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Dr._Weijland_-_LVD

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					EU Commission working towards higher
 fire prevention levels of electric and
         electronic appliances:
     The Low Voltage Directive


          Jan Willem Weijland
     The Low Voltage Directive
- Regulates the safety of electrical products which
  operate within a defined voltage range
- Safety requirements in general terms: ‘fundamental’
  safety requirements
- Refers to ‘harmonized’ standards for specific technical
  requirements

- The LVD establishes the system of regulation according
  to the ‘New Approach and later the Global Approach.
      Safety requirements LVD
1. General Conditions
      –Markings; warnings and instructions
      –To ensure that it can be assembled and connected safely
      –Protection against hazards
2. Protection against hazards
      –Against hazards caused by electrical contact
      –Hazards from temperatures, radiation and arcs may not be
       produced
      –Hazards arising from non electrical dangers caused by the
       equipment
      –Insulations must be suitable for foreseeable conditions
   Safety requirements LVD (2)
3. Protection against hazards caused by external
   influences
     –Mechanically sound
     –Resistant to non-mechanical influences in expected
      environmental conditions
     –No hazard arising from overload
         Harmonized standards
• Specific requirements for electric products
  under the LVD in:
• Harmonized standards
   – Drawn up by standardization bodies –
     CENELEC/national standardization institutes
   – Harmonized when published in the Official Journal
     of the European Union
   – Presumption of conformity with the safety
     requirements of the LVD
    Harmonized standards under the
                LVD
-   EN 60335 Safety of Household and Similar Appliances
     -   Tumble dryers, cookers, coffee makers, etc, etc
-    EN 60598 Luminaires
-    EN 60065 Audio, video and similar electronic apparatus – Safety
    requirements
-    EN 60950 Information technology equipment - Safety


-   Not under the LVD:
-   Requirements for electrical installations in homes and buildings, etc, plugs
    and sockets, etc. Electrical installations in buildings and plugs etc are
    national responsibility.
-   Harmonization by HD 60364, which is the base of the installation
    standards for many of the member states.
Typical requirements in standards
     relevant to fire safety
-   Requirement that no excessive temperature is attained in normal
    use
-   Requirements on the materials used (contacts, switches, casing,
    etc)
-   Maximum temperatures (knobs, motor windings, surroundings,
    etc)
-   Behaviour under abnormal operation (explicitly mentioning the
    risk of fire)
-   Overload protection requirements
-   Thermal cut-out
- Resistance ton heat, fore and tracking (ball pressure test; glow
    wire test)
          Statistical background
    Nibra 2000: domestic fires (n=405)


Human behaviour         61 %


Defect appliances and   15 %
apparatus

Building related        11%


unknown                 13 %
            Statistical background
Nibra 2000: domestic fires (n=405)
Behavioural causes in % of total product related fires: (44.5 %)
         Statistical background
Nibra 2000: house fires (n=405)
Caused by failing equipment (total: 15 %)
        Statistical background
Nibra 2003: causes of house fires with
 casualties (35 dometic fires; 40 casualties)
            Statistical background
Nibra 2003: house fires with casualties Object
 of ignition (n=35)
Unknown                              31.5 %
Bed (-clothes)                       17.0 %
Chair/sofa/couch                     17.0 %
Household goods/furniture            11.5 %
Clothes                               8.5 %
Pan while cooking (frying/fat)        5.5 %
Floor covering/carpeting              3.0 %
Gas fire                              3.0 %
Paper                                 3.0 %
Statistical background




      Study University of Bonn
      commisioned by CECED
              Summarizing:
• Behaviour is an important determinant
• It appears that electrical fires relatively less
  frequent cause of fires with casualties
• Fires related to cooking appliances are
  relatively frequent
• Electrical fires most frequently involve
  electric cookers, TV-sets, tumble dryers and
  washing machines
       Additional observations
• Involvement of a product does not automatically
  mean that a defect leads to the ignition
• Lowering the probability that electrical equipment
  functions as ignition source of domestic fires by
  design measures will be increasingly difficult
• Design measures will not take effect immediately
                       Conclusions
Food and Product Safety Authority:
• Fire prevention remains important, but
• Shift attention to other consumer products
    –   Clothing
    –   Furniture
    –   Bed clothing
    –   Decoration
• Role of products in the spread of fire deserves more attention
• Both standardization and market surveillance of these items will
  get attention
• Electrical products: shift to standard requirements that are
  relevant to fire safety
Christmas decoration
Working towards higher fire prevention
levels of electric and electronic appliances

 • Update LVD
   – Specific fundamental requirement on fire
     safety of electrical products under
     discussion.


  The update of the LVD is presently
  subjected to an impact assessment
Working towards higher fire prevention
levels of electric and electronic appliances

 • Improving the standards
   –   Cooking ranges
   –   tumble dryers
   –   Toasters
   –   In discussion: luminaires
               Cooking ranges
• Sweden notified shortcoming in EN 60335-2-6:
   – Standard does not take into account the safe use of
     cooking ranges by ‘infirm’ and handicapped people.
• Suggests technical measures to improve the safety
• CECED initiated a study by the university of Bonn
  to study the possibilities to improve te safety of
  cooking ranges
              Cooking ranges
• CECED Study
  – Statistics (How big is the problem)
  – Sociological study
     • Who is most at risk?
  – Study of technical possibilities
     • Effectiveness
     • Are the solutions practical?
     • Are the solutiona economical
  – Other interventions
Fires from cooking ranges




      Study University of Bonn
      commisioned by CECED
Clustering according to age
 considering Scandinavia as example




         Study University of Bonn
         commisioned by CECED
                    Cooking ranges
• Integrated devices and features
   – pre-ignition detection and control system (CPSC, measuring the cookware
     temperature)
   – Thermo sensors to limit hob temperature
   – Cookware detection

• External devices
   – Smoke detector
   – Exhaust gas detector
   – Heat sensor
   – Flame detector

                            Study University of Bonn
                            commisioned by CECED
             Tumble dryers
• US and Dutch investigations:
  – Dust accumulation contributes to fire hazard
  – Lack of maintainance


• Design measures to counteract dust
  accumulation
• Detection of excessively high temperatures
Fire safety of toasters
EN 60335-2-9: Toasters
• Clause 19.101
  Abnormal use: release
  mechanism blocked.
                   Trends
• Demographical changes
• CRT televisions substituted by LCD /
  plasma screens
• External housing of (kitchen) appliances
  (refrigerators) increasingly uses plastics
• Domotics
                Finally:
• The European Commission and the MS
  works towards improved fire safety of
  electrical products
                Dilemmas
• How far stretches the responsibility of the
  consumer for his own safety? How far
  should regulation go?
• How to weigh economical and safety
  aspects?
• How to weigh the advantages and
  disadvantage of technologies: Flame
  retardants

				
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posted:9/6/2012
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