.




                                                                 68
Advertisements are also called adverts or ads for short . A
plan to do a lot of advertising of one product is called a
campaign. Starting an advertising campaign on a new
product is known as launching the product.

4. The aim of promotion is to interest customers or clients
in the product. Initially customers might make inquiries
about the product. When they decide to buy they place an
order. At a trade fair companies are trying to win as many
orders as possible. However, before a client places an
order, he wants to know many things—how long delivery
takes, whether the company can supply replacements and
spare parts, what the




                                                              69
after-sales service is like, etc. If one of the components
of a product breaks, the customer will want a replacement
spare part. If the product is complicated, skilled workers
might be needed to fit spare parts or to service or
maintain the machinery . Any maintenance or servicing of
the company does after it has sold the product is called
after-sales service. Whether a company can provide good
after-sales service or not may directly affect the sales of
its products.




                                                              70
译 文:
         营 销 和 促 销

1 当一家公司开始在一个新市场出售货物时,他们往往做一些
市场调查或初步研究,看看该项目是否是可行的。他们研究市场
潜力或做可行性研究,通过在新市场的销售,看看是否会赚钱。
换言之,就是他们想看到产品是否切实可行。

2 有个评估市场潜力的方法是,公司在商品交易会立个展位,
可以展示其产品的样品,看看潜在的客户有什么反应。商品交易
会是一个商品展览会,公司在展位展示产品的样本。这也是一种
宣传形式,公司代表可能会分发宣传小册子来进一步促销。通常
记者会报导贸易博览会,如果公司想促销某特殊型号或系列的产
品,公司有时会举行记者招待会。每个不同类别的汽车、自行车
等是一个型号。公司生产的所有不同的型号组成系列产品。所有
系列产品通常显示在该公司的小册子或宣传册目录上。

                               71
3 另一种促销或宣传新产品的方式,是在杂志或报纸上做广告。
广告也称为advers广告或缩写成ads广告。对一个产品做大量广
告的计划,叫做促销活动。对一个新产品开始做促销活动,被称
为发布新产品。

4 促销的目的是要顾客或客户对产品感兴趣。最初顾客可能对有
关产品进行咨询。当他们决定购买时,会下一个订单。在商品交
易会上,公司要尽可能多地赢得大量订单。但是,在客户下订单
前,他想知道很多事情---运送要多长时间、公司是否可以供应替
换件和备件,售后服务情况如何等等。如果产品的零件坏了,客
户将要更换零件。如果是一个复杂的产品,可能需要熟练的工人
来安装备件或维修或保养机器。任何公司的售后保养或维修,叫
做售后服务。一个公司是否能提供良好的售后服务,可能直接影
响其产品的销售。
                       译者:周荆洪


                                   72
                        Warm--up


I. Work with your partner and list things customers may consider
    when they make a purchase.

brand, price, color, style, size, type, package, usage,
品牌,价格,颜色,样式,大小,类型,包装,使用,

fashion, modern, date, company, address, performance,
时尚, 现代, 日期,公司,                  地址, 业绩,

reputation, pollution, taste, smell, shape, materials,
信誉,         污染, 味道,气味,形状,材料,




                                                                   73
weight, quality, performance, after-sales service,
重量, 质量, 性能,                   售后服务,

attitude, user-friendliness, environment-friendliness,
态度, 方便用户,                   环境友好性,

reliability, comfortable, convenient, portable, sexy, beautiful,…
可靠性, 舒适,                  方便,          轻便,性感,美丽 …




                                                                    74
II. Pairwork:

 1) How do you usually get to know a new product or service?

 2) What practices are commonly used to promote a product or
service?

 3) Are you fond of buying promoted products? Why or why not?

 4) How do you see promotional activities prevailing in today’s
business world?




                                                                  75
    Modern marketing can direct the flow of goods and
services from products to consumers. The satisfaction of
particular customer needs was essential for success.
Essentially, the marketing concept focuses all the activities
of the organization on satisfying customer needs by
integrating these activities with marketing to accomplish the
organization’s long-range objectives.

  现代营销可以引导从产品到消费者的商品和服务的流通。
特定客户的需求满意度是成功的关键。基本上,营销
理念集中在满足客户需求的所有活动的组织上,通过这些
活动,完成本活动的长远目标。




                                                                76
5) What do you think are the responsibilities of a company’s
marketing staff?
   They may think of something as product planning,
promotional techniques, advertising, product development,
new-product development, organizing the channels, credit
policies, customer support, distribution, and corporate
communications.
  To identify marketplace need, develop market offer,
coordinate production and finance personnel, provide
customer satisfaction, achieve organizational goals.

 他们可能考虑如产品规划,推广技术,广告,产品开发,新
产品开发,组织渠道,信贷政策,客户支持,分销,及企业交
流。
 确定市场需要,发展市场供给,协调生产和财务人员,提供
客户满意度,实现组织的目标。

                                                               77
                           Notes
1. do a preliminary study: to make a study before an important
action or event.
2. market potential: possibility of being developed in the
market.
3. a feasibility study: a study to find out whether a certain
project has potential to succeed. The word “feasibility” is a
noun, but can be used as an attributive.
4. a form of publicity: a way of proving information in order to
attract public attention.
5. promote the product further: “further” here means “ to a
greater degree’.
  e.g. I must inquire further into this matter.


                                                                   78
6. a range of: group or series of similar
things.
7. place an order: to make an official
request for goods to be supplied.
8. machinery: It is an uncountable noun,
usually followed by a singular verb.
  e.g. Machinery is being introduced to
save labor.




                                            79
     New Words


1. preliminary a. 开端的;预备的
2. feasible a. 可行的
3. potential n. 潜力
4. viable a. 切实可行
5. assess v. 评估

6. stand n. 摊位
7. fair n. 商品展销会
8. exhibit v. 陈列,展览
9. sample n. 样品
10. response n .回答




                            80
11. prospective n. 预期的;可能的
12. publicity n. 宣传;文告
13. representative n. 代表;代理人
14. brochure n. 小册子
15. promote v. 推销;推广

16. journalist n. 新闻记者
17. conference n. 会议
18. range n. 系列
19. display v. 陈列;展示
20. catalogue n. 目录




                               81
21. campaign n. (宣传或销售某商品的活动)
22. launch v. 推出并新产品
23. client n. 客户
24. initially ad. 最初
25. inquiry n. 询问

26. delivery n. 递送;运送
27. replacement n. 替换
28. spare a. 多余的
29. component n. 零部件
30. complicated a. 复杂的




                                82
31. fit v. 安装
32. service v. 保养;维修
33. maintain v.保养;维修
34. machinery n. 机器

1. in other words 换句话说;也就是说
2. hand out 分发
3. make up 形成;构成
4. for short 作为简略形成;简称
5. be known as 通称为
6. after-sales service 售后服务




                              83
                  Unit   Two
What words can you associate with the pictures?

                         preliminary a.
                         feasible a.
                         brochure n.


                          potential n.
                          response n.
                          campaign n.
                                            84
component n.
machinery n.
fit v.



conference n.
promote v.
catalogue n.

                85
complicated n.
launch n.
client n.



             range n.
             display v.
             representative n.
                                 86
              prospective a.
              journalist n.
              inquiry n.



maintain v.
delivery n.
spare a.
                               87
viable a.      stand n.
sample n.      fair n.
publicity n.   feasible a.

                             88
             publicity n.
             client n.
             initially ad.



inquiry n.
exhibit n.
display v.

                             89
     New Words


1. preliminary a. 开端的;预备的
2. feasible a. 可行的
3. potential n. 潜力
4. viable a. 切实可行
5. assess v. 评估

6. stand n. 摊位
7. fair n. 商品展销会
8. exhibit v. 陈列,展览
9. sample n. 样品
10. response n .回答




                            90
11. prospective n. 预期的;可能的
12. publicity n. 宣传;文告
13. representative n. 代表;代理人
14. brochure n. 小册子
15. promote v. 推销;推广

16. journalist n. 新闻记者
17. conference n. 会议
18. range n. 系列
19. display v. 陈列;展示
20. catalogue n. 目录




                               91
21. campaign n. (宣传或销售某商品的活动)
22. launch v. 推出并新产品
23. client n. 客户
24. initially ad. 最初
25. inquiry n. 询问

26. delivery n. 递送;运送
27. replacement n. 替换
28. spare a. 多余的
29. component n. 零部件
30. complicated a. 复杂的




                                92
31. fit v. 安装
32. service v. 保养;维修
33. maintain v.保养;维修
34. machinery n. 机器

1. in other words 换句话说;也就是说
2. hand out 分发
3. make up 形成;构成
4. for short 作为简略形成;简称
5. be known as 通称为
6. after-sales service 售后服务




                              93
                        Examples

1. market potential: 市场潜力

2. feasible a. 可行的
   e.g. a feasible solution
   Now that we have the extra resources, the scheme seems
    politically / financially / technically feasible.
   It’s quite feasible that we’ll get the money.

  Feasibility (可行性) is the noun form of feasible.

3. to see if / what: 发现;认定
   e.g. I’ll call him and see how the job interview went.
   She went outside to see what was happening
   I’ve just come to see if you want to go out for a drink.


                                                              94
4. in other words: 换言之;那就是说
   e.g. Your performance in the exam did not reach the required demand,
    in other words, you failed.

5. viable a. 切实可行的 synonym: feasible
   e.g. The scheme is not economically viable.

  viability n.
  e.g. commercial viability 商业上的可行性
  the long-term financial viability of the company 公司的长期财政活力

6. exhibit vt. 展览
   e.g. Her paintings were exhibited at a gallery.



                                                                    95
7. assess vt. 评定,评价, 估价,估计
   e.g. He’s so lazy that it’s difficult to assess his ability.
   It’s too early to assess the effects of the new law.
   They assess the value of the house at $60,000.

   synonym: evaluate

8. stand n. 售货的亭子 / 摊位或者柜台
   e.g. a hotdog stand
   an exhibition stand

9. sample n. 样品
   e.g. samples of a new shampoo



                                                                  96
10. trade fair: 贸易展销会;商品交易会
      Fair can also mean a gathering held at a specified time
   and place for the buying and selling of goods; a market
   or an exhibition, as of farm products or manufactured
   goods, usually accompanied by various competitions
   and entertainments. (博览会,通常带有竞争性和娱乐性.)

11. representative n. (公司) 代理人
    e.g. The role of the sales representative is extremely
   important in the organization’s overall sales effort.




                                                                97
12. prospective customer: 潜在的客户

13. publicity n. 宣传
  e.g. We have planned an exciting publicity campaign with our
advertisers.

   publicity n. 宣传; 宣扬
   propaganda n. ( 贬义词 )尤指政府为了影响民意而进行的宣传
   e.g. We will hold a big publicity campaign to highlight the
dangers of smoking .
   Their speeches have been exposed as pure propaganda.
Therefore, the Chinese expression 宣传部 should not be translated
into “Propaganda Department”, instead, a proper translation should
be “Publicity Department 宣传部”.



                                                                 98
14. hand out: 分发; 散发展
   e.g. Hand out the books to everyone in the classroom.
   He’s very good at handing out advice !

   “handout” : 发给出席讲座等的听众的印刷品;讲义

15. 辨析 brochure, booklet & catalogue
    brochure n. 小册子,常包括推销材料或产品信息.
    booklet n. 小册子
    e.g. We bought a booklet about the castle城堡 from the tourist
office.

   catalogue n. 商品目录
   e.g. a mail order catalogue;   an online catalogue


                                                                   99
16. press conference: (产品的)新闻发布会

17. promote vt.      promotion n.
    1) 提升
    e.g. My daughter’s just been promoted.
    The young army officer was promoted to the rank of captain.
    They promoted him captain.

   2) 推销 (货物)
   e.g. They staged a big advertising campaign to promote their
new product.

   3) 促进;增进;推动
   e.g. Milk promotes health.
   We must make new efforts to promote human peace and
development.

                                                                  100
18. model n. 产品型号或款式
  e.g. a luxury /new model

19. make up
  1) 形成;组成;构成
  e.g. Farming and mining make up most of the country’s industry.
  2) 虚构;捏造
  e.g. He made up an excuse for his being late.
  3) 化装
  e.g. She never goes out without making herself up first.

    “Make-up”化妆;化妆品 is the noun form, which means the powder,
  paint, etc. worn on the face, either by actors or for improving one’s
  appearance.
   Therefore, we have the following phrases:
    eye make-up 眼影; stage make-up 舞台化妆.


                                                                  101
20. display vt. 呈现; 展示
    e.g. Why don’t you display your ad on the notice board where
everyone can see it?
    The permit许可证 should be clearly displayed in the front
window.

21. for short: 简略为; 简称
    e.g. My name is David ,or Dave for short.

    A similar phrase containing “short” is in short (简而言之), which
means “ to put it into as few words as possible”,
    e.g. This is our most disastrous and embarrassing defeat ever;
in short, a fiasco ( 惨败).



                                                                     102
22. campaign n. 以达到某一目的而采取的一项或一系列活动
   e.g. an advertising campaign for a new product

23. “an advertisement campaign on a new product”:
   Here “on” means “affecting / relating to “(关于)”
   e.g. a book on China
   new evidence on the matter

24. (be) known as / to be : 以……而闻名
   e.g. Hangzhou and Suzhou are known as paradise on earth
   China is known to be a populous country.




                                                             103
25. 辨析customer and client
   A customer is a person who buys goods or a service.
   e.g. Mrs. Low can’t come to the phone—she’s serving a
customer.
   Mrs. Wilson is one of our regular customers.

    A client is a person who receives services; so if you are paying
for services, for example, from a lawyer or a bank, you are a client.
    e.g. Mr. Black has been a client of this from many years.

26. as …as possible:
   e.g. as soon as possible
   as many as possible
   as simple as possible
   as early as possible



                                                                        104
27. order n. 订单
    e.g. Can I take you now or would you like to have a drink
first?
    I would like to place (=make) an order for a large pine
table.

  order v.订货,下订单
  e.g. Are you ready to order, or would you like to look at
the menu for a little longer?

28. delivery (of goods) n. : transport of goods to a
customer’s address. 交货




                                                                105
29. replacement n. 代替者,替换物
  e.g. We are out of stock and waiting for replacement.我
们现无存货,正等待进新货.

30. spare parts: 备件

31. component n. 元件,部件
  e.g. These companies make electronic components for
computer products.

32. service v. 维修;保养
  e.g. I’m having the car serviced next week.

33. machinery (总称 )机器
  e.g. New machinery is being installed in the factory.



                                                           106
34. 辨析 affect and effect
  “affect” is a verb动词, meaning “ to have an influence on”,
while “effect” is usually a noun名词 , meaning “ the result of a
particular influence”.

  e.g. The divorce affected every aspect of her life .
  The team’s performance was affected by the rain.
  I think all the worry has affected my brain!
  The disease only affects cattle.
  I was deeply affected by the film.
  Government policy will not affect us / will not have any effect
on us.




                                                                    107
                           Exercises


Ⅰ. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
Ⅱ.Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences.
Ⅲ.Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
Ⅳ. Put the following words expressions from the text in the blanks to
complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
Ⅴ. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
Ⅵ. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts to
produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model.

                                                                    108
1. What does a company often do when it lands on a
new market?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   They often do some market research or preliminary
study to see if the project is feasible.

2. What is the purpose of doing market research?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   To see if the project is feasible, or to see if they will
make money by selling in the new market, or to see if
the product is viable.




                                                               109
3. What does a company exhibit at a trade fair?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Samples of their products.

4. Why does a company exhibit its goods at a trade fair?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   The company can exhibit some samples of their products, see
what response they get from prospective customers and the trade
fair is also a form of publicity.

5. What will company representatives probably do to further
promote their products?
  The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Hand out publicity brochures to promote the product further.


                                                                  110
6. What will companies do if they want to promote a particular
   model or range?
  The key comes from Paragraph 2:
  Hold a press conference.

7. What does launching a product mean?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Starting an advertising campaign on a new product is known
   as launching the product.




                                                                 111
    8. What does a client usually want to know before placing
.      an order?
       The key comes from Paragraph 4:
       Make inquiries about the products. They want know many
       things--- how long delivery takes, whether the company
       can supply replacements and spare parts, what the after-
       sales service is like, etc.

    9. What will directly affect a company’s sales performance?
      The key comes from Paragraph 4:
      Whether a company can provide good after-sales service
       or not may directly affect the sales of its products.



                                                                  112
  10. How do companies usually promote or publicize a new
     product?
   The key comes from Paragraph2--- 4:
.  To take a stand at a trade fair; to hand out publicity brochures;
     to hold a press conference or have some reports about
     products; to place advertisements in magazines or
     newspapers or on TV or Internet; to take a lot of advertising
     campaigns with colored background, attractive music,
     entertainment or performance or model show; to answer
     questions well or promise a good after-sales; to provide a
     chance to use freely or send something as a gift; to give a
     discount; to have receptions or parties; to help the people in
     troubles or contribute to our society or motherland, etc.




                                                                       113
1. One way to assess the market potential is________.
   a. to take a stand at a trade fair
   b. to advertise on TV or in magazines and newspapers
   c. to ask the prospective buyers to answer a questionnaire
   d. to hand out publicity brochures at the entrance to the
    trade fair.

2. according to the text, a campaign refers to _________.
   a. a firm or a business
   b. a plan to advertise a product
   c. a connected series of military operation
   d. an investigation into the market potential of product



                                                                114
3. Before a client places an order he or she wants to know
all of the following BUT________.
   a. whether the company will exhibit its products at a
trade fair
   b. whether the company can supply replacements and
spare parts
   c. whether the company can deliver the ordered product
promptly
   d. whether the company can provide necessary
maintenance or servicing




                                                             115
4. Promotion aims to ________.
   a. further publicize a product
   b. raise customers’ interest in a product
   c. make full use of the market potential
   d. offer lower price and better service to customers

5.______ is (are) usually displayed in a company’s catalogue.
  a. The company’s profile
  b. The company’s structure
  c. The company ‘s product rang
  d. The company’s promotion activities

         Key: a. b. a. b. c


                                                                116
1. client 客户a person with whom business is done or a
person who pays for a service

2. promote 推销, 推广 to increase the sales (of a new product)
by publicity, sales campaigns, TV commercials or free gifts

3. catalogue目录 a list of places, names, objects, goods, etc.

4. delivery 递送, 运送 the act of taking or giving something to
someone, or the things taken or given

5. market 市场 a building, square or open place where people
meet to buy and sell goods.



                                                               117
6. launch 推出(新产品) to put (a new product) on the market
(usually spending money on advertising it )

7. company 公司 an organization made up of people who work
together for the purpose of business or trade

8. range 系列 a set of different objects of the same kind

9. after-sales service 售后服务 service of a product carried out by
the seller for the buyer

10. campaign (宣传或销售某商品的) 活动 a series of planned
activities with a particular commercial aim



                                                              118
prospective      assess           make up         for short
viable           in other words   potential       known as
campaign         feasibility      hand out        publicity

1.The tax only affects people on incomes of over
          in other words
$200,000___________ the very rich.

                                                        publicity
2. The promotion organizers spent over $5000,000 on ______
alone in the hope that the style of the product would be a
selling point.

3.The main street between the castle and the palace
___________“the Royal Mile”
  is known as

4. His name’s Maximilian, but we just call him Max _______.
                                                    for short

                                                                    119
                                           potential
5.He studied the German market to find the _______ there for
profitable investment.

6.If you choose to do so, you can make a photocopy of the
                 hand it out
explanation and ________ to the class.

7. The investment remains beyond reach for many, but the
                                         viable
choices today are much broader and more ______than 10
years ago.

                               feasibility
8. The government is making a __________study on the
shopping center proposal.



                                                               120
9. Brand A __________of four packs each containing a full day’s
            is made up
food.

10.My mother keeps introducing me to men she considers to
    prospective
be__________ husbands.

                                      campaign
11. Environmental groups launched a __________ against the
widespread production of genetically modified crops (转基因农作物)

12. This test provides an excellent way of __________students’
                                            assessing
progress.




                                                                  121
1.The U.S.A is abbreviated from the United States of America.
  The United States of America is called the USA for short.

2. Peace and honor could not be estimated in dollars.
                                be assessed
3.Do you think the plan for the new product is feasible?
                                                viable
4.The purpose of taking a stand at a trade fair is to see the
response from possible buyers.
                prospective customers
5. The firm made a request for a new fax machine last week.
             placed an order
6. You performance in the exam did not reach the required standard
– to express it in another way, you failed.
   in other words

                                                                122
1.a. A lot depends on building and maintaining a good
relationship with your customers.        v.
    b. Engineers are carrying out essential maintenance work
on the main line to London.                       n.
    c. Critics maintain that these reforms will lead to a decline
in educational standards. v.

2. a. After two failures, NASA (National Aeronautical and
Space Administration) will try to launch a new space shuttle
again on Sunday.                     v.
    b. Modifying current equipment enables them to improve
the quality while the product is being launched and its success
evaluated.                        v.
    c. Encouraged by its success, the company launched an
ambitious plan aimed at increasing the profit by 58 percent a
year. v.
                                                                    123
3. a. The message conveyed by the leadership was the
Three Gorges Project will be carried out in two phases.
                  n.
   b. The local government will help fund this project, which
includes the building of 150 day-care centers. n.
   c. Every student school try to project his / her mind into the
future and imagine what life will be like then.     v.

4. a. The pants were a little tight at first, but after I wore them
a few time, they fit like a glove. v.
   b. We’ve got a match neat month, so we’ve got to keep
ourselves reasonably fit. a.
   c. Looking at her resume, she should be fit for the sales
job perfectly.                                   a.

                                                                      124
5. a. After examination the doctor told me that my
   blood pressure’s well within the normal range.
                                             n.
   b. It is common sense that in a company only a
   fairly narrow range of people is responsible for key
   decisions.       n.
   c. The temperature in you kitchen and around your
   picnic table range from 28 to 33 degrees.
                   v.




                                                          125
                    Extended Activities
       B. Function and Structure: Introduce People
           Key:

1.This is my brother                   4. Hello. I’m Helen
  It’s a pleasure to meet you.           Nice to meet you
                                         Nice to meet you
2. like you to meet
  Nice to meet you !                   5. have you met
                                         I’d like you to meet Mr. King
3. I’d like to introduce a friend of     this is Mr. Thatcher
mine                                     I’m glad to meet you
  Hello




                                                                         126
C. Practical Reading: Price List
   Key to I:

Code No.   Description         price$   Delivery
0048 Green 58x72cmPVC          $33.85   3 weeks
0049 Pink44x72cmPVC            $28.00   Immediate
0050 Red88x88cmPVC             $79.75   10 days
0057 Green 44.5 x 25cmnylon    $15.00   7 days
0057B White44.5x25cmnylon      $14.00   14Days
0059 Clear78x95cmPVC           $89.50    To order only




                                                         127
 Key to II:

 1.0057B      2. 0049     3. Oct.16   4. 115.5 yuan (RMB)

 5. Four types:

0048   $33.85     0049   $28.00   0050   $79.75   0059   $89.50




                                                              128
D. Additional Vocabulary
  Key:

1-15;    2-13;   3-17;    4-20; 5-19;
6-18;    7-16;   8-14;    9-12; 10-11;
11-6;    12-7;   13-3;   14-1; 15-5;
16-8;    17-2;   18-4;   19-10; 20-9.




                                         129
               Unit Three --- Reading I
            The Modern Servant---Nanny



Warm—up

Text

Translation

Notes

New Words      Examples

Exercises      Extended Activities        130
Text    The Modern Servant-Nanny
       1. Amanda Peniston-Bird, 21, is the daughter
       of a judge and has just completed a two-year
       training course to be a nanny at the Norland
       Nursery Training College. She and her mother
       talk about her choice of career .
       2. Amanda
           My sister Charlotte was born when I was
       seven and my mother decided she needed a
       nanny to look after us. So we got Alison. She
       was very young, seventeen I think, and
       wonderful. I adored her. She only worked part-
       time with us before she started her training at
       Norland College. She had to dress us in the
       morning and take me to school. After school
       she made us delicious teas and read us stories
       in bed. On Charlotte’s birthday she organized a
       fantastic party.
                                                         131
3. When Alison left, we had a trained nanny
who lived with us and worked fulltime. She was
called Nanny Barnes by everyone, including my
parents. She was older and quite traditional and
wore a uniform. It was then that I realized that I
wanted to be a nanny. I have always got on well
with children. I have always enjoyed taking care
of my sister and younger cousins . I told Mummy
very firmly that I wanted to be a nanny when I
grew up. At the time she laughed. I know that she
and Daddy thought it was just a childish phase I
was going through, but it wasn’t. They thought I
would follow in my father’s footstepsand study
law; But I didn’t. There were some terrible rows
but I didn’t go to



                                                     132
university. I left school and spent a year
working at Ludgrove School, where Prince
William used to go. Then I started my training
course at Norland College. I finished the course
last month and I’ve applied for the post of
nanny to twins aged six months. Mummy and
Daddy weren’t angry for long. We made it
upbefore I went to college, and they have
encouraged me ever since.
4. Amanda’s Mother
      Her father is still a wee bit disappointed
that she didn’t take after him and study law, but
I think we’re both



                                                    133
proud, and also pleased, that she has made her own
decisions in life and done so well. We have brought
her up to be an independent thinker , so we can’t
complain. Everything has turned out for the best. I
had a nanny when I was a child but I never thought
of being one myself, but times have changed and
“nannying” has been socially acceptable for a long
time. It wasn’t just Princess Diana who made it
fashionable!




                                                134
译 文:
          现代服务员---保姆
1 阿曼达-佩尼斯顿百德, 21岁 ,是一名法官的女儿,刚刚在
Norland托儿所培训学院,完成一项为期两年的保姆训练课程。
她和她的母亲谈到她的职业选择。

2 阿曼达
我妹妹夏洛特出生时,我7岁,我母亲决定请一个保姆来照顾我
们。因此,我们有了保姆艾莉森。她很年轻, 我想她有17岁吧,
人很棒。我十分喜欢她。她去Norland托儿所培训学院之前,在
我家是部分工作时间。早上,她为我们穿衣服,再送我上学。放
学后,她为我们做美味的茶点,并在床上为我们读故事书。夏洛
特过生日时,她举办了一个十分美好的聚会。

3 艾莉森离开后,我们又有一个训练有素的保姆,她跟我们一起

                                  135
生活,是全职工作。包括我的父母在内,大家称呼她保姆班恩。
她年龄较大,相当传统并穿着制服。就是从那时起,我意识到我
想当一个保姆。我总是与儿童们相处很好。我一直很喜欢照顾我
妹妹和表弟妹。我非常坚定地告诉妈妈,等我长大了要当一名保
姆。当时她大笑了起来。我知道她和爸爸以为我只是处在一个幼
稚的阶段,但并不是这样。他们以为我会学爸爸那样工作,研究
法律,但我没有。我们之间,有了些可怕的争吵,但我没有去读
大学。我离开学校后,在 Ludgrove 学校工作了一年,那时威廉
王子过去常去的地方。然后,到 Norland学院,开始了训练课程。
上个月我完成了课程,并已经申请做一对6个月大的双胞胎的保
姆工作。妈妈和爸爸不再生气了,在我去学院前,我们和好了。
从此,他们一直鼓励我。




                                136
4 阿曼达的母亲
她没有像父亲那样从事研究法律的工作,她父亲仍有一点点失望,
但是我认为我和她的父亲都感到骄傲,也很高兴,在生活中,她
能自作主张,并且做得这么好。我们把她养大,做个独立思考的
人,所以我们不能抱怨。结果证明一切都很好。我小时候,也有
一个保姆,可我从来没有想过自己做保姆,但是时代已经变了,
“做保姆”已被社会接受了很久。这并不只是因为戴安娜王妃而
使之变得时尚起来!




                    译者:周荆洪


                             137
            Warm--up
1. Brainstorming: Work with your partner
and list in the spaces provided below
occupations you think are.
          teacher,
          waiter / waitress,
          businessman,
          typist,
          driver,
          engineer,
          shop assistant,
          accountant,
          pilot,
          secretary,
          technician,
          worker…

                                           138
2. Pairwork:
 1) What do your parents do? How       No, Then…
do you like their occupations?
                                       What careers are you
 2) Have you ever thought of your
                                       interested in?
future career?

    Yes, Then…                         How will your parents’
What do you want to do when you        attitude influence your
graduate from college?                 choice of career?

 What do your parents think of your     How can you find out
choice of career?                      which career is right for
                                       you?
How will you prepare for your future
career?


                                                                   139
                        Notes


1. Norland Nursery Training College: a college which
   trains children’s nurses in northland of the United
   Kingdom.
2. We got Alison: We had Alison as our nanny.
3. At the time: at a certain moment in the past.
4. Prince William: born in 1982, the first son of Prince
   Charles and Princess Diana, grandson of Queen
   Elizabeth II.




                                                           140
       New Words
1. nanny n. 保姆
2. career n. 职业
3. adore v. 热爱,尊敬
4. part-time a. 兼职的,部分时间
5. delicious a.. 美味的

6. organize v. 安排,筹划
7. fantastic a. 极好的
8. full-time a/ad 全日制的(地)
9. including prep. 包括
10. traditional a. 传统的




                            141
11. cousin n. 堂(表)兄弟姐妹
12. firmly ad. 坚定地
13. childish a. 孩子的,孩子气的
14. phase n. 阶段,时期
15. footstep n 脚步声

16. row    n. 噪声,激烈的争论
17. apply    v. 申请,请求
18. encourage v. 鼓励
19. wee a. 小的,很小的
20. disappointed a. 失望的,受挫的




                              142
21. proud     a. 自豪的
22. independent a. 独立的,自主的
23. thinker   n. 有思想的人,思想家

24. complain   v. 投诉
25. acceptable a. 值得接受的;受欢迎的
26. fashionable a. 流行的;时兴的




                               143
1. get on with 与……相处和睦
2. go through 经历
3. make (it) up with 言归于好
4. turn out    证明是某人或某物
5. grow up      长大,成人
6. for long    很久

7. apply for 申请
8. take after 与某人很像
9. bring up     养育;教育
10. think of 考虑到;想到
11. follow in one’s footsteps
    从事与他人同样的职业或过同样的生活




                                144
                Unit Three
What words can you associate with the pictures?


                        part-time a.
                        full-time a.
                        encourage v.


       fashionable a.
       acceptable a.
       footstep n.
                                           145
wee a.
thinker n.
proud a.



             apply v.
             delicious a.
             footstep n.

                            146
                 cousin n.
                 childish a.
                 organize v.
traditional a.
phase n.
wee a.
                               147
                  row n.
                  complain v.
                  phase n.




disappointed a.
adore v.
                                148
f




fantastic a.
independent a.
row n.
proud a.
adore v.
                 149
                  firmly a.
                  nanny n.
                  traditional a.



organize v.
Including prep.
career n.

                                   150
       New Words
1. nanny n. 保姆
2. career n. 职业
3. adore v. 热爱,尊敬
4. part-time a. 兼职的,部分时间
5. delicious a.. 美味的

6. organize v. 安排,筹划
7. fantastic a. 极好的
8. full-time a/ad 全日制的(地)
9. including prep. 包括
10. traditional a. 传统的




                            151
11. cousin n. 堂(表)兄弟姐妹
12. firmly ad. 坚定地
13. childish a. 孩子的,孩子气的
14. phase n. 阶段,时期
15. footstep n 脚步声

16. row    n. 噪声,激烈的争论
17. apply    v. 申请,请求
18. encourage v. 鼓励
19. wee a. 小的,很小的
20. disappointed a. 失望的,受挫的




                              152
21. proud     a. 自豪的
22. independent a. 独立的,自主的
23. thinker   n. 有思想的人,思想家

24. complain   v. 投诉
25. acceptable a. 值得接受的;受欢迎的
26. fashionable a. 流行的;时兴的




                               153
1. get on with 与……相处和睦
2. go through 经历
3. make (it) up with 言归于好
4. turn out    证明是某人或某物
5. grow up      长大,成人
6. for long    很久

7. apply for 申请
8. take after 与某人很像
9. bring up     养育;教育
10. think of 考虑到;想到
11. follow in one’s footsteps
 从事与他人同样的职业或过同样的生活




                                154
                      Examples
1. 辨析career and profession
 需要特别训练的并终身或长期从事的职业;一生的事业
   e.g. choice of career
        a career in banking
        a change of career
 尤指受过教育和专门训练的法律、医学、教育
等脑力劳动方面的专业、职业
   e.g. career soldier 职业军人
        career diplomat 职业外交家
        career woman / girl 职业女性
        He is a lawyer by profession.

 professional a.
 e.g. professional standard 专业标准
      a professional photographer 职业摄影师
      professional foul (体育运动中)故意犯规
      He is a footballer who turned professional.
                                                    155
2. nanny n. 保姆;奶奶
   e.g. She found a job as a nanny with a wealthy Italian
family.

3. 辨析part-time and full-time
   e.g. a part-time job
        a part-time student 非全日制学生
        a full-time job 全职工作
        a full-time student 全日制学生
        He works full-time.

4. V+ Oi + Od
   e.g. He brings me cooking every day.
        She made me a beautiful dress.
        She brings cooking to me every day.
        She made a beautiful dress for me.
        The guest was given a warm welcome by the crowed.

                                                            156
5. delicious a. 美味的
   e.g. a delicious meal

6. wear v. 穿,戴
   e.g. Susanna was wearing a black silk dress.

7. uniform n. 制服
   e.g. school /army/police uniform
   He was still wearing his school uniform.

8. get on with: 与……相处
   e.g. Do you get on well with your boss?
   My brother and I have never really got on .

9. at the time : 当时,那时候
   e.g. It seemed like a good idea at the time.

                                                  157
10. phase n. 阶段
  e.g. It’s just a phase he’s going through.
  The work will be carried out in phases.

11. go through 遭受;经历;忍受
  e.g. The company has gone through too many wars.

12. make it up with: 和解
  e.g. It’s time you made it up with your sister.

13. turn out : 证明是某……,结果是……,发展为……
   e.g. It was a difficult time, but eventually things turned out
all right.
   To my surprise, it turned out that I was wrong.
   The party turned out a success.


                                                                    158
14. for long :
   e.g. Have you known them for long?
   I haven’t seen her for so long that I’ve forgotten what she looks
like.

15. apply for : 提出请求或申请
  e.g. I’ll apply for the job today.
  She applied for a job with the local newspaper.

16. a wee bit : 有些;有点
  e.g. He’s a wee bit drunk.

17. take after: 长相或者举止像(某个长辈)(不用于进行式)
  e.g. The child took after his father only when seen at a distance.

18. make a decision : 下决心,作出决定
  e.g. After weeks of sleepless nights, I firmly made a decision.
  Let me know as soon as you arrive at a decision.
                                                                       159
19. bring up : 教育;教养
   e.g. She was brought up to believe
that money is not the most important
thing in the world.
   He was well brought up.

20. think of : 考虑;想到
  e.g. We are thinking of going to
France.
  She lay awake thinking of the money.

21. follow in one’s footsteps:
  继承某人的事业;步某人的后尘
  e.g. The girl’s following in her father’s
footsteps and studying to be a doctor.


                                              160
                        Exercises

Ⅰ. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
Ⅱ.Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences.
Ⅲ.Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
Ⅳ. Put the following words expressions from the text in the blanks to
complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
Ⅴ. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined
words with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
Ⅵ. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.

                                                                 161
1. What is Amanda’s father?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   Amanda Peniston-Bird,21,is the daughter of a judge.

 2. Who was Alison?
  The key comes from Paragraph 2:
  My sister Charlotte was born when I was seven and my
mother decided she needed a nanny to look after us. So we
got Alison.

3. When did Alison come to be with Amanda’s family?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   My sister Charlotte was born when I was seven and my
mother decided she needed a nanny to look after us. So we
got Alison.


                                                            162
4. Why did little Amanda adore Alison very much?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   She was very young and wonderful. She had to dress us in
the morning and take me to school. After school she made us
delicious teas and read us stories in bed. On Charlotte’s
birthday she organized a fantastic party.

5. How was Nanny Barnes different from Alison?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Nanny Barnes worked full-time. She was older and quite
traditional and wore a uniform.

6. When did Amanda realize that she wanted to be a nanny?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   When Alison left, we had a trained nanny who lived with us
and worked full-time. It was then that I realized that I wanted
to be a nanny.

                                                                  163
7. What did Amanda’s parents think of young Amanda’s
decision at the time?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   They thought it was just a childish phase she’s going
through.

8. What career did Amanda’s parents expect her to pursue?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   The parents thought she would follow in her father’s
footsteps and study law.

9. When did Amanda’s parents begin to encourage her
instead of frowning on her career choice?
    The key comes from Paragraph 3
    The parents and she made it up before she went to
college, and they have encouraged her ever since.

                                                            164
10. Why did Amanda’s parents’ attitude change toward her choice
of career?
    The key comes from Paragraph 4
   Amanda has made her own decisions in life and done so well.
They have brought her up to be an independent thinker, so they
can’t complain. Everything has turned out for the best.

11. Why do Amanda’s parents feel proud of their daughter?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4
   They’re proud and pleased that their daughter has made her
own decisions in life and done so well.

12. How would your parents react to your decision to be a nanny?




                                                                165
1. How did little America think of her first nanny, Alison?
   a. Alison was well trained as a nanny.
   b. Alison was too young to be a qualified nanny.
   c. Alison hardened her resolve to be a nanny.
   d. Alison stirred her interest in being a nanny.

2. Why did Amanda want to be a nanny?
   a. She enjoyed looking after children.
   b. She didn’t want to study in a law school.
   c. She hated to follow in her father’s footsteps.
   d. Princess Diana made nannying a fashionable job.




                                                              166
3. How do Amanda’s parents feel about her choice of career now?
   a. Her parents think that her decision is rather childish and she
    will regret sooner or later.
   b. Her parents can’t come to terms with the fact that their
    daughter chooses to be a nanny.
   c. Her parents feel very sorry for her and believe their daughter
    deserves a more decent job.
   d. Her parents look upon her choice with mixed feelings but feel
    proud of her being so independent.

4. What is true about Alison ?
   a. Alison worked full-time with Amanda’s family.
   b. Alison got on well with Amanda and Amanda’s sister.
   c. Alison came to look after Amanda when Amanda was born.
   d. Alison was hired by Princess Diana to nurse Prince William.



                                                                       167
5. What can you conclude from the passage?
   a. Every nanny in Britain school go to college for
    formal training
   b. Both Alison and Nanny Barnes influenced
    Amanda’s choice of career
   c. Parents are held responsible for making good
    career decisions for their children
   d. Nannying has been widely accepted as a
    respectable and fashionable job in Britain.



       Key : d. a. d. b. b


                                                        168
1. organize 安排;筹划 to make the necessary arrangement for
2. complain 投诉;抱怨 to say that one is not satisfied, unhappy

3. disappointed 失望的;受挫的 sad of dissatisfied
4. apply 申请 to make a formal request

5. phase 阶段;时期 a stage in a process of change
6. row 噪声;激烈争吵 loud noise; noisy argument




                                                              169
7. including 包括 having as a part
8. delicious 美味的 pleasant; good to eat

9. adore 热爱;尊敬 to love deeply ad respect highly
10. fantastic 极好的 excellent; marvelous

11. proud 感到得意的; 自豪的 feeling or showing pride
12. fashionable 时兴的;流行的 following a style that is
currently popular




                                                    170
part-time         go through           make a decision
bring up          take after           make it up
turn out          at the time          get on with
for long          follow in one’s footsteps
                                       is following in her father’s
1. The girl’s father is a doctor, she ___________________ footsteps
and studying to be a doctor.
2. As a postgraduate, he supports himself by working
 part-time
__________ in a company.
                took after
3. The child __________ his father only when seen at a
distance.
4. The secretary tells me that our new manager is very kind
                get on with
and easy to __________.
                               going through
5. The company has been _____________considerable
change for the past three years.

                                                                171
                                              at the time
6. When I first heard the proposal, I agreed _________,but
later I changed my mind.
7. The company met with a serious financial problem and
         make a decision
had to ____________ as to what to do.
8.John had a quarrel with Mary last week. Has he
    made it up
___________ with her yet?
             turned out
9.The job __________ to be harder than we had
expected .
                                           brought up
10.As a good-hearted nanny, Mrs. Smith _________ five
parentless children.
11. I haven’t seen her daughter ________, so that I’ve
                                  for long
forget what she looks like.




                                                             172
1.I’ll have a little drop of cream in my coffee.
              wee
2.How can I read with all this noise going on ?
                                  row
3.He is going through the most exciting stage of his career.
                                            phase
4.Why don’t you end your quarrel and shake hands with each other?
                       make it up
5.He has made up his mind to return to China and request for a job.
                                                     apply for
6.Since he’s no longer a child ,he can make his own decision.
                  he has grown up




                                                                  173
1. a. Many young females adore visiting fashionable
    shows.                         v.
   b. Most of the indigenous tribes on the island adore her
    as a goddess.                                         v.
   c. Girls and boys adore this film for its eye-catching
    special effects.      v.

2. a. He accepted the task without realizing the risk he
    was taking .                            v.
   b. She spoke English so well that I never realized she
    was German.                                       v.
   c. She realized her ambition of becoming an actress
    after ceaseless efforts.   v.




                                                               174
3. a. He seated himself in the boat and began rowing
towards the harbor’s month.                        v.
   b. He’s always having a row with his wife about trifles.
                             n.
   c. We stood in row to receive our certificates from the
headmaster.        n.

4. a. The mood of the meeting turned solemn when the
problem became known.              v.
   b. I waited so long for my turn to see the doctor that I
missed train.                   n.
   c. Many countries are starting to turn their attention to
new forms of energy.                   v.



                                                               175
5. a. He has spent most of his life working for the same
company.        v.
   b. The minister was looking forward to spending more
time with his family.                         v.
   c. They are only able to spend money on basic
necessity.                    v.




                                                           176
           Extended Activities

B.Function and Structure:
  Expressing and Responding to Thanks
      Key to I:
1.Thank you very much
  It’s a pleasure

2. can never thank you enough for
   It’s nothing

3. Much appreciated.
   Don’t mention it

4. I’m much obliged to you
   you would have done the same in my position

                                                 177
C. Practical Reading: Business Cards
   Key :
1. Sandy Vincent.
   Because he is an art director.
   By phone at 081-743-5892 or by fax at 081-743-6351
   Phoning is more convenient, for it can reach the very person
you want immediately and more directly.

2. TELECON.
   23 via Roma, Torino, Italy.
   Fax: 11 657 2943

3. Brian Conroy.
   His surname is Conroy and his first name is Brian.
   He’s working in the International Sales Department.
   Hardware.
   He’s American.
                                                                  178
4. I’d advise him to contact Michael Martin.
   Because he works for INFO TEC, which will
provide him with useful information.
   Chief Information Official.
   Office: (513) 529-2417.

5. I’ll contact SHINICHI SUZUKI.
   He is a software engineer.
   IMPEX IMP. & EXP. LTD.

6.John Halley.
  Salesman.
  By sending an E-mail to him.



                                               179
D. Additional Vocabulary
  Key:
1-15; 2-1;      3-21;     4 -13;    5-9;

6- 6;   7-26;    8 - 3;   9 - 4;   10-5;

11- 8; 12-18; 13-30; 14-11; 15-23;

16 -2; 17-10; 18-25; 19-29;        20-22;

21-12; 22-19; 23-16; 24-7;         25-17;

26-27; 27-14; 28-28; 29-24;        30-20




                                            180
        Unit Four --- Reading I
Personal Progress and Job-hopping

                             Warm--up
                             Text
                             Translation
                             Notes


New Words
Examples
Exercises
Extended Activities

                                           181
                             Text
     Personal Progress and Job-hopping


1. In many parts of the world, personal influence is almost
essential in getting ahead. One needs a “godfather ”, a
“sponsor ”. Here that is not true. Naturally all people use
influence sometimes, but one rarely advances far on that
basis alone in the United States. Here traits which lead to
success are generally considered to be the willingness to
work hard (at any kind of job), scholarship or skill, initiative ,
an agreeable and outgoing personality . In other words, even
in the realm of personal progress, this is a




                                                                     182
“do-it-yourself ” society. By and large , success is neither
inherited nor bestowed . This means, therefore, that our
employment practices are different from those in many other
countries.
2. In some nations it is considered disloyal to quit a job; deep
reciprocal loyalties exist between employee and employer
(“recipient” and “patron ” in many cases); lifelong job security
保障and family honor are frequently involved.




                                                                   183
3. This is not true in the United States. “Job-hopping” is part
of our constant mobility . We consider it a “right” to be able to
better ourselves, to move upward , to jump from company to
company if we can keep qualifying for more responsible( and
therefore better) jobs.

4. This interchangeability of personnel seems unreasonable
to some members of foreign nations. Where are our roots?
How can we be so cold and inhuman ? “We act,” some say,
“as if we were dealing with machines, not humans.” They do
not understand that a great




                                                                    184
many Americans like to move about. New jobs present new
challenges , new opportunities, new friends, and new
experiences—often a new part of the country.

5. The employer may be quite content too. Perhaps he has had
the best of that man’s thinking; a new person may bring in fresh
ideas, improved skills, or new abilities. Then, too, a newcomer
will probably start at a lower salary for he will have no seniority.
Hopping is so readily accepted here, in fact, that a good man
may bounce back and forth among two or three corporations,
being welcomed back to his original company more than once
through his career, each time at a different level.




                                                                       185
译 文:
       个 人 发 展 与 工 作 跳 槽


1 在世界许多地方,要获得成功,个人的影响力几乎是必
不可少的。 人都需要有一个“教父” , 一个“赞助人” 。
但在美国这里,却不是这样。当然有时所有的人都使用人的
影响力,但是,在美国仅仅依靠这种影响力,一个人极少发
展得很好。在这里,导致成功的性格,一般被认为是:愿意
努力工作(任何职务) 、学识或技能、主动性、令人喜欢
的外向的性格。换言之,即使是在个人进步的范围讲,这也
是一个“自己动手”的社会。大体上说,成功既不是继承,
也不是赐予。因此,这意味着,我们的就业做法不同于其他
许多国家。


                                186
2 在一些国家把放弃某个工作,看成是不忠诚的表现;在
雇员和雇主之间存在很深的互惠忠诚度,(许多情况下是“接
受者”和“资助人”的关系) ;终身工作的保障和家庭的荣
誉也经常被联系起来。

3 在美国,这样却是不正确的。 “工作跳槽”是我们经常
流动性的一部分。我们认为这是改善自己生活、人往高处走的
一个“权利”,如果我们能保持资格承担更大的责任(因此,
更好的工作),就会从一个公司跳到另一个到公司。

4 对一些外国人而言, 这种员工的可互换性似乎是不合理
的。我们的根在哪里呢?我们怎么能如此冷漠和不人道?
“我们的行为, ”有人说, “好象是跟机器打交道,而不是



                               187
与人相处。 ”他们不明白,许多美国人都喜欢流动工作。新
的工作呈现新的挑战、新的机遇、新的朋友和新的经验,常常
是这个国家一个新的地方。

5 雇主也可能会相当满意。或许他拥有最佳的思维;一个新
人可能会带来新的观念,提高了的技能,或新的能力。况且,
一个新手可能会以较低的薪金起步,因为他没有任何资历。在
这里,事实上跳槽是这样乐意被接受,一个有能力的人可能在
两个或三个公司之间跳来跳去,不止一次受欢迎回到他原来的
公司工作,且每一次都在不同的层次工作。


                   译者:周 荆 洪




                              188
                        Warm--up
I.     Work with your partner and list things that people
       may consider in choosing their jobs.




     Job security, good pay, challenging work, no stress,
     工作安全、 好薪资, 挑战性的工作,                        没有压力,

     distance from work, commuting time, team spirit,
     上班的距离,              上下班时间,          团队精神、

     opportunities to work independently,
     独立工作机会,




                                                            189
employee shareholding program, retirement benefits,
职员股权计划、                        退休利益、

overtime work, paid holidays, vacation time,
加班时间、          带薪度假、          假期时间、

working environment, interesting / friendly coworkers,
工作环境、                有趣的/友好的同事、

prestigious title, job status etc.
享有声望的名称, 工作状态等等




                                                         190
II. Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with
    your partner.
    1.What is important for you in a job? And why?
    2.Which job do you like to take, a well-paid job you
       dislike or a poorly paid job you enjoy?
    3.Do you prefer to be an employer or an employee?

To Be Employer
1. What are the possible benefits of being an employer?
2. What qualities does an employer desire in an employee?
3. Will you hole against an employee who has a record of
   frequent job-hopping?

To Be an Employee
1. What are the possible benefits of being an employee?
2. What qualities does an employee desire in an employer?
3. What is you attitude toward the practice of frequent job-
   hopping?
                                                               191
                         Notes

1. job-hopping: the practice of moving from job to job.

2. do-it-yourself society: a society in which you should do
   things yourself, and depend on yourself. (abb. DIY)

3. One needs a “godfather”, a “sponsor”: One needs someone
   to support economically and help him/her move forward in
   society.

4. recipient and patron: the person who takes the job, and the
    person who offers the job opportunity.

5. keep qualifying: to remain in ability to be suited for.

6. move about: to travel from place to place.

                                                              192
       New Words


1. hop v. 跳过
2. influence n. v. 影响
3. essential a. 必要的
4. godfather n. 教父

5. sponsor n. 教父
6. trait n. (人的)品质;特性
7. scholarship n. 学识;奖学金
8. initiative n. 主动性
9. agreeable a. 令人愉快的




                           193
10. outgoing a. 外向的
11. personality n. 个性;性格
12. realm n. (活动或兴趣)领域
13. inherit v. 继承(财产、头衔)

14. bestow v. 赠与
15. disloyal a. 不忠诚的
16. reciprocal a. 互相给予的;互惠的
17. loyalty n. 忠诚




                              194
18. recipient n. 接受者
19. patron n. 资助人
20. lifelong a. 终生的
21. security n. 安全;保障

22. constant a. 不断的;连续发生的
23. mobility n. 流动性;机动性
24. better v. 改善
25. qualify v. (使)具有/ 取得资格




                             195
26. interchangeability n. 可互换性
27. personnel n. (总称)人员;员工
28. inhuman a. 无人性的
29. challenge n. 激励性的任务;挑战

30. content a. 满意的
31. seniority n. 资历;年历
32. bounce v. 弹回
33. original a. 起初的




                                 196
1. get ahead 领先;出人头地
2. on the basis of 在……的基础上;根据
3. lead to 导致
4. by and large 大体上;总的说来
5. move upward 升职;升迁

6. deal with 处理;安排
7. be content with 满意
8. bring in 引进;引入
9. back and forth 来回地




                                197
                     Unit Four
What words can you associate with the pictures?




      seniority a.        reciprocal a.
      qualify v.          bestow v.
      sponsor n.          godfather n.

                                             198
               influence n.
               hop v.
               essential a.




bounce v.
seniority n.
original a.
                              199
disloyal a.
loyalty n.
better v.




              inhuman a.
              trait n.
              interchangeability n.
                                      200
original a.    realm n.
constant a.    inherit v.
challenge n.   content a.
                            201
outgoing a.
agreeable a.
personnel n.



               scholarship n.
               personality n.
               security n.

                                202
                   recipient n.
                   patron     n.
                   lifelong        a.




initiative a. n.
personality n.
mobility n.                             203
       New Words


1. hop v. 跳过
2. influence n. v. 影响
3. essential a. 必要的
4. godfather n. 教父

5. sponsor n. 教父
6. trait n. (人的)品质; 特性
7. scholarship n. 学识;奖学金
8. initiative n. 主动性
9. agreeable a. 令人愉快的




                           204
10. outgoing a. 外向的
11. personality n. 个性;性格
12. realm n. (活动或兴趣)领域
13. inherit v. 继承(财产、头衔)

14. bestow v. 赠与
15. disloyal a. 不忠诚的
16. reciprocal a. 互相给予的;互惠的
17. loyalty n. 忠诚




                              205
18. recipient n. 接受者
19. patron n. 资助人
20. lifelong a. 终生的
21. security n. 安全;保障

22. constant a. 不断的;连续发生的
23. mobility n. 流动性;机动性
24. better v. 改善
25. qualify v. (使)具有/取得资格




                            206
26. interchangeability n. 可互换性
27. personnel n. (总称)人员;员工
28. inhuman a. 无人性的
29. challenge n. 激励性的任务;挑战

30. content a. 满意的
31. seniority n. 资历;年历
32. bounce v. 弹回
33. original a. 起初的




                                 207
1. get ahead 领先;出人头地
2. on the basis of 在……的基础上;根据
3. lead to 导致
4. by and large 大体上;总的说来
5. move upward 升职;升迁

6. deal with 处理;安排
7. be content with 满意
8. bring in 引进;引入
9. back and forth 来回地




                                208
                          Examples
1. get ahead: 取得进步,获得成功
   e.g. Getting ahead at work is the most important thing to him right
   now.
   She soon found that it wasn’t easy to get ahead in the movie
   business.

2. on that base alone: on the basis of 在……的基础上
   e.g. The government prohibits discrimination 歧视on the basis of
   race, color, or national origin.
   We will work hard to build a new international order on the basis of
   the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.

3. trait n. 特性
    e.g. Does Bryce have any bad traits?
    It’s human trait to joke about subjects that make us uncomfortable.

                                                                    209
4. lead to : 导致(无被动形式)
  e.g. This will lead to trouble in the future.

5. personality n. 人品,人格(品质和性格的总称;包括个性或行
为,特别是指确定的人)
   e.g. Despite their different personalities, they became best
friends.
   A disease may cause changes in behavior and personality.

6. realm n. 界;领域,范围
  synonyms: field, sphere
  e.g. The change in people’s attitudes will slowly move from the
realm of theory into the sphere of practice.

7. by and large: 大体上;总的说来
  e.g. By and large, your plan is a good one.

                                                                210
8. bestow vt. 给予
  e.g. bestow something on / upon somebody
  Honors were bestowed on him by the Queen.

9. disloyal a. 不忠实的;不忠诚的
  e.g. Two newspapers have been criticized for disloyal
reporting of the war.

10. quit vt. 放弃; 抛弃
 e.g. I advised them to quit their dissipated (放荡的)
ways.




                                                          211
11. 辨析recipient, sponsor & patron:
   recipient n. 接受者,领受人
   e.g. They are welfare福利 recipients.

   sponsor n. 出资用表演、广播、运动比赛等做广告的节目费用
赞助人; 出于慈善目的而支持某人完成某行动的赞助人
   e.g. The opera house could not survive without commercial
sponsors.

  patron n. 赞助人;资助人; 老顾客/主顾
  e.g. The shop gives a special offer for our regular patrons.
  Many artists were dependent on wealthy patrons.



                                                                 212
12. security n. 保险
e.g. Workers want greater job security.

13. mobility n. 人的流动(如从一个社会集团、阶级或阶层移向另
一个社会集团、阶级或阶层流动。)
 e.g. There was downward mobility for Americans as a whole
during the Great Depression. 在大萧条时期,美国人总的来说向
下层社会阶层流动。

14. better oneself: 自求上进;充实自己
  e.g. People considered leisure time to be an opportunity to
better oneself through learning, not merely to indulge in沉溺于
fun and games.



                                                                213
15. move upward(s) / up: 升职;上涨
 e.g. To move up , you’ll need the right training.
 Share prices股价moved up this month.

16. qualify vt. 使…具有资格
 e.g. Fluency in three languages qualifies her for work in the
European Parliament议会.

17. keep qualifying for: 一直具有……资格
 keep doing sth.: 继续做下去
 e.g. I wish you wouldn’t keep interrupting.
 Keep going till you reach the traffic lights.




                                                                 214
18. 辨析personnel & personal:
  personal a. 私人的;个人的

  e.g. the president’s personal bodyguard
  personal letter / matter / opinion/ computer

  personnel n. 全体人员;员工;全体职员; 人事部门

  e.g. She is studying personnel management.
  She works in personnel.




                                                 215
19. somebody’s roots: 根,根源
  e.g. Alex Haley’s story about his search for his roots
became a bestseller.

20. as if: 仿佛;就好象; 假定;好象(某事是真的)
   e.g. I couldn’t move my legs. It was as if they were
stuck to the floor.
   He spoke to me as if I were deaf.
   He shook his head as if to say “don’t trust her”.

21. deal with: 对付;应付;处理;与……做生意/ 交易
  e.g. Effective measures have been taken to deal with
drug smuggling走私.
  I’ve dealt with this store / person / company for 20
years.



                                                           216
22. They do not understand that a great many Americans like to
move about.:
  About in this sentence means “here and there; in all directions or
places (到处)”.
  e.g. They always go about together.
  Papers are lying about on the floor.

23. challenge n. 挑战
  e.g. The company is ready to meet the challenges of the next few
years.

24. be content with : be happy and satisfied with. 满足于
 e.g. We’ll be content with a respectable体面的 result in tomorrow’s
match.



                                                                       217
25. had the best of the man’s thinking: got the best ideas from
the man.
    The best of sth. : 最好的人; 最佳之物
    e.g. Even the best of us sometimes forgets things.
    She’s the best of the new young writers.

26. bring in : 引进;获利;赚钱
    e.g. They brought experienced people in to help.
    The sale brought in over $200.

27. start at a lower salary: In this phrase, “at” shows a price,
rate, level, age, speed, etc. 表示价格、比率、水准、年龄、速度
等以……;在……
    e.g. I saw it at a distance.
    The temperature stood at 40 degrees.


                                                                   218
28. bounce v. 弹起
  e.g. The kids were bouncing on the sofa.

29. back and forth: 来回地,来来去去地
  e.g. We travel back and forth all the time
between Canada and England.
  He was pacing back and forth across the room.




                                                  219
                        Exercises

Ⅰ. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
Ⅱ. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
Ⅲ. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
Ⅳ. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the
blanks to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
Ⅴ. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the under lined
words with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
Ⅵ. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.

                                                                  220
1. What is of great importance in personal progress in many
   parts of the world?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
  Personal influence is almost essential in getting ahead.

2. What does “godfather” mean in paragraph 1?
 The key comes from Paragraph 1:
 It means the person who influence other people.

3. What are the traits leading to success in the United States?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
  Traits which lead to success are generally considered to be
   the willingness to work hard, scholarship or skill, initiative, an
   agreeable and outgoing personality.



                                                                        221
4. What do people in some nations think of job-quitting?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   In some nations it is considered disloyal to quit a job .

5. What can be said about the relationship between employer
   and employee in some countries?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Deep reciprocal loyalties exist between employee and
   employer (“recipient” and “patron” in many cases).

6. What is thought to be part of American mobility?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   “Job-hopping” is part of our constant mobility.




                                                               222
7. What seems unreasonable to some foreigners but quite OK
   to Americans?
  The key comes from Paragraph 4:
  This interchangeability of personnel seems unreasonable to
   some members of foreign nations.

8. Why do Americans think they are justified in jumping from
   company to company?
  The key comes from Paragraph 3:
  They consider it a “right” to be able to better themselves, to
   move upward, to jump from company to company if they
   can keep qualifying for more responsible jobs.




                                                                   223
9. Why do many Americans like to move about?
  The key comes from Paragraph 4:
  New jobs present new challenges, new opportunities,
new friends, and new experiences—often a new part of the
country.

10. Why will a newcomer probably start at a lower salary?
   The key comes from Paragraph5:
  A newcomer will probably start at a lower salary for he
will have no seniority.




                                                            224
( )1. What is the passage mainly about?
    a. The way to success in the U.S.A.
    b. Personal influence in job-hopping.
    c. How Americans see job-hopping.
    d. Personal progress and job-hopping.

( )2. What is considered important in personal advancement in
   America?
    a. Mobility.
    b. Character.
    c. Personal influence.
    d. Family background.




                                                                225
( )3. Which statement about Americans is NOT true according to the
   text?
   a. Americans prefer “do-it-yourself”.
   b. Americans like to be on the move.
   c. Americans admire self-made people.
   d. Americans consider it dishonorable to job-hop.

( )4. Which of following is NOT the reason why the employer has no
   objection to job-hopping?
   a. A new person may bring in new ideas.
   b. A newcomer will start at a lower salary.
   c. The employer can learn who is disloyal to the company.
   d. The employer has used the employee’s thinking to the full.




                                                                226
( )5. What can we infer from this text?
   a. Americans impress us on the whole as being cold and
   deficient in emotional warmth.

  b. Americans consider it quite acceptable to job-hop for new
  challenges and new opportunities.

  c. You will be labeled as incapable employee if you go back
  to work for the original company again.

  d. Employees are encouraged to jump from company to
  company to bring fresh ideas and new skills to their new
  employers.

                     Key: c. b. d. c. b


                                                                 227
1. personality 个性 the whole nature or character of a person
2. sponsor 赞助人 a person who takes responsibility for
someone or something
3. mobility 流动性 the quality of being able to move easily and
quickly
4. personnel 员工 employee, staff
5. original 起初的 first, initial

6. challenge 挑战 a difficult or stimulating task
7. bestow 赠与 to present something as a gift
8. bounce 弹回 to spring back, move
9. outgoing 外向的 friendly and sociable
10. reciprocal 互相给予的,互惠的 given and received in return;
mutual



                                                               228
better oneself    lead to        move upward     get ahead
on the basis of   content with challenge         deal with
seniority         do it yourself

1. Between 1990 and 1992, there were more than 1,000
   mergers (两个以上的企业或公司的合并) in that industry –all
            led to
   of which ____ job losses.

2. Friends eyed each other all the time, not exactly with envy,
                             got ahead
   but with care to see who_____________ .

                                                a challenge
3. Overcoming a natural resistance to change is_________
   faced by many companies that want to progress.

4. Wilson’s speeches often praise the early immigrants who
   took risks and endured hardships
    to better themselves
   __________________and their families.

                                                                  229
5. Most employers require employees to have a high school
                                            on the basis of
diploma or equivalent even when they qualify_____________
experience.

6. Hard working and right training are the necessary factors
          to move upward
for clerks______________ .

7. People should be promoted and rewarded on merit,
     seniority
not____________.




                                                               230
8. One should know the fact that not everyone has real talent
     do-it-yourself
for______________.

                 to deal with
9. The best way____________ problems such as these is to
respect the experience of the individuals and understand their
goals.

                               content with
10. Some white collars are not_____________ the way they
spend their holiday time.




                                                                 231
1. One of his qualities is criticizing his wife in public.
                   traits
2. I’ve found he’s easiest to get on with among the colleagues.
                           most agreeable
3. If I don’t get a pay rise, I’ll leave.
                                   quit
4. Reducing the gap between the rich and the poor is one of the difficult
    tasks facing the government.
challenges
5. He’s never been a friendly and sociable person
                                   outgoing type
6. Generally speaking, the company’s been doing pretty good business.
  By and large



                                                                     232
1. a. Running your own business usually involves working
long hours.                                    v.
   b. The department store ensures that every situation be
solved quickly and easily, with minimal customer
involvement.
      n.
   c. On-the-job training will involve the manager in learning
about managing a local bureau.         v.

2. a. He rarely talked about his own work, and was content
to listen to the experiences of others’.              a.
   b. After each group guesses the contents of a box, the
teacher opens it and shows the contents. n.
                                      n.
   c. The new contents pages provide the details of a project
to increase the quantity and range of information. n.

                                                                 233
3. a. Advances in medical science may make it possible for
people to live for 150 years. n.
   b. I had advanced through the ranks and held a
responsible middle-management position. v.
   c. Admission is free to all ticket holders and there is no
need to book in advance. n.

4. a. The book details the history of France from the
Renaissance to the present. a.
   b. We have been presented with a number of plans and
will give careful consideration to all of them. v.
   c. When Jim arrived home from work, Della told him
what she had done to buy his birthday present. n.




                                                                234
5. a. Everyone was standing around in silence, so
I took the initiative and tried to explain why we had
come.         n.
    b. Instead of standing there helplessly until the
end of the performance, seize the initiative and act
quickly.                                  n.
   c. Faced with serious environmental pollution, a
large number of companies have initiated
recycling programs.                       v.




                                                        235
               Extended Activities
C. Practical Reading
What Do You Know About Ads?
          Ad I:
Anglo-EUROPEAN PR Company

2.flexible
3.well-organized
4.energetic

2.arranging meetings, travel and lunches
3.working with executives of major international companies

2.remain cool and calm in a crisis

a top salary

call write
                                                             236
What Do You Know About Ads?
          Ad II:
 Eaton

administrative assistant

1. a travel coordinator
2. special projects and assignments as directed by managers
3. prepare Power Point documents
4. maintain promotion materials and files

1. English / business administration major or equivalent
2. three years related working experience
3. Professional secretarial skills

2. competitive compensation
3. benefit package

send English and Chinese resumes
                                                              237
D. Additional Vocabulary
   Key to I:.
1. actress          2. waitress        3. policewoman
4. stewardess       5. postwoman       6. doctress
7. governess        8. saleswoman      9. manageress
10. conductress     11. sportswoman   12. woman driver
13. workwoman       14. lawyeress     15. woman scientist
16. woman pilot     17. spacewoman    18. businesswoman

   Key to II:.
1. male model       2. male nurse      3. male typist
4. male secretary   5. male babysitter 6. male kindergartner



                                                               238
F. Humor Time
   Key:
1. Typist 2.Grocer 3.Surgeon 4.Tailor




                                        239
        Unit Five --- Reading I
            Eating Habit

Warm—up

Text

Translation
                            New Words
Notes
                            Examples

                            Exercises

                            Extended Activities

                                             240
                          Text

   Changing Life-style and New Eating Habits

1. Americans today have different eating habits than in the
past. There is a wide selection of food available .They have a
broader knowledge of nutrition so they buy more fresh fruit and
vegetables than ever before. At the same time, Americans
purchase increasing quantities of sweets, snacks, and sodas .

2. Statistics show that the way people live determines the
way they eat. American life-styles have changed. They now
include growing numbers of people who live alone, single
parents and children, and double-income



                                                              241
families. These changing life-styles are responsible for the
increasing number of people who must rush meals or
sometimes skip them altogether. Americans have less time
than ever before to spend preparing food. Partly as a
consequence of this limited time, 60 percent of all
American homes now have microwave ovens. Moreover,
Americans eat out nearly four times a week on the average.

3. It is easy to study the amounts and kinds of food that
people consume. The United States Department of
Agriculture (USD) and the food industry—growers,




                                                               242
processors, marketers,and restaurateurs —compile sales
statistics and keep accurate records. This information not only
tells us what people are eating but also tells us about the
change in attitudes and tastes. Red meat, which used to be
the most popular choice for dinner, is no longer an American
favorite. Instead, chicken, turkey , and fish have become more
popular. Sales of these foods have greatly increased in recent
years. This is probably a result of the awareness of the
dangers of eating food which contains high levels of
cholesterol, or animal fat. Doctors believe that cholesterol is a
threat to human health.




                                                                    243
4. According to a recent survey, Americans also change their
eating patterns to meet the needs of different situations. They
have certain ideas about which foods will increase their
athletic ability, help them lose weight, make them alert for
business meetings, or put them in the mood for romance . For
example, Americans choose pasta, fruit, and vegetables,
which supply them with carbohydrates, to give them strength
for physical activity, such ,as sports. Adults choose food rich
in fiber , such as bread and cereal , for breakfast, and salads,
for lunch to prepare them for business appointments.




                                                                   244
For romantic dinners, however, Americans choose
shrimp and lobster. While many of these ideas are based
on nutritional facts, some are not.
5. Americans’ awareness of nutrition, along with their
changing tastes and needs, leads them to consume a
wide variety of foods—foods for health, for fun, and
simply for good taste.




                                                          245
译 文:
       改变生活方式与新的饮食习惯
1 与过去相比,今天的美国人有不同的饮食习惯。有广泛的
食品供他们选择。他们有更丰富的营养知识,使他们比以往任
何时候都更多地购买新鲜水果和蔬菜。同时,美国人购买甜食、
点心和汽水的数量越来越多。

2 统计数字显示,人民生活的方式决定他们的饮食方式。美
国人的生活方式已发生了变化。现在他们中包括越来越多的独
居人,单亲父母和儿童,以及双收入家庭。这些生活方式的变
化是那些匆忙吃饭或少吃一顿的人的数量增加的原因。美国人
比过去花在做饭上的时间更少了。这个结果的部分原因是时间
有限, 60 %的美国家庭现在都有微波炉。此外,一般而言,
美国人几乎每星期4次外出吃饭。



                                246
3  研究人们消费食物的数量和种类是很容易的。美国农业
部门和食品工业---种植者、加工者、营销者和餐厅经营者--
-都收集销售统计并保持准确记录。这些信息不仅告诉我们人
们吃什么,而且也告诉我们饮食态度和口味的变化。过去桌上
最热门的红肉,已不再是美国人的最爱。取而代之,鸡、火鸡
和鱼已更受欢迎。最近几年,这些食品的出售已大大增加。这
可能是因为人们意识到吃含有高胆固醇或动物脂肪的食品的危
险性。医生认为,胆固醇对人类健康是一种威胁。

4 最近的调查显示,美国人还改变他们的饮食模式,来满
足不同的情况需要。他们有一定的想法,知道哪些食品会增加
他们的运动能力、帮助他们减肥、使他们在商务会议上保持机




                                247
警或使他们拥有的浪漫心情。例如,美国人选择面食、水果和
蔬菜,供给他们碳水化合物,增强力量做体力活动,例如体育
运动。成年人选择富含纤维的食品,如面包和谷类来当早餐,
午餐吃沙拉来为工作约会做好准备。而在浪漫晚餐时,美国人
选择吃小虾和龙虾。这些想法很多是基于营养知识,有些则不
是。

5 美国人的营养意识,伴随他们不断变化的口味和需求,导
致他们消费各种各样的食品---为了健康、娱乐休闲或仅仅只是
为了好口味。

                     译者:周荆洪




                                248
                       Warm--up
I. Brainstorming: Discuss about what you eat according to the
food kinds given.
Meat and Seafood:


rib 肋骨,         pork 猪肉,         lamb羊肉,           beef 牛肉,

chicken 鸡肉,      ham火腿,          turkey火鸡,         fish 鱼,

shrimp 虾,        prawn 明虾,       oyster 蚝, 牡犡,     bacon 咸肉,




                                                                249
sausage 香肠,     steak 牛排,     crab 蟹,      eel 鳝,

hair tail 带鱼,   lobster 龙虾,   weaver 鲈鱼,   cod 鳕鱼,

octopus 鱆鱼,     squid 乌贼,     carp 鲤鱼,     mussel 贻贝,

sea cucumber 海参,         salmon三文鱼/鲑鱼.




                                                     250
                  crab
                  蟹

oyster
蚝, 牡犡

         shrimp
         虾
                         lobster
prawn                    龙虾
明虾
                                   251
Vegetable:

green pepper 青椒, onion 洋葱,    tomato 番茄,

potato 土豆,      garlic 大蒜,    chive 细香葱

cucumber 黄瓜,    melon 香瓜,甜,   turnip 萝卜,

carrot 胡萝卜,     radish 小萝卜,   eggplant茄子,




                                            252
mushroom 蘑菇,    celery 芹菜,    leek 韭菜,

lettuce 莴苣,生菜, spinach 菠菜,    beetroot 甜菜,

cabbage 卷心菜,    marrow 西葫芦,   pumpkin 南瓜,

broad bean 蚕豆, lentil 扁豆,     pea 豆,

cauliflower 菜花,花椰菜.




                                             253
           pumpkin
           南瓜



                       turnip
                       萝卜



Mushroom
Rock
             carrot   radish
蘑菇石
             胡萝卜      小萝卜
                                254
Fruit:

banana 香蕉,   apple 苹果,        tangerine 橘子,

pear 梨,      orange 橙,        peach 桃,

grape 葡萄,    strawberry 草莓,   apricot 杏,

plum 李子,     pineapple 菠萝,    cherry 樱桃,




                                              255
persimmon 柿子,   mango 芒果,        lemon 柠檬,

nectarine 油桃,   date 枣,          coconut 椰子,

watermelon 西瓜, mulberry桑椹,       fig无花果,

meddler 枇杷,     pomegranate石榴,   pommel 柚子.




                                               256
             strawberry
             草莓




                              apple
                              苹果
watermelon
西瓜                    peach
                      桃
                                      257
Dessert 甜点\水果and Refreshment 茶点:

doughnut 油炸圈饼, loaf 大块面包,          toast 吐司,

sandwich 三明治,   cream cake 奶油蛋糕, hotdog 热狗,

bun 水晶包,        dumpling 饺子,       ice-cream 冰淇淋,

Pancake 薄煎饼,    pastry 面粉制的糕点,     hamburger 汉堡包,




                                                    258
biscuits / crackers / cookies 饼干,   rice pudding 八宝饭,

pasta 意大利面,          spaghetti 意大利粉,     tart 蛋挞,果馅饼,

pudding 水果布丁,        jelly 果冻,          pie水果饼,

sponge cake with fruit 水果海绵糕,            drop 水果糖.




                                                        259
pudding
                      hamburger        ice-cream
水果布丁                                   冰淇淋
                      汉堡包


          biscuits,
          crackers,
          cookies           sandwich
                            三明治
          饼干

                                              260
2. Ways of coking:

fry 炸,煎,        fried rice 炒饭,     fried eggs 煎蛋;

boil 煮,          boiled eggs 煮鸡蛋;

scramble炒,      scrambled eggs 炒蛋;

roast 烤,       roast chicken 烤鸡,
roast beef 烤牛肉,roast potato 烤土豆;

bake 烤, baked potato in their jackets/ skin 连皮烤的土豆;

mash 捣成泥状,      mashed potatoes 土豆泥;

steam 蒸,        steamed rice 蒸饭.


                                                      261
3. Pairwork:

  1) What kinds of food do you like best?

  2) What do you think are good or bad eating habits? And how
about your own eating habits?

  3) How do you like the idea of being a vegetarian?

  4) Are the Chinese life-styles changing? If any, in what way?

  5) How do you think a person’s life-style affects his or her
eating habits?




                                                                  262
                    Notes


1. single parent: a parent bringing up a child/children
    on his/her own.
2. rush meals or sometimes skip them altogether: to
    finish meals fast and hastily, and sometimes even
    fail to have a meal.
3. red meat: pork and beef are often referred to as red
    meat; chicken and fish are considered as white
    meat.
4. eating patterns: recognizable ways of eating.

 5. pasta: Italian noodles, such as macaroni (通心粉),
spaghetti (细面条),and ravioli (方形饺).



                                                          263
        New Words


1. selection n. 挑选
2. available a. 可得到的
3. nutrition n. 营养 nutritious a. 有营养的
4. snack n. 小吃;点心
5. soda n. 汽水

6. statistics n. 统计数据
7. rush v. 仓促行事
8. skip v. 略过
9. consequence n. 结果
10. microwave n. 微波




                                        264
11. oven n. 烤炉
12. average n. 平均数
13. consume v. 消费
14. processor n. (食品)加工商
15. marketer n. 商人或商号

16. restaurateur n. 餐馆经理或老板
17. compile v. 收集;汇编
18. turkey n. 火鸡
19. awareness n. 知道
20. cholesterol n. 胆固醇




                              265
21. fat n. 脂肪
22. athletic a. 强壮灵敏的
23. alert a. 机警的
24. romance n. 浪漫艳事
25. pasta n. 意大利面制品

26. carbohydrate n. 碳水化合物
27. fiber n. 纤维
28. cereal n. 谷类
29. shrimp n. 小虾
30. lobster n. 龙虾




                            266
1. be responsible for 成为……的原因
2. on (the ) average 平均
3. be a threat to 对……具有威胁
4. in a …/the mood 处于某种心态




                                267
                  Unit   Five
What words can you associate with the pictures?



                         carbohydrate   n.
                         turkey n.
                         rush v.

    microwave n.
    oven n.
    available a.
                                             268
          cholesterol n.
          romance n.
          cereal n.




compile v.
awareness n.
soda n.
                           269
              alert a.
              selection n.
              rush v.




average n.
athletic a.
shrimp n.
                             270
              processor n.
              consume v.
              consequence    n.




marketer n.
fiber n.
average n.
                                  271
                 statistics n.
                 skip v.
                 nutrition n.




fat n.
pasta n.
cholesterol n.
                                 272
restaurateur n.
snack n.
cholesterol n.
lobster n.


                  273
        New Words


1. selection n. 挑选
2. available a. 可得到的
3. nutrition n. 营养 nutritious a. 有营养的
4. snack n. 小吃;点心
5. soda n. 汽水

6. statistics n. 统计数据
7. rush v. 仓促行事
8. skip v. 略过
9. consequence n. 结果
10. microwave n. 微波




                                        274
11. oven n. 烤炉
12. average n. 平均数
13. consume v. 消费
14. processor n. (食品)加工商
15. marketer n. 商人或商号

16. restaurateur n. 餐馆经理或老板
17. compile v. 收集;汇编
18. turkey n. 火鸡
19. awareness n. 知道
20. cholesterol n. 胆固醇




                              275
21. fat n. 脂肪
22. athletic a. 强壮灵敏的
23. alert a. 机警的
24. romance n. 浪漫艳事
25. pasta n. 意大利面制品

26. carbohydrate n. 碳水化合物
27. fiber n. 纤维
28. cereal n. 谷类
29. shrimp n. 小虾
30. lobster n. 龙虾




                            276
1. be responsible for 成为……的原因
2. on (the ) average 平均
3. be a threat to 对……具有威胁
4. in a …/the mood 处于某种心态




                                277
                       Examples

1. selection
  1) n. (一般用单数) 供挑选或选购的同类物品
  e.g. The shop has a fine selection of cheeses.

 2) n. 挑选;选择;选拔
 e.g. His selection as a presidential candidate was quite
  unexpected.

 natural selection 物竞天择

 selective a. 精挑细选的
 e.g. He’s very selective when he buys his suits.




                                                            278
3. available a. 可获得的; 可用的;可看见的
  e.g. Those shoes are not available in your size.
  We want to make our products available to a wider market.

 availability n.

4. nutrition n. 营养;滋养;营养物
  e.g. Good nutrition is essential for good health.

 the science of nutrition 营养学
 fat 脂肪        protein 蛋白质
 fiber 纤维      vitamins 维生素
 carbohydrate 碳水化合物

 nutritious   a. 有营养的;营养价值高的


                                                              279
5. 辨析 purchase & buy
   purchase (较正规, 多用于语书面语)
   buy (常用于口语和书面语)

 buy sb. sth.
 buy sth. for
 buy sth. from sth. / sb.
 buy (sb.) off 买通;用钱疏通
 a good / bad buy 合算/不合算的买卖
 e.g. That dress was a bad buy----I’ve only worn it once.
 It’s a good buy at that price!

 buyer’s market: 买方市场        antonym: seller’s market

 purchasing power 购买力
 make a purchase 购买


                                                            280
6. 辨析quantities of & numbers of : The former can be followed by
either countable or uncountable nouns while the latter can only
be followed by countable nouns.
  e.g. Quantities of food were spread out on the table.
   Quantities of / Large numbers of vehicles had to be abandoned
放弃 because of the heavy snow.

7. soda n. (C / U) 苏打水;碳酸饮料(=soda water)
  e.g. a can of orange soda
  Two whiskeys and sodas, please.

8.single parent: 单亲

9. double-income families: a family in which the husband and
wife both earn wages.

                                                                   281
10. responsible for: 为……负责;成为……的原因
   e.g. The floods were responsible for the deaths of over a
hundred people.

11. skip v. 不出席;不参加;故意错过
   e.g. I’m going to skip lunch today.

12. Americans have less time than ever before to spend
preparing food: Here in this sentence, the word “ever” means
“always”.
    e.g. He came here for a holiday several years ago and he’s
lived there ever since.
   I will love you for ever.




                                                                 282
13. 辨析consequence & result:
    “result” is the most frequently used word. It can be preceded by
either “good” or “bad” .
    “consequence” usually means a “bad result”.
    e.g. You made the wrong decision, and now you must take the
consequences (承担后果).

14. eat out: dine out

15. on ( the ) average: 平均
   e.g. We receive 20 letters a day on (the ) average.
   above / below average (在平均水平以上/以下)
   e.g. His school work is well above/ below average.

16. consume
   1) vt. 大吃;大喝
   e.g. He’s able to consume large quantities of food.

                                                                       283
  2) vt. 消耗;消费;消尽
  consumer 消费者
  consumer durable 耐用消费品
  consumer society 消费社会
  consumerism 消费主义

17. compile vt. 编撰;编辑;编制;汇编
  e.g. It takes years of work to compile a dictionary.
  compilation n. 汇编;编撰;编辑
  compiler n. 汇编者;编撰者

18. 辨析used to & be used to :
  e.g. He used to swim in that river.
  Mobile telephone, which used to be a symbol for rich
people, is no longer a sign of wealth.
  I’m used to the noise.
  I’m not used to getting up so early.

                                                         284
19. threat n. 威胁;恐吓
  be / pose a threat to : 是/构成对……的威胁
  e.g. The existence of mass destructive 毁灭性的 weapons poses
a grave严重的 threat to world peace.
  empty threat: 虚张声势的威胁
  under the threat of : 在……的威胁之下
  e.g. I obeyed his orders, but only under threat of punishment.

20. in a / the …(a.) mood for: 有……的心情
 e.g. The management is in no mood for compromise 和解、妥协、
折衷over this issue.
 I’m very tired and not in the mood to argue.

 in a good / bad mood 心情好/坏
 e.g. The boss is in a good / bad mood today.


                                                              285
21. rich in : 富含……的
 e.g. This is a city rich in ancient buildings.

22. cereal
 1) n. (经加工的)谷类食品(尤指早餐时吃的如玉米片等)
 2) n. 谷类植物;谷物

23.while…(clause for contrast对比): the “while ” clause is
always used for contrast.
  When used this way, it means “but” or “whereas”.
  e.g. Their country has plenty of oil, while ours has none.

24. awareness n. 意识
 e.g. Health officials have tried to raise awareness about AIDS.



                                                                   286
25. variety n.
    If a group of things has variety, the things are different from
each other in quality or type, so that the group is interesting or
offers people a wide choice.
   e.g. She didn’t like the work because it lacked variety.

   “A variety of “ or “varieties of ” means “different kinds of ”.
   各式各样的;种种的

   e.g. many varieties of whisky
   varieties of trees
   Dolphins produce a great variety of noises.
   The college library has a wide variety of books.
   This shirt is available in a wide variety of colors.


                                                                      287
                           Exercises


Ⅰ. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
Ⅱ. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
Ⅲ. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
Ⅳ. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks to
complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
Ⅴ. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined words
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
Ⅵ. Word study: For each of the following clues. Use the given prompts
to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model.

                                                                     288
1. Why do Americans have different eating habits today?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   Wide selection, broad knowledge of nutrition, buying more
   fresh fruit and vegetables, purchasing more sweets, snacks,
   and sodas.

2. How have American life-style changed? Give some
   examples.
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   More people who live alone, single parents and children,
   and double- income families.

3. How do these changing life-styles affect the way they eat?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Having to rush meals or skipping them, less time to prepare
   food.

                                                                 289
4. Why are microwave ovens so popular in American families?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Saving time and convenience by using microwave ovens.

5. How often do Americans dine out per week?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Eating out about four times a week.

6. Why do Americans find it not difficult to get information
   about their food?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Because the USDA and the food industry compile sales
   statistics and keep accurate records.




                                                               290
7. Who .provides American consumers with food information?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   The United States Department of Agriculture and the some
   people working in food industry.

8. Who are engaged in the food industry?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Grocers, processors, marketers and restaurateurs.

9. What accounts for red meat’s being in disfavor today?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Probably a result of the awareness of the dangers of eating
   food which contains high levels of cholesterol, or animal fat.



                                                                    291
10. What is the danger of cholesterol? And how does it change
   people’s eating habits?
  The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Doctors believe that cholesterol is a threat to human health.
   It can cause some problems of blood and heart, such as
   diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, the brain blood bolts.
   So red meat is no longer an American favorite. Instead,
   chicken, turkey and fish have become more popular. Sales of
   these foods have greatly increased in recent years.

11. What does a recent survey reveal?
  The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   Americans also change their patterns to meet the needs of
   different situations.


                                                                   292
12. What leads Americans to consume a wide variety of
   foods?
  The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   Americans’ awareness of nutrition, along with their
   changing tastes and needs, leads them to consume a
   wide variety of foods—foods for health, for fun, and
   simply for good taste.




                                                          293
( )1. The main idea of the text is________.
   a. Americans now consume a wider variety of foods
   b. Americans’ eating habits have changed because of
   changing life-styles
   c. Americans have a greater awareness of nutrition now
   than they did years ago
   d. Americans have less time than before to prepare meals

( )2. In paragraph 2. “a double--income family”
   means________.
  a. a family that makes twice as much money as another
   family
  b. a family where a parent has two jobs
  c. a family where both parents have jobs
  d. a family that spends twice as much as it earns


                                                              294
( )3. According to a recent survey,____.
      a. Americans prefer foods rich in vitamins
      b. Americans prefer foods rich in fiber
      c. Americans eat different foods to be healthy
      d. Americans eat different foods for different purposes

( )4. Americans prefer __________for romantic dinners.
      a. bread and cereal
      b. lobster and shrimp
      c. salad and dessert
      d. fruit and vegetable




                                                                295
( )5. According to the text, we can conclude that
   ________is true.
   a. Americans do not eat many sweets nowadays.
   b. Americans are very particular about what they eat
   c. Americans eat the same way they did in the past
   d. Americans eat out more frequently now than before




              Key: b. c. d. b. d




                                                          296
1. consequence 后果 a thing that is a result of something else
2. statistics 统计数据 the collection of information shown in numbers

3. restaurateur 餐馆老板an owner of a restaurant
4. processor加工商 a person whose business is to prepare food for sale

5. marketer 商人,商号 businessman or a firm that sells something in a market
6. athletic 强壮灵敏的 physically strong and active

7. nutrition 营养 food needed for life
8. single—parent 单亲 a parent bringing up children on his/her own

9. awareness意识 knowledge or realization
10. compile汇编,编辑 to collect information and arrange it in writing



                                                                    297
alert            consume        skip       awareness     compile
in the mood      variety        favorite   survey        eat out

                            variety
1. Children like to eat a ____________of food in their diet, for
    example, for breakfast they like to choose among cereal,
    pancakes, doughnuts(炸甜圈) or eggs and toast.
2. If you do not understand one part of the test, you
            skip
    can____________ to the next part and go back to the difficult
    part later.
3. I don’t want to talk about it now. I’m not ____________for a
                                               in the mood
    joke.
                                       compile
4. Dean and Jenny are going to ____________a list of all the
    places they want to visit on their next trip across the country.



                                                                       298
5. I like all kinds of cakes, cookies, and ice cream, but my
        favorite
    _________dessert is chocolate ice cream.
6. The college cafeteria(食堂) manager is going to conduct
          survey
    a_________ of the students to help her decide which
    foods students prefer.
                                     awareness
7. Small children have very little __________of the dangers
    of running into the street.
              eat out
8. If you_________ regularly, you definitely should take an
    active interest in eating better restaurant food.
9. Many students drink large quantities of coffee to keep
             alert
    them _______while they are studying for an important
    exam.
10.There is a growing gap between what the country
                            consumes
    produces and what it__________.




                                                               299
1. The employees are encouraged to buy shares of
    their own company.
                                    purchase
2. He inherited something from his father, but he soon
    used up his fortune.
   consumed
3. She does exercise every day so she looks very
    strong and healthy.
       athletic
4. Although he is over eighty his mind is still remarkably
    quick.
     alert
5. Generally I work ten hours a day.
   On the average
6. Smoking is the cause of many cases of lung cancer.
                responsible for

                                                             300
1. a. She decided to become an actress after getting
    her first taste of fame in a local theatre. n.
   b. I ordered chocolate ice cream, but this tastes of
    coffee.                                         v.
   c. I an successful because I have the ability to make
    things taste and look good.
           v.
2. a. I have forgotten my wallet in the usually Monday
    morning rush. n.
   b. Joan’s train was scheduled to leave at 6 p.m., but
    it was 5:50, so she had to rush in order not to miss
    her train.                          v.
   c. Dan was rushed to hospital with serious head
    injuries after a traffic accident. v.


                                                           301
3. a. A list of addresses of suppliers should be
contained in all computer manuals. v.
   b. The film was banned because it contained a
number of extremely violent scenes.        v.
   c. Sunken waste containers could pose a serious
threat over time as they begin to leak. n.

4. a. Better to lose face and be open about not
understanding the message, than to lose sleep at night
over it.         v.                    v.
   b. The company reported losses of 82 million for the
third quarter.                   n.
   c. We are at a loss as to how he came into the
empty house.          n.



                                                          302
5. a. People interested in temporary working are more
likely to choose to be agency worker (代理人员) rather
than direct employees. v.
   b. She wanted men to believe that she was choosy
about clothes.                                         a.
   c. All you have to do is to choose the date you want
to go on holiday and decide on the destination. v.
   d. It was difficult choice, but we finally decide that
Hannah should have the prize. n.




                                                            303
        Extended Activities


B. Function and Structure :
     Order a meal
      Key:
1. show me the menu
   Here’s the menu
   I’d like a cup of
   I’ll try

2. I’ll have
   I’ll order
   How would you like it done



                                304
3. You order first
   Order anything you like
   leave the choice to you
   Let us have
   It sounds good

4. Could we see the menu
   What’s special
   you’d like
   it’s not too much trouble
   Would you like it




                               305
C. Practical Reading: menu
   Key:
1. a 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. a
6. a 7. c 8. c 9. c 10. a




                             306
D. Additional Vocabulary
   Key toⅠ:
1-19; 2-18; 3-29; 4-5; 5-6;

6-23; 7-25; 8-24; 9-7; 10-17;

11-30; 12-13; 13-22; 14-28; 15-14;

16-20; 17-16; 18-12; 19-11; 20-10;

21-15; 22-1; 23-2; 24-26; 25-3;

26-27; 27-4; 28-8; 29-9; 30-21




                                     307
1.delicious 19.美味的     17.underdone 16. 煮得太烂的
2.tasteless 18.无味的     18.hot 12.辣的
3.greasy 29.油腻的        19.bitter 11.苦的
4.rich 5.重油的           20.salty 10.太咸的
5.light 6.清淡的          21.well-done 15.煮得透的
6.stale 23.不新鲜的        22.fragrant 1.香的
7.juicy 25.多汁的         23.soft 2.软的
 8.watery 24.乏味的       24.nutritious 26.有营养的
9.tender 7.嫩的          25.hard 3.硬的
10.overdone 17.太咸的     26. rare 27.三分熟的
11.fresh 30.新鲜的        27.tough 4.太老的
12.spicy 13.辣的         28.sweet 8.甜的
13.medium 22.半熟的       29.sour 9.酸的
14.savory 28. 咸的       30.tasteless 21淡而无味的
15.raw 14.生的
16.appetizing 20.开胃的



                                                308
补充词汇:

烹饪艺术/ 菜肴、食谱;日常饮食/节食, 成分、 发酵粉面粉、淀粉、
cuisine, recipes; diet, ingredients, yeast flour, starch,

调味品、
spices / flavoring condiment / seasoning condiment,

黄油、辣酱、果酱、面酱、番茄酱、花生酱、豆瓣酱、
butter, chili sauce, jam, flour paste, tomato sauce, peanut sauce, bean paste,

糖、醋、酱油、胡椒粉、生姜、盐、味精、
sugar, vinegar, soy sauce, pepper, ginger, salt, MSG / gourmet powder,

薄荷、调味汁、芥末、茴香、桂皮、大蒜、香菜、洋葱、
mint, sauce, mustard, aniseed, cinnamon, garlic, parsley, onion,




                                                                            309
咖哩粉、芝麻油、蚝油、食用油、色拉油、辣油、干辣椒;
curry powder, sesame oil, oyster sauce, cooking oil, salad oil, hot oil, chilli;

饮料、矿泉水、橘子汁、啤酒、酸奶、白葡萄酒、红葡萄酒、
drink , mineral water, orange juice, beer, yogurt,white wine, red wine,

鸡尾酒、白酒、料酒、高粱酒、五加皮、伏特酒、
cocktails, liquor, cooking wine, Kaoliang spirit, Wu Chia pee, vodka,

威士忌、白兰地、松子酒。
whiskey, brandy, gin.

酸、甜、苦、辣、咸;                                  红烧、煨、           炖/焖
sour / acid, sweet, bitter, spicy, salty;   braise, simmer, stew;

条、 片、           块/丁、 丸、 沫。                         糖醋、         脆嫩

stripes, slices, cubes, balls, minced;      sweet and sour; crisp and tender


                                                                                   310
   Key to Ⅱ:

1-3; 2-14; 3-1; 4-7; 5-8;

6-6; 7-9; 8-15; 9-2; 10-4;

11-10; 12-12; 13-5; 14-13; 15-11




                                   311
1 Essentials of Business   4 Jobs and Occupations




     Have a nice day!


  2 Marketing      3 Career     5 Eating Habits
                                                    312
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