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					Gardner’s Art Through the Ages,
                           13e
                      Chapter 21
                            Italy,
                    1400 to 1500



                               1
                  PMA

• Positive Mental Attitude – allowed
  Humanism to flourish
• Perspective, Modeling, Anatomy
• P = AM2 : mathematical Perspective and
  the second “dawn” (AM) provided by the
  Renaissance
• PAM: “Greece” – thanks for everything!
Renaissance Florence




                       3
         Important Artistic Elements to
                   Observe
• Attention to the human form including the return of classical
  nudity and contrapposto --- influence of classical Roman statues
• Discovery and codification of linear perspective to create the
  illusion of three-dimensional space, usage of aerial perspective ---
  these values were important to classical painting
• Use of chiaroscuro to model forms, use of single light source ---
  greater realism
• Paintings that have balanced, symmetrical compositions, often
  using pyramidal composition
• Classical forms are incorporated more into architecture
  (triumphal arches, domes, coffers, harmonious geometric
  relationships)


                                                                         4
Florence




           5
Figure 21-2 FILIPPO
BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac,
competition panel for east doors,
baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401–
1402. Gilded bronze, 1’ 9” x 1’ 5”.
Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Florence.

                                      6
Figure 21-3 LORENZO
GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac,
competition panel for east doors,
baptistery, Florence, Italy, 1401–
1402. Gilded bronze relief, 1’ 9” x
1’ 5”. Museo Nazionale del
Bargello, Florence.
                                      7
Figure 21-10 LORENZO GHIBERTI, east
doors (Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence,
Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze, 17’ high.
Modern copy, ca. 1980. Original panels in
Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence.

                                                   8
Figure 21-11 LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and His Sons (detail of FIG. 21-10), (Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence,
Italy, 1425–1452. Gilded bronze, 2’ 7 1/2” x 2’ 7 1/2”. Museo dell’Opera del Duomo, Florence.
                                                                                                                       9
Figure 21-4 NANNI DI BANCO, Four
Crowned Saints, Or San Michele, Florence,
Italy, ca. 1410–1416 Marble, figures
6’ high. Modern copy in exterior niche.
Original sculpture in museum on second
floor of Or San Michele.                    10
Figure 21-5 DONATELLO, Saint Mark, Or San Michele, Florence,
Italy, 1411–1413. Marble, 7’ 9” high. Modern copy in exterior niche.
Original sculpture in museum on second floor of Or San Michele,
Florence.

                                                                       11
     First free-standing nude statue since
     antiquity. Notice the contrapposto

     Nudity used to portray a Biblical hero
     rather than as an allegory for
     sinfulness (Medieval mentality).




Figure 21-12 DONATELLO, David, late 1440–1460. Bronze, 5’ 2 1/4” high.
Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence.



                                                                         12
Figure 21-13 ANDREA DEL VERROCCHIO, David, ca. 1465–
1470. Bronze, 4’ 1 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale del Bargello,
Florence.


                                                              13
Figure 21-15 DONATELLO, Gattamelata (equestrian
statue of Erasmo da Narni), Piazza del Santo, Padua,
Italy, ca. 1445–1450. Bronze, 12’ 2” high.


                                                       14
Figure 21-18 MASACCIO, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1427. Fresco, 8’
4 1/8” x 19’ 7 1/8”.



                                                                                                                         15
       •Notice that Adam’s and Eve’s body
       types and poses are derivative of
       ancient Roman statuary.
       •Compare Masaccio’s Adam to Jan
       van Eyck’s Adam from the Ghent
       Altarpiece.
       •Eve has the “modest Venus” pose.



Figure 21-19 MASACCIO, Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci
Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, Italy, ca. 1424–1427. Fresco, 7’ x 2’
11”.


                                                                                   16
      Notice symmetry created by the
      pyramidal composition. How many
      triangles can you count?

      Notice the significance of the donors
      (Renaissance interest in the
      individual), classical architecture, and
      the memento mori at the base.



Figure 21-20 MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy,
ca. 1424–1427. Fresco, 21’ 10’ 5/8” x 10’ 4 3/4”.



                                                                             17
Figure 21-28 SANDRO BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, ca. 1484–1486. Tempera on canvas, approx. 5’ 9” x 9’ 2”.
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.

                                                                                                           18
Figure 21-40 PERUGINO, Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to Saint Peter, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1481–
1483. Fresco, 11’ 5 1/2” x 18’ 8 1/2”.



                                                                                                                               19
Figure 21-30 FILIPPO BRUNELLLESCHI,
cutaway view of the dome of Florence Cathedral,
Florence, Italy, 1420-1436 ( after Piero Sanpaolesi).


                                                        20
Figure 21-31 FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, interior of Santo Spirito (looking northeast), Florence, Italy, designed 1434–
1436; begun ca. 1436.                                                                                               21
Figure 21-36 MICHELOZZO DI
BARTOLOMMEO, facade of the Palazzo Medici-
Riccardi, Florence, Italy, begun 1445.


                                             22
Figure 21-37 MICHELOZZO DI BARTOLOMMEO, interior court of the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence, Italy,
begun 1445.

                                                                                                          23
Mantua




         24
Figure 21-44 LEON BATTISTA
ALBERTI, west facade of Sant’Andrea,
Mantua, Italy, designed 1470, begun 1472.


                                            25
Figure 21-45 LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, plan of Sant’Andrea, Mantua, Italy, designed 1470, begun
1472.



                                                                                               26
Figure 21-46 LEON BATTISTA
ALBERTI, interior of Sant’Andrea (looking
northeast), Mantua, Italy, designed 1470,
begun 1472.

                                            27
Figure 21-47 ANDREA MANTEGNA, interior of the Camera Picta (Painted Chamber), Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy,
1465–1474. Fresco.

                                                                                                               28
Figure 21-48
ANDREA
MANTEGNA, Camera
Picta (Painted
Chamber), Palazzo
Ducale, Mantua, Italy,
1465–1474. Fresco, 8’
9” in diameter.
                         29

				
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