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					                             PROJECT PROPOSAL

Name of the Project                  : Rescue and rehabilitation of sexually
                                       exploited minor girls from trafficking.

Funding Period                       : One year.

Geographical Area of the Project     : Rescue operations (inter-state) cover South
                                       India and the rehabilitation process
                                       happens in Karnataka.

Name of the Organization             : Odanadi Seva Samsthe (Regd.)

Postal Address                       : 15/2, Gowtama Nagar,
                                       S.R.S. Colony, Hootagally Village,
                                       Belawadi Post, Mysore,
                                       Karnataka, India.

Status of the Organization           : Registered Trust.

Year of Registration                 : 10th August 1993.

Registration Number                  : 618/93-94

Telephone Number                     : +91-821-402155 (Off.)
                                       +91-821-403371, +91-821-303812 (Res.)

Website                              : www.geocities.com/odanadisevatrust

E-Mail Address                       : odanadisevatrust@yahoo.com

Chief Functionaries                  : “Stanly Parashu" (Mr. Stanly K.V &
                                       Mr. Parashuram M.L.)

Income Tax Exemption                 : Registered under 80 (G) and
                                       12A of Income Tax Act.

F.C.R.A. Number                      : 094590130, Dated 22-9-98

Chartered Accountant                 : Mr. J.R. Manjunath, B.com., F.C.A
                                       No. 375, 14th Main,
                                       Ananda Nilaya, Saraswathipuram,
                                       Mysore.
                                       Ph: 344698 (o) 542744®
                                       Tele. fax : 542744
Executive Summary:

        Odanadi is a Mysore-based non-governmental organization that works for the
rescue, rehabilitation and empowerment of sexually exploited women and children. We
run a residential school for the children of the sex workers and the children rescued from
the trafficking networks. We endeavor to provide a decent and dignified childhood to
these marginalized children. This proposal seeks financial support for a project to rescue
and rehabilitate sexually exploited minor girls from trafficking networks.

         The goals of this project are to rescue children and minor girls from the clutches
of traffickers, to expose the organized networks of human trafficking, to rehabilitate and
reintegrate the rescued girls and children, to create awareness, to provide training
programs for self-help groups and to influence policy making related to anti-trafficking.
To realize our goals, we need financial assistance to complete the construction of a rescue
and rehabilitation center and for future rescue operations. In addition, we also require
funds to provide food, education, vocational training, health care and entertainment for
the children of sexually exploited women and rescued minor girls and to pay the salaries
of the staff for an year.

                              PROJECT PROPOSAL

NAME OF THE PROJECT : RESCUE AND REHABILITATION OF                           SEXUALLY
EXPLOITED MINORS FROM TRAFFICKING.


FACTS AND FIGURES OF THE ORGANISATION:

PERIOD                                       : ONE YEAR.

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE                   : RESCUE OPERATIONS (INTER-
PROJECT                                       STATE) COVER THE SOUTH
                                               INDIA AND THE REHABILITA-
                                               TION PROCESS TAKES PLACE
                                                IN KARNATAKA.

NAME OF THE ORGANISATION : ODANADI SEVA SAMSTHE(REGD.)

POSTAL ADDRESS                               : 15/2, Gowtama Nagar,
                                                     S.R.S. Colony, Hootagally Village,
                                                     Belawadi Post,
                                                     Mysore,
                                                     Karnataka, India.

STATUS OF THE ORGANISATION                   : Registered Trust.
YEAR OF REGISTRATION   : 10th August 1993.

REGISTRATION NUMBER    : 618/93-94

TELEPHONE NUMBER              : Office – 402155
                                        Resi - 403371
                                                303812
WEBSITE                       : www.odanadi.org
E-MAIL ADDRESS                : odanadisevatrust@yahoo.com

CHIEF FUNCTIONARIES           : “Stanly Parashu”
                                      (Mr K.V. Stanly &
                                      Parashuram M.L.)


INCOME TAX EXEMPTION          : Registered under 80 (G) and
                                      12A of Income Tax Act.

F.C.R.A. NO                   : 094590130 DATED 22-9-98




CHARTED ACCOUNTANT’S         : Mr. J.R. Manjunath, B.com., F.C.A
NAME                     No. 375, 14th Main,
      Ananda Nilaya,
                                Saraswathipuram,
                                Mysore
                                      Ph: 344698 (o) 542744®
                                     Tele fax : 542744
                                                  Table of Contents


1.   Background .......................................................................................................... 54
2.   Objectives ............................................................................................................. 64
3.   Understanding the Problem................................................................................. 64
  3.1 Reasons ................................................................................................................ 75
  3.2 The Practice ......................................................................................................... 86
  3.3 Hurdles in rescue and rehabilitation .................................................................... 97
4. Addressing the Problem..................................................................................... 108
  4.1 Awareness, Training and Policy-making........................................................... 108
       4.1.1     Awareness Programs ............................................................................................. 118
       4.1.2     Training programs ................................................................................................. 129
       4.1.3     Policy-making ........................................................................................................ 129
     4.2   Rescue ................................................................................................................ 139
     4.3   Rehabilitation................................................................................................... 1510
       4.3.1     Counseling ............................................................................................................1510
       4.3.2     Group counseling programs ..................................................................................1510
       4.3.3     Individual counseling programs ...........................................................................1611
       4.3.4     Counseling for the parents ....................................................................................1712
       4.3.5     Accepting the girls as they are ..............................................................................1712
       4.3.6     Rehabilitation to a “Victim” not to a “Criminal” .................................................1712
       4.3.7     Childhood with education .....................................................................................1813
       4.3.8     Economic Rehabilitation ......................................................................................1813
       4.3.9     “Marriage” as a mode of rehabilitation.................................................................1813
       4.3.10     A free and secure living environment ..................................................................1813
       4.3.11     Recreation: ...........................................................................................................1913
  4.4 Reintegration: .................................................................................................. 1914
  4.5 Follow-up action: ............................................................................................. 1914
5. Achievements: .................................................................................................. 2015
6. Call for Help ..................................................................................................... 2116
1.     Background                                                                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


       Odanadi (Together Until Death) is a non-governmental organization based in
Mysore, Karnataka, which works for the rescue, rehabilitation and empowerment of
victims of commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, Odanadi runs a home for both the
children of the sex workers and the children rescued from the trafficking networks and
provide them with education and vocational training.

       Odanadi was a result of a ten-month long pilot study (“Bodies for a Meal”) on the
socio-economic conditions of sex workers and their children in Mysore district. The
organization was registered as a trust, in 1992 and undertook a year long situational
analysis program to understand the ground realities.

2.       Objectives                                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


        To rescue women and children forced into prostitution and help integrate them      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         back into the mainstream through rehabilitation and empowerment.

        To prevent the unlawful and immoral trafficking of women and children by           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         combating the various socio-economic factors responsible for the practice.

        To help create a mass movement against trafficking and to organize the victims     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         into a strong and vocal group to fight against exploitation.

        To eradicate the social stigma attached to rehabilitated sex workers and their     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         children through outreach and awareness programs.

        To combat child labor and domestic slavery, which are major contributors to sex    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         trafficking of minors.

        To expose human rights violations against women and children in all sections of    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         society and provide support to the victims.

3.       Understanding the Problem                                                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


        Trafficking in people, especially minors and young women, is increasing
enormously all over Karnataka. The reasons for the practice figure among prostitution,
forced labor, commercial gay and lesbian relationships, hiring of the wombs, illegal
marriages, domestic slavery, organ transplantation, begging and camel races. It is a
factestimated that more than twoone lakh girls from Karnataka can be found in the
brothels are supplied every year to the brothels of Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata today, just
from Karnataka alone.

        There are twenty-seven districts in the state of Karnataka with widely differing
geographical and climatic conditions. The traffickers’ network is active throughout the
state with the rural Dalit population being the most affected. Odanadi has found in
particular, that the dalits of Tumkur, tribal people of H.D. Kote, Hunsur and Coorg are
regularly targeted by the criminal networks for prostitution, bonded labor and domestic
slavery. They exploit the poor financial and social conditions of the rural masses and
make false assurances of marriage, modeling opportunities, entrance into the film
industry or other jobs to lure minor girls. In spite of the existence of the “Devadasi
Prohibition Act”, several young girls become sex slaves under the red carpet of religious
sanctions. Such girls are also found in Southern Karnataka, though the Devadasi system
does not prevail much in this area. The traffickers find their prey from specific supply
areas and spread them over to the demand areas like Mysore, Bangalore, Chennai, Pune,
Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi. In addition, domestic slavery is quite rampant
and in many cases the owner’s family sexually exploits the domestic workers.

        The illegal traffic has not been given due importance by the law, and the
trafficking networks thrive on the loopholes in the Indian law and order system. In South
India, Odanadi has come to know about the nexus between the mafia, the traffickers and
some corrupt officials. In addition the inefficiency of the police and the border security
force leads to the traffic going unmonitored in many areas.

3.1    Reasons                                                                                  Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


        Poverty is the most obvious factor that leads to a spread in trafficking of women.
However various other cultural and socio-economic factors sustain this abhorrent practice
as well.

        Chief among the social factors that sustain trafficking for the flesh trade is the
prevalence of stereotypes and constant discrimination against women. The girl child is
discriminated against in all spheres of life and considered a burden on the family. The
attitude is symbolized by rampant female infanticide and continues through the
development process of the girl child as discrimination in love, nutrition, health and
education. Consequently, women develop a low self-esteem, relinquish control over their
own lives and often end up meek and powerless to resist the might of patriarchy and an
easy prey to exploitation.

        Marriage places a social demand on women, which if unfulfilled can create
adverse and hostile circumstances for women in the family and in society. On the other
hand, the practice of dowry directly impacts the ability of a poor woman to enter into a
suitable marriage. Forced or violent marriages can directly lead to exploitation, or cause
disillusionment enough to lead women into the hands of criminals or abusers.
Odanadi has found several instances of women leaving an unhappy marriage only to fall
into the hands of pimps and end up in brothels. Divorce or desertion by the man, has its
own social stigma attached to it and often leads to the woman left forsaken and desolate
in the midst of an unsympathetic society. Some of these women also look for solace in
the wrong places, and at times enter into temporary relationships that further alienate
them from the mainstream. There can thus be very vicious cycles set up around problems
centered on marriage.

         The media, especially mainstream cinema, often plays a very negative role in this
scheme of things, by projecting an image of women as sex objects. It can also serve to
reinforce some of the stereotypes. Perceived religious sanctions against a woman quitting
an unhappy marriage, or standing up against discrimination are other possible alienating
factors.

        Several economic factors also play significant roles in creating conditions
conducive to the flesh trade. Liberalization and globalization has lead, in several cases, to
traditional agricultural practices and small-scale industry at the rural level suffering
because of competitive disadvantage. The loss of sustainability based on traditional local
occupations and the lure of jobs in urban areas and overseas result in migration of men in
search of work. The movement of men to seek employment in turn has led to the
disintegration of the rural family support base and protection system and an erosion of
family values. This leads to an increase in the desertion of womenfolk who then become
vulnerable to the enticement of traffickers and may get desperate enough to resort to
prostitution as a survival strategy. The migration also creates the demand for sex workers
in the cities and the vicious cycle continues.

       Sometimes, natural or man-made disasters might lead to women ending up
dispossessed, losing their support base and livelihood. The result is exactly the same
desperate situation for women as caused by any of the above other factors.

        The laws pertaining to prostitution make it easier to penalize the prostituted
women rather than brothel keepers, pimps and procurers. The client is totally outside the
purview of the act except in the case of minors. The law enforcement has been
ineffective due to the lack of convergence and co-ordination between the enforcement
agencies and the state judiciary meant to provide the social support to victims. It is
extremely important that the agents, recruiters, pimps, and gang leaders should bear the
brunt of legislation and penal actions, and not let the victims be considered as criminals.


3.2    The Practice                                                                           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


                More than ninety percent of the women and children trapped into
prostitution are from rural areas. Rural women and families often a have very limited
knowledge of the law and the availability of jobs in urban areas and the traffickers use
this to their advantage.

               In almost all the cases, a person well known to the victim, a remote
relative, friend, acquaintance, or in some cases, the potential husband, facilitate the
trafficking process. The agents are known to marry women legitimately before taking
them away to be sold. Often there is a contract drawn, to convince the parents of the
legal validity, before taking over the youngsters. In cases of rape and illegitimate
relations, victims often think that since they have lost their virginity, they are
unacceptable to society and choose the alternative of working as prostitutes as it gives
them a degree of financial independence. It has been observed that more often than not,
women relatives or acquaintances are used for recruitment, since they are less likely to
seem suspicious. These ‘madams’ also have assured places in reaping the benefits of the
trafficking syndicates. There have also been cases when these recruiters take money from
the families of their victims, claiming it as compensation for their efforts.


              Some prostituted women fall into the debt trap and are forced to work as
bonded laborers and are set free only if they bring in a girl from their village as a
replacement. Therefore, prostitutes are often used in the trafficking process.
              Pimps, traffickers and recruiters from different areas collect at pre-
determined locations with “recruited” women and children before taking off to various
destinations. It seems obvious that the owners of these places - hotels, restaurants,
motels, houses, apartments, truck stop or sleeping carriages - as well as the transporters
are well aware of the intentions and nature of the transactions and actions being carried
out.

                There are no apparent standard procedures for transportation. Some times
the girls are collected in groups and taken to their destination. At times, they are brought
in individually to the intermediate location where they meet with other co-travelers.
Small time traffickers apparently do their own recruiting as the middlemen, who then sell
the “load” to organized trafficking syndicates. There are reports of women being raped
as a form of initiation during the journey.

                These trafficked women and girls are sold into different trades, of course
without their consent, and a large number of them are traded into prostitution. A number
of women are forced in to domestic labor and they are at the mercy of the employers who
freely abuse, torture and exploit them. There is a great demand for cheap labor and the
trafficked women and girls are best suited for this sector because they have no option but
to accept what ever is offered to them. Besides being migrants they have no recourse to
legal or police help. A large number of them can be found working in houses, factories
and various shops. They are overworked, underpaid and enjoy absolutely no facilities or
rights. In other cities these trafficked women and young girls can be found in the massage
parlors from where they are picked up by customers for sexual pleasures. A lot of young
girls are victims of sex tourism, mail-order brides, barmaids and cabaret dancers. The
nature of employment varies with the needs of the demand areas.

3.3    Hurdles in rescue and rehabilitation                                                      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering




                 Active involvement in the rescue of the victims of prostitution is not only
difficult but also dangerous. It is important for those working in the rescue operations to
build a strong rapport with the sexually exploited women and understand thoroughly the
powers operating the trafficking networks. These networks are wily, operate in a
sophisticated manner, vigilant and often have armstentacles extending across state
boundaries. It is hence important to do sincere groundwork on the basis of the collected
information and plan different strategies. Keeping the police and press well informed,
being prepared to document the evidence on paper and audio/video also play vital roles in
deciding the fate of a rescue operation. In short, only a socially committed, courageous,
meticulous and disciplined group can become successful rescuers.


           Rehabilitation of rescued women and children is an equally daunting and
sensitive task. Continuous follow-up actions, emotional and economical support, are the
first steps to successful rehabilitation. It is essential to evoke a sense of belonging in the
victims, help them get over their feelings of helpless rage and learn to trust the society
again. Putting back together the pieces of brutalized lives needs an immense amount of
patience, love and money. Lack of adequate understanding of these issues and lack of
emotional involvement often cause a lot of pain for the victims on their road to
rehabilitation. In many cases police suspicion and humiliation have essentially pushed
back the rehabilitated victims into the flesh trade. It is therefore of primary importance
that the NGOs involved in the process and the relevant government agencies like the
police put their heart and soul into the task.




4.   Addressing the Problem                                                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

Venky fill this section…




          Odanadi believes in a multi-pronged approach to fight the problem of sexual
exploitation, which addresses both the causes that lead to a flourishing sex trade and the
rescue, rehabilitation and empowerment of women and minors sucked unwittingly into
the clutches of the trafficking networks. Odanadi has developed a multi-pronged
approach to address the problem of trafficking. The objectives of this project are:

   To create awareness, provide training and influence policy-making on anti-
   trafficking.
To rescue women and children from the clutches of traffickers and to expose the
organized trafficking networks.
Rehabilitation and reintegration of the rescued women and children.

4.1    Awareness, Training and Policy-making                                                    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


More than 90% of the women and children trapped in to prostitution are rural folks. The
patriarchal needs of the society and socio-economic, cultural and religious factors have
been trapping them into different fields including prostitution. National and International
policies on development are pledging the interests of the common people to boost the
urban development. Adverse developmental policies have resulted in rural families losing
their livelihood and many vulnerable women and children succumb to the social evil of
prostitution. Rural women are simpletons and the traffickers count on the limited
knowledge of the parents to make their daughters victims of prostitution. It is also a fact
that over 2 lakh girls from Karnataka can be found in the brothels of Mumbai, Kolkata,
Delhi and Pune.

        In spite of the measures and the impact of Odanadi’s programs, we feel that the
issue of trafficking is not been addressed in the villages that are the supply areas. We plan
to train and enlighten the rural masses on trafficking issues through continuous
dissemination of information, conducting training and awareness programs, formation of
self-help groups and by using the established organizations. We are quite hopeful that the
village people will takes up this issue and in the long run comes up with strategies to
combat trafficking. Within a period of 3 years, this developmental process will begin
yielding results in terms of policy making. The rural voice would pressurize the state to
frame policies to combat the issue of trafficking. The following strategies have been
planned to create awareness among the rural masses.Odanadi plans to combat the scourge
of trafficking by directly enlightening the rural masses on relevant issues through
continuous dissemination of information, awareness programs and through the formation
and training of self-help groups. We believe that the resulting increase in rural awareness
will ultimately translate into viable government policies and laws against the practice.

Odanadi’s strength is its relationship with the people and people’s organizations.
Prominent NGOs, women’s organizations and youth federations are familiar to Odanadi.
Leading people’s movements like Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha (KRRS) and Dalita
Sangha Samiti are sympathetic towards Odanadi and have been demonstrating their
solidarity with us in our anti-trafficking programs. With the help of these rural
organizations, self-help groups and NGOs, we plan to promote a face-to-face interaction
with the rural masses to collect information about their children, who leave the villages
with other people, lured by false promises, for employment opportunities. Since the issue
of trafficking has not been addressed properly, this aspect will be discussed in the
meetings quoting of examples of other villages that have been victimized. The cases that
have been already documented will be presented to the rural masses to give them a clear
picture of trafficking and victimization of rural women and children. Efforts will be made
to prepare the concerned village leaders to be vigilant about the fact that “how, where,
when and with whom” their children are moving out of the villages.


Training programs for grass root groups

         As a matter of fact there are a lot of concerned groups, which are already working
on rural development. But most of these groups are unaware of the issue of trafficking,
since it is hardly addressed with due importance. Therefore, a training program has to be
conducted to educate the groups to combat the trafficking networks. In this regard state,
district and taluk level training programs will be conducted to make the volunteers fully
convinced and enlightened about the issue of trafficking and the source areas. Teachers,
anganawadi workers, police, revenue inspectors, gram panchayat members and students
will be trained in this regard.

4.1.1    Awareness Programs

        Odanadi plans to adopt Awareness programs plays a vital role in enlightening the
rural mass about the burning issue of trafficking. Dvariousifferent strategies and
resources will be adopted to propagate awareness againstthe concept of anti-trafficking
trafficking and and to educateawaken the people to protect themselvesagainst the
traffickers. Wall paintings, discussions, posters, street plays, documentaries and rallies
will be planned as a part of the awareness program. In every district a selected group of
young men and women,th and social activists will be selected and trained to t be in
chargeake care of the awareness programs. in each district. Regional, state and district-
level consultations and conferences will be conducted from time to time with an objective
to disseminate information, to strengthen the network among the working partners and to
instigate the government to address the issue with new approaches and policies. In
addition, rural youth and students will be encouraged to participate in painting
campaigns, essay and debate competitions and story writing related to this issue.

        Wherever possible, tIt is difficult to address this issue to the village folk unless
we he issue of sex trafficking needs to be addressed in conjunction with combating
othertie this up with other developmental problems in the village. A constructive
response to their immediate and long-term problems of the villagers will definitely gain
their confidence and make them more responsive tobring them towards our main
objective of fighting against trafficking. Programs like medical camps, legal assistance,
empowerment and skill development programs will facilitate us to reach these people
with our ideas. Towards this end, supportive programs that meet the needs of the
community will be initiated where necessary and possible.

        Odanadi has an excellent relationship with several prominent NGOs, women’s
organizations and youth federations. Leading people’s movements like Karnataka Rajya
Raitha Sangha (KRRS) and Dalita Sangha Samiti are sympathetic towards Odanadi and
have been demonstrating their solidarity with Odanadi’s anti-trafficking programs. With
the help of these rural organizations, self-help groups and NGOs, Odanadi will promote
face-to-face interaction with the rural masses to collect information about children and
women falling into the clutches of the trafficking networks. Such interactions will also
serve to further educate them about the methods employed by the networks through
anecdotes from the experiences in other villages. Efforts will be made to prepare the
concerned village leaders to be vigilant about “how, where, when and with whom”
village children move out of the villages.
                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.1.2   Training programs


                  In many rural areas, there already exist concerned groups working on
various aspects of development. Many of these groups have a high motivation level and
significant local support base, but are unaware of the issue of trafficking. Odanadi plans
to conduct state level, district level and taluk level training programs to enlighten and
convince these organizations of the need to make a concerted effort against the sex trade.
Teachers, anganawadi workers, local police, revenue inspectors, gram panchayat
members and students will also be included in these training programs.
By launching different governmental and non-governmental programs, potential
volunteers will be selected to sustain these programs in the village. Supportive programs
that meet the needs of the community will be initiated. Programs like medical camps,
legal assistance, empowerment and skill development programs will facilitate us to reach
these people with our ideas.
        Policy making process
                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.1.3   Policy-making
        AnotherThe long-term objective of Odanadi’sour campaign is to come out with
new government policies against the issue of trafficking. Every possible platform, forum
and occasion will be efficiently utilized to raise this issue atin the state and national level.
Currently, Odanadi has already been effectively using the print and electronic media
effectively in this regard. Exposure of trafficking networks and the rescue of girl children
have been followed by a clear and crisp publicity campaignWhenever a trafficking
network is exposed and the girl children are rescued, a clear and crisp publicity campaign
has taken place. Simultaneously, these issues have been raised in the houses of people’s
representatives as wellSimultaneously, this issue is raised in the houses of people’s
representatives. A few high level enquiries have taken place through Odanadi’s initiative.
We are hopeful that in a period of three years Odanadi can bring about changes in the
government policies through a process of effectiveby lobbying with the support of other
people’s organizations. It is also important to involve rational thinkers, writers, students,
religious heads, community leaders and media personnel to debate this issue and work as
a pressure group that demands better policies to combat trafficking.


4.2 Rescue                                                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


        Over the last ten years, Odanadi has carried out several well-planned operations
against brothels and trafficking networks and rescued more than 400 girls from the flesh
tradeThrough well-planned operations against brothels and traffickers, Odanadi has
rescued over 400 girls, most of whom are minors, in the past ten years from established
networks in Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. Most of the rescued girls
were minors. It iswas observed unfortunate tin several cases that the very people who
were supposed to protect the women and children were guilty of having sold them into
prostitution and for use in pornography.hat the very people that are supposed to protect
the women and children are guilty of selling the minors to prostitution and for use in
pornography. Shocking instancesSome shocking instances include that of a head
constable who was running a brothel, a lady teacher of a reputed institution who had sold
two girls to an estate owner in Coorg, a physical instructor of a renowned convent who
madewho have taken blue films of a minor girl and later sold her in to prostitution, a
doctor who raped a minor girl in a brothel, and a cinema actress who was actively
engaged in the flesh tradeh trade are heart breaking examples of people traced by
Odanadi. In one case, Odanadi caught an old man selling two minor girls into prostitution
red-handed, much to the disbelief of the local police.The police could not believe it when
we caught an old man red-handed, selling 2 minor girls for prostitution lured from a
convent in Bangalore.

        Through active involvement and a painstaking process of collecting and acting on
information gleaned from various sources, including the prostituted women themselves,
reformed traffickers, police and rickshaw drivers, Odanadi has managed to unearth as
many as thirteen active trafficking networks. Of these networks, one was international,
five worked across state boundaries and the rest were based locally. Several operational
networks still remain and a lot of work needs to be done in identifying and busting these
sex rackets.
              Odanadi has been aided directly in its rescue efforts by s achieved some of
its goals with the involvement of people; especially the exploited women, people’s
organisationsorganizations like the Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangh and the, Ddalita
Sangharsha Samithi. The media, the police and other local NGOs have been very helpful
as well., other NGOs, media, Women Federations and Police. In every rescue operation,
these groups joined Odanadi in a show of solidarity. At the national, regional and state
level, a few like-minded groups like ATSEC India and CACT Karnataka have shown
their timely moral support during the rescue operations. UNIFEM has provided timely
support to the residential program for 30 rescued girls and has also s well as the
conduction a few rescue operations in a year.

Though the rescue operations are tough, Odanadi has been able to manage these
operations due to several reasons. As Odanadi works for the empowerment and
rehabilitation of prostituted women, they often provide a lot of information about the
prevailing trafficking networks in the southern states. Many rescue operations have been
possible only because of the active involvement of the prostituted women. Secondly,
Odanadi has been receiving a lot of information to identify the trafficking networks from
the police, reformed traffickers and rickshaw drivers. Most of them are yet to be
identified. So far, Odanadi has unearthed as many as 13 trafficking networks among
which one was international, five were interstate and the rest were based locally.


Hurdles

        Active involvement in the rescue of the victims of prostitution is not only difficult
but also dangerous. Unless one has substantial field experience, builds a strong rapport
with the sexually, exploited women, as well as the powers operating the trafficking
networks it is impossible to trace these networks. The trafficking and other criminal
networks are interconnected, vigilant and work from a domestic to international level.
They operate in a wily and highly sophisticated manner. It is also important to do sincere
groundwork on the basis of the given information and plan different strategies. The police
and the press should be well informed. Documenting the evidence on paper and
audio/video plays a vital role in deciding the fate of a rescue operation. A socially
committed, courageous, well-planned and disciplined group can become successful
rescuers. Constant interaction with the victims in a non-judgmental way helps to cement a
strong bond. It is essential to evoke a sense of belonging in the victims and help them get
over their feelings of helpless rage and re-discover the precious feeling of trust. Putting
together the pieces of brutalized lives needs an immense amount of patience, love and
money. Lack of understanding of the issue, lack of public awareness, stigma attached to
the exploited women and children and lack of emotional involvement among government
and non-governmental agencies creates hell for the victims on the street. Though the
victim is ready for rehabilitation, the society does not permit her. In many cases the
police have suspected and humiliated the rehabilitated victims, and essentially pushed
them back in to the flesh trade.

        Continuous follow-up actions, emotional and economical support, are the first
steps to rehabilitation. The police, NGOs and the government will have to put their heart
and soul into this task. We honestly say that though there was no proper financial plan
for rehabilitation, the emotional involvement of Odanadi was the only thing, that has
rehabilitated as many as 400 women with alternative livelihood in the mainstream
society. Individuals with a widespread public awareness have provided the economic
support.

       Firstly, the exploited victim needs a place to stay and people who can render
emotional support. If this is done, the economic rehabilitation will not be a big problem.
Another 22 girls who have got married are also doing well. These marriages were
possible because of our emotional involvement and the personal attachment with the
survivors.

        For the past 5 years, Odanadi has been running a Home for the rescued children,
especially for the minor girls, 23 of whom were rescued from the flesh trade. The
rescued girls are treated as normal girls, but with extra care. There is a continuous health
check-up and counseling program in addition to cultural programs, meditation,
recreation, group works and training. More that these, treating them all as equal has kept
the girls happy.
funded several of the rescue operations.


4.3 Rehabilitation                                                                             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


        After a rescue operation, the minor girls need a healthy environment to stay (a
trauma care center or a rescue home). She is given the choice to stay for any period of
time till she fully recovers from the accident. Within that span of time, the people who
are involved in the developmental process have to evolve a scientific and realistic mode
of rehabilitation to reintegrate her with her family. Rehabilitation involves many factors:

                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.1   Counseling

        During the counseling sessions the girls show no hesitation to share their
experiences, psychological and health problems and desires. The rescued girls are afraid
that the pimp would find them if they go back home, that they will be outcasts in society,
that they are vulnerable without the support of a man, that they will be a shame to their
families, that they are alone because they do not know where to seek help, and that it will
be hard to go back to their lives. In effect they are afraid of their future.

                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.2   Group counseling programs

        As the girls are mentally prepared and want an emotional outlet, they start giving
preliminary information about their painful experiences, the persons who trafficked them,
the various strategies of trafficking and how they landed up in brothels. They reveal most
of the facts when competitively discussing with each other. The counselors listen to the
girls and direct them during the session. During the group discussion the girls also reveal
the utmost cruelty shown to them in the brothels.

                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.3   Individual counseling programs

        Individual counseling is another important session where each girl will have
privacy and intimacy with the counselor to share her life stories, problems, needs and
desires. The counselor encourages each girl to be firm, to remember her capabilities and
recognize her strengths and helps her to think in a positive direction. Many girls reveal
that they had attempted to commit suicide in the brothels as a result of torture and sexual
assault. The feelings of the girls are mixed with anger, guilt, joy and helplessness. When
questioned, a girl answered that ‘it is better to have no feelings, if one had been totally
abused’. Another girl had lost her speech temporarily when her relatives expressed
complete rejection during the reintegration program. Unfortunately the same girl was
found to be HIV positive during the medical counseling.

        The following are some of the common feelings among the rescued girls:

Anger:

   Toward herself because “she allowed all that to happen to her”.                           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
   Toward others, because they did not protect her.
   Toward society.
   That her life has been broken.

Distrust:

   Of her own ability to judge people and events.                                            Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
   Of the people around her, including those who had not betrayed her.
   Of the facts that occurred in her life.

Feeling disoriented:

   Memory problems.                                                                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering

   Finding it hard to recognize the date and time.
   Inability to stay calm.

Fear:

   To be alone.                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
   To be found and punished by her trafficker.
   That people will find out that she had been prostituted.
   Of her own anger.
   Of venereal diseases and HIV/AIDS.
   Of nightmares.

Feeling guilty:

   That she broke cultural and religious rules.                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
   That she made a mistake and had been “stupid”
   That she was not able to make money to support her family.
   That she is immoral and her body and life are not clean.

Feeling cheated:

   By the people who put her in touch with those involved in trafficking.                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
   By the state for not supporting her and taking bribe (police) in the brothel areas
   By her family.

        The counseling program gives the girls a new strength, hope and washes away
most of their complexes. After this they start expressing eagerness to reunite with their
lost families.

                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.4   Counseling for the parents

        Unless the families of the rescued girls are properly counseled, it is difficult to
reintegrate the girls. Many families make serious efforts but fail to trace their daughters.
In some cases ‘missing person’ complaints are lodged with the local police. It is our
experience that, if the facts are revealed, most of the rural parents come heartily forward
to accept their daughters. Therefore, we have to convince the parents about torture in
domestic slavery, mental sickness, etc. These stories gain the sympathy and affection of
the parents and make them accept the girls and treat them with care. Family counseling
creates a positive atmosphere for the future of the rescued girls and makes the
reintegration process easier.

                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.5   Accepting the girls as they are

        People exposed to drugs, alcohol, gang rape, and repeated sexual assault tend to
cultivate a different behavior. They may like to sleep during the day or would like to
have good food. Denial or rejection of their requests could be counter-productive during
the rehabilitation process.

                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.6   Rehabilitation to a “Victim” not to a “Criminal”

        Though a developmental approach has been introduced to tackle the issue of
prostitution, a major segment of the society still considers the victims as criminals. This
is due to our treating prostitution as a moral issue rather than a developmental issue.
Therefore, the counseling and rehabilitation process should be free from any punitive
action against the victims of the flesh trade and the counselors and organization should
have a modern and broad perspective.

                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.7   Childhood with education

        In case of a trafficked child victim, it is advisable to bring the child back to
childhood, which can guarantee her/him a joyful learning, a re-creation of the home,
protection and a healthy environment.

                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.8   Economic Rehabilitation

        Creation of an alternative livelihood is another important factor in the
rehabilitation process. However, the economic support offered to the victim should be
preplanned and on the basis of the victim’s desire. Any imposed training, financial
support or forced marriage would cause further problems and ultimately the entire
rehabilitation process will fail.

                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.9   “Marriage” as a mode of rehabilitation

        In our social system, marriage can be considered as a better way of rehabilitating
a girl who is above 18 years of age. Though it seems to be a risky and tough task, if
proper precautions are taken and a thorough counseling is given to the groom, it offers
possibilities for the victim to lead a normal life.

                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.10 A free and secure living environment

        The rescued girls from the brothels have led a mechanical and miserable life.
Fear, distress, anger, stubbornness, inferiority complex, hatred, guilt and suspicion are
some of the common feelings among the rescued girls. It is imperative for these girls to
be left by themselves for an initial period of time in a free and secure environment. This
period helps the counselor and victim to understand each other and for the counselor to
gain the confidence of the victim. Further, the rescued girl has a chance to understand the
other victims better.

        In Odanadi, the existing residential school for the children of prostituted women
plays an important role in bringing the girls back to normalcy. The rescued girls are
happy in engaging themselves with the small children, participating in daily activities,
cultural and vocational programs, cooking and gardening. Secondly the victims have an
opportunity to mingle with Odanadi’s volunteers and sympathizers who are sensitive in
dealing with the rescued girls. In essence, this process makes the victims to feel at home.
                                                                                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
4.3.11 Recreation:

       As the rescued girls start coming out of their complexes, they voluntarily take part
in the daily affairs of Odanadi. At Odanadi, cultural programs like street plays, folk
dances, mimicry and skits are common and keep the girls happy. The girls also involve
themselves in regular vocational training like wool weaving, tailoring, plastic wire
weaving and kitchen gardening.


4.4 Reintegration:                                                                            Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


The reintegration phase is the most difficult and includes many key components:

   a) The girl should be ready to go back to a new life.                                      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


   b) The counseling provided to the girl and her family should match that of each other      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
      and there should be no room for distress, suspicion and confusion among the
      family members.

   c) The village folk should be given a positive picture of the girl so that they accept     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
      her in to the community.

   d) The reintegration should not be forced but should be based on the girl’s choice.        Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


       The Odanadi team takes the above factors in to consideration and works for the
successful reintegration of the girl with her family.

        During the reintegration process, it is not possible to take back all the girls
together. Each girl’s whereabouts and stories are kept confidential to make the
reintegration a success and to gain the affection and acceptability of their family. The
counseling for the parents and the village folk plays a big role in a successful
reintegration effort.

        In many cases reintegration becomes impossible due to rigid the customs and
traditions prevailing in villages. Though the parents are ready to accept the girl, the
villagers do not permit them to do so. Hence, it is very important to hide the whereabouts
(name, parents, place) of the victim as much as possible.

        During counseling of the parents and third parties (villagers, teachers, etc) it is
mandatory that the organization give a positive opinion about the victim so that a
supportive atmosphere can be built up in the family and the community. In case of a
severe threat from the village community, timely legal and social support should be given
to the girl and her family.

4.5 Follow-up action:                                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
        The story of a trafficked and rehabilitated girl does not end with reintegration. In
almost all cases the people responsible for introducing or, in other words, selling the
victim, belong to the family, clan or village. Hence it is of utmost importance to reassure
the victim that the institution or people who rescued her would continue to provide a
second home and be a second family to her. All victims fear retaliation from their
captors; hence they look to their rescuers for protection. In the process of rescue and
rehabilitation most victims form an emotional bond with their surrogate family and start
experiencing feelings of trust. Therefore keeping in constant touch gives the victim a
sense of security and confidence.


5.       Achievements:                                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


       In spite of financial constraints, Odanadi has worked tirelessly towards its goals
and has achieved the following results in the past 10 years.

        Through well-planned operations against brothels and traffickers, Odanadi has         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         rescued over 400 girls, most of whom were minors, from established networks in
         Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

        Odanadi has unearthed as many as 13 trafficking networks among which one was          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         international, five were inter-state and the rest were locally based.

        In partnership with CRY, Odanadi established a very successful permanent              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         residential school and rehabilitation center ('Prayoga Patha') in 1995 for the
         children of the exploited women and rescued minor girls. The school provides
         shelter, food, education and vocational training to more than 75 children, 23 of
         who were rescued from the flesh trade.

        Odanadi operates a counseling and trauma care center for the women of various         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         strata afflicted by marital discord and social problems. Odanadi has brought back
         more than 100 families in to the mainstream through counseling programs.

        Odanadi has gone a long way in sensitizing the society and eradicating the stigma     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         attached to the rehabilitated sex workers. As a result, 22 rehabilitated women
         were married during widely published exercises.

        Odanadi has successfully organized the prostituted women in to a powerful vocal       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         group. The “Vimochana Mahila Sangha”, Mysore is a strong collective with 1200
         members, out of whom 400 women have been rehabilitated with alternative
         livelihood in the mainstream society.

        Odanadi’s strength is its relationship with the people and people’s organizations.    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         Leading people’s movements like Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha (KRRS) and
         Dalita Sangha Samiti are sympathetic towards Odanadi and have demonstrated
         their solidarity with us in our anti-trafficking programs.
        In 2003, the Government of Karnataka conferred the Republic Award on Odanadi             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
         to recognize its contribution in the field of rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration
         of sexually exploited women and children.


6.       Call for Help                                                                            Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


       To be successful in our objective of the rescue, rehabilitation, reintegration and
empowerment of the sexually exploited minor girls, we require a sound financial backing.
Our needs for this project are summarized below:

        Rescue and Rehabilitation Center: In many cases, Odanadi’s attempt to                     Formatted
reintegrate the rescued minor girls with their families becomes impossible and we have to
house them and plan for their rehabilitation. The ‘Prayoga Patha’ (a home for the rescued
children) does not have any place to accommodate the minor girls rescued from
trafficking and prostitution. In addition to this, the older girls need to be treated
differently and need privacy for their development.

        This motivated us to think of a rescue and rehabilitation center constructed
exclusively for the development of the minor and adolescent girls. The rehabilitation
center has been planned to accommodate 100 girls and has been designed by a well
renowned artist-cum-architect Mr. K. T. Shiva Prasad. The approximate cost of the
building is Rs. 64 lakhs, of which a portion has been raised/promised through generous
contributions from individuals, the Government of India, Asha Silicon Valley, Asha
Cornell, and others. We need to raise the remainder of the funds to complete construction
of the rehabilitation center. This is a one-time request for building the infrastructure.

        Rescue Operations: As the trafficking networks operate across states, the primary         Formatted
expenditure involved in the rescue operation is the travel cost. Additional funds are             Formatted
required to document the evidence, pay for the legal advice and provide for the
reintegration and economic rehabilitation of the rescued victims. We request an amount
of Rs. 60,000 to support one such rescue operation.

        Prayoga Patha: The children of the sexually exploited women and the rescued               Formatted
minor girls need to be provided food, education, vocational training, health care and
entertainment (cultural training programs). In addition, the regular staff members need to
be paid an honorarium for the services rendered. This is a recurring expense and is
financially taxing for us. We request monetary assistance to cover these expenses for one
year.
BACKGROUND OF THE ORGANISATION:

        Odanadi is a social organisation situated in Mysore for the past 10 years, which
has been working for the rescue, rehabilitation and empowerment of the victims of
commercial sexual exploitation. It is also runs a home for the rescued children of both
the children of prostituted and rescued from the trafficking networks to make them self
reliant through education and vocational training. It conducts counseling programme for
the disturbed families, and so far more than 100 families have been brought to the main
stream living condition.

         Prior to founding Odanadi; we undertook a ten month pilot study (“Bodies For A
Meal”) of the socio-economic conditions of prostituted women, their children and minor
girls in Mysore district. In 1992, Odanadi emerged as a registered trust to be the
‘Odanadi’ of this ravaged group of the society. One year of situational analysis
programme, really gave us a clear-cut picture about the issue of prostitution and ground
realities.

THE OBJECTIVES OF ODANADI:

To prevent women and children from being trafficked for unlawful and immoral
purposes.

  To organise the prostituted into a vocal group fighting against exploitation, and         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
facilitate their empowerment and rehabilitation .

 To create a mass movement against trafficking in the source areas.                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


  To integrate the trafficked children and the children of exploited women into the         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
mainstream and make them self-reliant through counseling, education and vocational
training.

  To rescue women and children forced into prostitution and expose the unholy nexuases      Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
in the flesh trade.

  To assist in the prevention of rural-urban migration, which is a major contributor or     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
urban prostitution.


  To eradicate the social taboo and rejection through sensitization of various social and   Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
peer groups.

  To expose human rights violations against women and children in all sections of           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
society.


  To provide support to women and children affected by domestic violence and other          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
socio-economic problems.


  To combat child labour including domestic slavery, which is one of the contributor to     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
sex trafficking.
  As a starter “Odanadi” set about fratanising with the prostituted women who lived on
the fringes of the streets of Mysore, Unacknowledged as persons, fighting for survival
against crime, violence, disease and death. Though, financially handicapped Odanadi set
out to work among the sexually oppressed women of the street, unmindful of public
scepticism, ridicule and lack of sympathy. Many city fathers and intellectuals who has
spent an entire lifetime debating on the oppression of women and had propounded
various theories on the elevation of the status of the Indian women did not take too kindly
to Odanadi’s enthusiasm in freeing and empowering the prostituted women from the
worst form of slavery. Their opinions ranged from the usual “age old profession which
had no cure” to the insensitive every society needs sex works as safeguards against sexual
crime like rape etc.

  In this attempt to achieve its started goals, Odanadi has surmounted numerous
hardships from various mainstream segments. In the initial stage, different vested
interests like moneylenders, goondas (gangsters) pimps and traffickers, brothel owners,
the police personnel etc. – tried to suppress our campaign against commercial sexual
exploitation. Frequently the “Odanadi” activists were beaten-up seriously. Two of our
activists were killed by unknown criminals. Radhamma, a very dedicated activist of
Odandi succumbed to death after a severe attack on her by a local gangster. The local
police also harass Odanadi activists and the exploited women routinely. The police
turned even more ruthless when women, armed with legal action them. Starting with the
police commissioner, right down to the constable on the street were unprepared to deal
with the new and changed scenario, where the arm of law was seen as the main law
breaker, and the since long “criminal” the victim. To give an example, Nagamani one of
the leading and aggressive voices of Odanadi, who has rescued more than a hundred
minors from trafficking, was targeted by the police. Though in an advanced stage of
pregnancy, Nagamani was kicked on her stomach, by a police inspector, and sent to jail
where she was harassed and humiliated and denied access to a single phone call to which
all was harassed and humiliated and denied access to a single phone call to which all
accused are entitled. More over false charges were framed on her. Though these acts of
vandalism were meant to terrorize the women it had a reverse effect. Every humiliation
and attack on a group who were religiously committed to a cause only enhanced their
moral strength.

       With the passage of time, many of our objectives have borne fruit and in Odanadi
has emerged as a people organisation, setting standards for the empowerment of the
survivors of this century old vice.

        Today, Odanadi has successfully organised the prostituted into a vocal and
powerful. The “Vimochana Mahila Sangha”, Mysore being a stronger collective with
1200 members out of whom 400 women have been rehabilitated with the alternative
livelihood in the mainstream society. Odanadi has also gone a long way in eradicating
the social stigma attached to the prostituted and in sensitising the mainstream society. As
many as 22 women were married through widely published exercises in the presence of
leading personalities. Apart from this, Odanadi operating a counseling and trauma care
centre for the women of various strata afflicted by marital discord and social problems.
2.THE IMPORTANCE OF CAMPAIGN AGAINST TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN                                       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
AND CHILDREN IN SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF KARNATAKA:

        As you know, trafficking in person, especially amongst minors and the young
girls are increasing enormously all over Karnataka. In our state, trafficking and sexual
exploitation of children has grown multiples and visible. The trafficking is not only
limited to prostitution alone but also for the purposes like forced labour, commercial gay
and lesbian relationships to hire the wombs and for illegal marriages, domestic slavery,
organs transplantation, for begging, for camel races. Social pressures, lack of protective
laws and failure to enforce laws, social customs, poverty, discrimination within the
family etc. have made young girls vulnerable to all kinds of violence, especially sexual
exploitation.

  Because of the loopholes in the law and order system prevailing in India and since the
issue of trafficking is not addressed with importance, the trafficking networks are still
alive and caught free. In South India, we came to know about the internal links between
the mafias, the traffickers and some corrupt officials involved because of the inefficiency
of the police, border security forces, railway police etc. Thousands of girls have been
trafficked into sex trade. In Karnataka, it is found that more than 1 lakh girls are supplied
to the brothels of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata. The women and girls from North Karnataka
are trafficking into the sex-trade during their search for a job to gain their livelihood.
Similarly, in South Karnataka, the school going young girls are missing everyday and
that is not considered seriously. Domestic slavery is quite rampant and in many cases
sexual exploitation of the domestic workers takes place within their owner’s family.
Traffickers are using different strategies like job assurances, marriage, modeling
opportunity, entrance into film land, etc. to lure the minors into the sex trade.

  In Karnataka, we have 27 districts with the different geographical and climatic
conditions. To start with we have selected the six southern districts of Karnataka
(Mysore, Coorg, Mandya, Tumkur, Hassan and Chamarajanagar) the source areas which
are badly affected by this issue. Though the traffickers network has been working through
out the state in an advanced way, the most affected rural population is Dalit. We have
also found that the dalits of Tumkur, tribals of H.D. Kote, Hunsur and from Coorg tribal
belts are being trafficked by the criminal networks for various purposes especially for
prostitution, bonded labour and for domestic slavery. It is also found that the traffickers
are exploiting poor financial and social conditions of the rural mass and trafficking the
minors, giving false assurances. Inspite of a strong enforcement of “Devadasi Prohibition
Act”, the hundreds of minors are becoming sex slaves under the red carpet of religious
sanctions. These girls are also found into Southern Karnataka, though the Devadasi
system is not prevailing as much. It indicates that the traffickers find their preys from
accurate supply areas and spread them over the demand areas like Mysore, Bangalore,
Chennai, Puna, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi etc.

 3. CONTRIBUTION FACTORS
 Various factors that are believed to have led to trafficking in women and children in
Karnataka region are listed below:




 Social factors:

1.Disintegration of rural communities and familial and social nexus                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
2.Urbanization.
3.Attitudes towards women
4.Dowry
5.Polygamy
6.Marital problems, desertion etc.
7.Media images of women as sex objects.
8.Perceived sanction by religious institutions
9.Prostitution as a survival strategy
10.Violence against domestic workers
11.Forced sexual exploitation.
12.Associating family honor with women’s chastity and ostracization
13.Lack of education
14.Prevalence of feudal culture

Economic Factors:

1.Industrialization and globalization                                                       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
2.Development of Road links
3.Crisis of livelihood and job opportunities
4.Desirability of easy life promoted by consumerism
5.Large families and contracting economical resources leading children to be viewed as
marketable commodities and mere productive units
6.Concentration of wealth
7.Liberalization of economies without offsetting negative impact
8.Reduction in subsistence agricultural practices.
9.Inflation and withdrawal of subsidies
10.Underdevelopment
11.Drought

The above mentioned concerns, along with political and economical instabilities,
developmental and health issues such as HIV/AIDS, extreme economic deprivation, man
made natural disasters and general powerlessness and lack of control over life and future
combine to produce push and pull factors which create conditions conductive for the
flesh trade.
Undoubtedly poverty is one of the most significant factor in the spread of trafficking of
women, however, the social and cultural factors play an equally treacherous role. In
particular gender discrimination and low esteem of women are prime reasons. The girl
child from her birth is discriminated against in all spheres of life, be it existence
(infanticide), food, health, education or love. She is always treated as a second-class
member of the family, community and society. This causes women to hold themselves in
low self-respected and makes them weak, frightened and vulnerable and powerless to
resist the might of patriarchy.

Marriage is another social demand, which if remains unfulfilled, can create adverse and
hostile circumstances for women within the home and the society. Forced or violent
marriages are also causes, which led women into the hands of exploiters, abusers and
criminals. There are instances when single women have left their home to seek refuge
elsewhere and have found themselves in the clutches of agents and pimps and ending up
in the brothels. Divorce is another social stigma faced by women. The family and
society look down upon these deserted and forsaken women leaving them alone to face
the trials and tribulations of life. These women often seek solace in the wrong places and
at times resort to relationships outside marriage which are temporary and result in their
total alienation from their own fraternity.

The movement of men from rural to urban areas and overseas to seek employment has
led to the disintegration of rural family support base, social nexus and protection system
initially in place. When men migrate to work, women left to behind in the villages
becomes vulnerable to the enticement of traffickers. Having last other means of
subsistence they may get desperate enough to agree to their terms. This makes ground
for the supply. Urbanization results in creation of temporary employment leading men to
leave behind their wives and family. They, in turn, create the demand for the prostituted
in the cities and the vicious cycle continues.

The laws pertaining to prostitution make it easier to penalize females in prostitution’s
rather than brothel keepers, pimps, procurers, etc. The client is totally outside the
purview of the act except in the case of minors. The law enforcement has been effective
owing to the lack of convergence and co-ordination between the enforcement agencies,
judiciary on the state agencies meant to provide the social support to victims. Therefore,
it is extremely important and must be continually emphasized that the agents, recruiters,
pimps, and gang leaders should bear the brunt of legislation and penal actions, and not
led the victims be criminalised.

Different stages of Trafficking:

  Recruitment at village/city level.                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
  Persons taken to designated location which is used by traffickers.
  Shifting to a central location where girls from different areas assemble prior to moving
towards ultimate destination
  Travel to their ultimate destination as decided by their traffickers.
  Final transaction or trading at brothel/execution of sale.
In almost all the cases, a person well known to the victim, a remote relative, friend,
acquaintance, or in some cases, the potential husband, facilitate the process of trafficking.
The agents are known to marry women legitimately before taking them away to be sold.
Often there is a contract drawn, which parents sign before handing over youngsters to
convince them of the legal validity. In cases of rape, illegitimate relations, because of the
social set up, victims often think that since they have lost their virginity, they are
unacceptable to society, as such, it is a better alternative to work as prostitutes as it gives
them a degree of financial independence. It has been observed that more often than not,
women relatives or acquistances are used for recruitment, since they are less likely to
have suspicion cast on them. These ‘madams’ also have assured places in reaping
benefits of trafficking syndicates. There have also been cases when these recruiters take
money from the families of their victims, claiming it as compensation for their efforts.

Some prostituted women with a loan over their head have to work has bonded laborers
and are set free only if they bring in one girl from their village as a replacement.
Therefore, prostitutes are often used in the trafficking process.

Pimps, traffickers and recruiters from different areas collect at pre-determined locations
with “recruited” women and children before taking off to various destinations. It seems
obvious that the owners of this places, may they be hotels, restaurants, motels, houses,
apartments, truck stop or sleeping carriages, as well as transporters are well aware of the
intentions and nature of transactions and actions being carried out.

There are no apparent standard procedures for transportation. Some times the girls are
collected in groups and taken onwards. At times, they are brought in individually to the
intermediary location where they meet with other co-travelers. Small time traffickers
apparently do their own recruiting as the middle men, who then sell the “load” to the
organised trafficking syndicates. There are reports of women being raped as a form
initiation during the journey.

These trafficked women and girls are sold in different trades and of course without their
consent. As mentioned earlier a large number of them are traded into prostitution. A
number of women are consumed in domestic labor also. Here they are at the mercy of
the employers who freely abuse them, torture and exploit them because of their
circumstances. There is a great demand for cheap labor to work at lower rates. The
trafficked women and girls best suited for this sector because they have no option but to
accept what ever is offer to them. Besides being migrants they have no recourse to legal
or police help. A large number of them can be found working in the houses, factories and
in various shops. They are overworked, underpaid and enjoy absolutely no facilities, they
can be hired or fired on the spot. In other cities these trafficked women and young girls
are also to be found in the massage parlors from where they are picked up by the
customer for sexual pleasures. A lot of young girls are victims of sex tourism, mail-order
brides, barmaids and cabaret dancers. The nature of employment varies with the needs of
the demand areas.
4.MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:                                                             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


1.Awareness, training and policy making process related to anti-trafficking campaign in       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
the source areas of the selected districts of Karnataka.
2.To rescue women and children from the clutches of traffickers and to expose the
organised networks of trafficking.
3.Rehabilitation and reintegration of rescued women and children.

1.Awareness, training and policy making process related to anti-trafficking                   Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
campaign in the source areas of the selected districts of Karnataka:

More than 90% of the women and children who are trapped into prostitution are rural
folks. The patriarchal needs of the society and socio economic cultural and religious
factors have been trapping them into different fields including prostitution. National and
international policies on development are pledging the interest of common people to
boost the urban development. Adverse developmental policies have resulted in rural
families loosing their daily bread and many vulnerable women and children succumb to
the social events of prostitution. Rural women are simpletons can be easily count the
limited knowledge of the parents make their daughters victims of prostitution. It is also
a fact that over 2 lakh girls can be found in the brothels of Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi and
Puna from Karnataka alone.

  Inspite of the measures and impacts of Odanadi programmes, we also feel that the issue
of trafficking is not been addressed in the villages that is the supply areas. It is our
concern to train and enlighten the rural mass about the issue of trafficking through
continuous discrimination of information, training, awareness programmes, formation of
self help groups and using the established people’s organisations. We are quite hopeful
that the village mass takes up this issue as their own in building up some strategies to
combat trafficking in a long run. Within a period of 3 yrs. this developmental process
will be yielding its fruits in terms of policy making. The rural voice will pressurise on
different levels of the state to frame some policies to combat the issue of trafficking. In
this regard we have planned the following strategies to address the issue with rural mass.

a.The positive factor with Odanadi is its relationship with the people and people’s           Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
organisations. The prominent NGOs, women’s organisations and youth federations are
familiar to Odanadi. The leading people’s movements like Karnataka Rajya Raitha
Sangha (KRRS) and Dalita Sangha Samiti are quite sympathetic towards Odanadi and
have been showing their solidarity in all our action oriented programmes against
trafficking. With the help of these rural based organisations, self help groups and NGOs.
We are planning to promote a face to face interaction with the rural mass and to collect
primary informations about their children who are going out of the villages with the
people for employment opportunities and lured by false promises. Since the issue of
trafficking is not been addressed properly, this aspect will be discussed in the meetings
quoting the examples of other villages, which are victimised. The cases which are
already documented will presented in front of the rural mass which give them a clear
picture of trafficking where the rural women and children are victimised. Efforts will be
made to prepare the concerned village leaders to be vigilant about the fact that “how,
where, when and with whom” their children are moving out of villages.

b.Training Programmes for the grass root groups:                                               Formatted
                                                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
As a matter of fact there are a lot of concerned groups, which are already working for the
rural development. But most of these groups are unaware of the issue of trafficking,
since it is hardly addressed with due importance in the grass root level. Therefore, a
training programme has to be conducted to educate and sophisticate the groups to combat
the trafficking networks. In this regard state, district and taluk level training programmes
will be conducted to make the volunteers fully convinced and enlightened about the
trafficking issue and the source areas. Teachers, anganawadi workers, police, revenue
inspectors, gram panchayat members, students etc. will be trained in this regard.

c. Awareness Programmes:                                                                       Formatted


  Awareness programmes play a vital role in enlightening in the rural mass about the
burning issue of trafficking. Different strategies and available resources will be adopted
to propagate the concept of anti-trafficking programme and to awake the people against
the traffickers. Wall paintings, discussions, posters, street plays, documentaries, rallies
etc. will be planned as a part of awareness programme. In every district a selected group
of youth and social activists will be selected and trained to take care of the above said
awareness programmes in each district. Regional, state, district and inter-state
consultations and conferences will be conducted from time to time with an objective to
deciminate the informations, to strengthen the network among the working partners and
to attract the government address the issue with new approach and policies Apart from
this, the rural youth and students will be encouraged to participate in the painting
campaign, essay and debate competitions, story writing etc. related to the issue. It is
difficult to address this issue to the village folk unless we tie this with the other
developmental problems of the village. A constructive response to their immediate and
long term programs will definitely gain their confidence and bring them towards our
main objective of fighting against trafficking.

Through launching different available government and non governmental programs,
some potential volunteers will be selected to sustain the programme in the village. Some
supportive programs, which meet the needs of the community, make them to participate
in the objectives. Programs like medical camps, legal aid programmes, other
empowerment and skill development programmes facilitate to reach the people with our
ideas.

c. Policy making process:

 The long run objective of our campaign is to come out with some new government
policies against the issue of trafficking. Every possible platforms, forums and occasions
will be efficiently utilised to raise this issue in the state and national level. As it is,
Odanadi has been using the print and electro media effectively against trafficking.
Whenever a trafficking network is exposed and the girl children are rescued, a massive
clear and crisp publicity campaign has been taken place. At the same time the issues are
raised and the houses of people’s representatives with importance. A few higher level
enquiries are also taken place through Odanadi’s initiatives. We are quite hopeful that in
a period of three years Odanadi can able to bring some changes in the government
policies through political lobbies pressurised by the people’s organisations like Karnataka
Rajya Raitha Sangha, Dalit Sangha Samithi and other prominent Women Federations. As
mentioned earlier more importance will be given to this aspect during all over important
occasions like conferences, seminars and consultations. It is also important to involve
rational thinkers, writers, students, religious heads, community leaders, media
personalities etc. to debate this issue sothat they work as pressure groups demanding
favourable policies to combat the issue of trafficking.

  Since Odanadi’s idea and ultimate goal is to inspire the people to take political steps to
combat trafficking. People’s representatives from all levels right from the village will be
involved to come out with the expected results.


 5. RESCUE OPERATIONS:

         So far, during the past 10 years, Odanadi has rescued as many as 400 girls, most
of whom are minors, through its continuous and well planned operations against the
brothels and traffickers who were established their networks in Karnataka, Tamilnadu,
Kerala and Andra Pradesh. It is unfortunate but important to tell you that the very
persons, who are supposed to protect our women and children, are guilty of selling the
minors, for the purpose of prostitution, and also using them for pornography. Shocking
instances of a head constable who was running a brothel, a lady teacher of reputed
institution who had sold two girls to an estate owner in Coorg, a physical instructor of a
renowned convent who have taken blue films of a minor and later sold her to prostitution,
a doctor who raped a minor girl in a brothel, and a cinema actress engaged in flesh trade
etc. are the heart breaking examples. Odanadi traced these people down. The police
were not able to believe when Odanadi had caught an old man red-handed, selling 2
minor girls for prostitution lured from a convent in Bangalore.

       Odanadi could not have achieved some of its goals without the involvement of
people especially the exploited women section, people’s organisations like Karnataka
Rajya Raitha Sangh, dalita Sangharsha Samithi, NGOs, medias, Women Federations and
Police. In every rescue operation, the above mentioned concerned groups joined Odanadi
and showed their solidarity. In the national, regional and state level, quite a few like
minded and concerned groups like ATSEC India, CACT Karnataka and other people
organisations have showed their timely moral support whenever the rescue operations
were conducted. Thanks to UNIFEM which has timely supported the residential
programme for 30 rescued girls as well as to conduct a few rescue operations in a year.
Though the rescue operations are found bit tough, Odanadi could able to manage these
operations because of several reasons. The most important factor remains with Odanadi
is that it works for the empowerment and rehabilitation of prostituted women who often
give a lot of information about the prevailing criminal networks of trafficking of
Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. In many cases it was possible only
with the active involvement of the prostituted women during every operation. Secondly,
Odanadi has been receiving a lot of information’s and complaints on the existing
trafficking networks. Informations through police, reformed traffickers, rikshaw drivers
were also collected and the trafficking networks were identified. Most of them are yet to
be identified. So far, Odanadi has unearthed as many as 13 trafficking networks out of
whom one was international, five interstate and rest are locally based.

 HURDLES IN RESCUE OPERATION:

        Active involvement in the development of the victim’s of prostitution is not only
difficult but also dangerous. Unless one has substantial field experience, build a strong
rapport with the sexually, exploited women, as well as the powers operating the
trafficking networks it is impossible to trace the networks. The trafficking and other
criminal networks are interconnected, vigilant and work from grass root to international
level. They operate in a wily and highly sophisticated manner. Hence in rescue
programmes, their lacunas have to be identified, and tackled them by concentrating on
our strengths. It is also important to do sincere groundwork on the basis of the given
information. Different strategies have to be planned according to the situation. The
police and the press should be well informed. Documenting the evidences, on paper,
audio-video etc. plays a vital role in deciding the fate of a rescue operation. A socially
committed, courageous, well-planned and disciplined group can become successful
rescuers. Constant interaction with the victims in a non-judgmental way at there owns
pace helps to cement a strong bond. It is essential to evoke in the victims a sense of
belonging and help them get over their feelings of helpless rage and re-discover the
precious feeling of trust. Putting together the pieces of brutalised lives needs and
immense amount of patience and loads of love and piles of money. Lack of
understanding the issue, lack of public awareness, stigma attached to the exploited
women and children, lack of emotional involvement of government and non-
governmental agencies etc. creates hell for the victims on the street. Though the victim is
ready, the society does not permit her to do so. It also happens that in many cases the
police have suspected and humiliated the rehabilitated victims, and in turn once again
pushed them back to flesh trade.

Continuous follow-up action, emotional and economical support, are the first steps to
rehabilitation. The police, NGOs and the government will have to put their heart and
soul into this task. We honestly say that though there is no proper financial plan for
rehabilitation, the emotional involvement of Odanadi is the only thing, which
rehabilitated as many as 400 women with alternative livelihood into the mainstream
society. The economical support was given by individuals with widespread public
awareness.
  In the first place, the exploited victim need a place to stay and the people who can
render emotional support. If it is done, the economical rehabilitation will not be a big
problem. Another 22 girls who have got married are also doing well. These marriages
were also possible because of our emotional involvement and the personal attachment
with the survivors.

Since 5 yrs. Odanadi is running a Home for the rescued children, especially for the minor
girls, 23 girls of whom are rescued from flesh trade. The rescued girls are also treated as
normal girls with extra care. There is a continuous health check-up and counseling
programme. Different programmes such as meditation, cultural programmes, recreation,
group works, training’s… more that these, treating them all equal are keeping the girls
happy.

 6. REHABILITATION:

  After a rescue operation, the minor girls need a healthy environment to stay (a trauma
care centre or a rescue home). She is at her choice to stay for any period of time till she
is fully recovered from the accident. Within that span of time, the people who are
involved in the developmental process have to evolve a scientific and realistic mode of
rehabilitation or to reintegrate with her family.

Rehabilitation involves many important factors.

1. Counseling:                                                                                Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


During the counseling sessions the girls showed no hesitation to share their eperiences,
physchological and health problems and their desires. There are a lot of emotional
problems, which will be discussed. It is our experience that the rescued girls endangered
and afraid; that the pimp could find them if they go back home; that they will be outcasts
in society; that they are too vulnerable without the support of a man; that they will be
shame to their families; that they ae alone because they do not know where to seek help;
that it will be hard to arrange their lives. In total they are afraid of their future.

a.Group counseling                                                                            Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
b.Individual counseling.



a. Group counseling programmes:                                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


  Since all the girls were mentally prepared and wanted an emotional outlet, they started
giving the preliminary informations about their pain and perils, about the persons who
trafficked them about various strategies of trafficking and how they landed up and lived
in the brothels. They reveal most of the facts competitively discussing each other. The
counselors just listen to the girls and direct them in the session. During the group
discussion the girls also reveal the utmost cruelty shown to them in the brothels.
b. Individual counseling programmes:                                                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


   Individual counseling was another important session where each girl will have privacy
and intimacy with the counselor and share their life stories, problems, needs and desires.
The counselor encourage each girl to step firm on the ground, to remember her
capabilities and recognize the strength which help her to think in a positive direction.
Many girls reveal that they had attempted to commit suicide in the brothels due to
intolerable tortures and sexual courses. It is common among all girls that their feelings
are mixed with anger, guilt, joy and helplessness. When a girl questioned, she answered
‘it is better to have no feelings, if she had been a totally abused’. Another girl had lost
her speech temporarily when her relatives showed a total rejection during the
reintegration program. Unfortunately the same girl was found HIV positive during the
medical counseling.

 The following are some of the important common feelings among the rescued girls:

Anger:

 toward herself because “she allowed all that to happen to her”;                              Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
 toward others, because they did not protect her;
 toward society;
 that her life had been broken.

Distress:

 of her own ability to judge people and events;                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
 of the people around her, even those who had not betrayed her.

Suspicion:

 About the facts occurred in her life                                                         Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
 Why did these facts occur to me?

Feeling disoriented:

 Memory problems.                                                                             Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
 Finding it hard to recognise the days and timings
 Inability to stay calm in one place.



Fear:

 to be alone,                                                                                 Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
 to be found and punished by her trafficker
  that people will find out that she had been a prostituted
  of her own anger
  of venereal diseases and HIV/AIDS
  of nightmares.

Feeling guilty:

  that she broke cultural and religious rules                                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
  that she made a mistake and had been “stupid”
  that she was not able to make money to support her family.
  that she is an immoral and her body and life are not clean.

Feeling cheated:

  by the people who put her in touch with these involved in trafficking.                          Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
  by the state for not supporting her and taking bribe (police) in the brothel areas
  by her family.

The counseling program gave the girls a new strength and hopes and washed most of
their complexities away from their lives. Due to this they began to express their
eagerness to reunite with their lost families.

2. Counseling for the parents:                                                                    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


Unless the families of the rescued girls are properly counseled, it is difficult to reintegrate
the girls. Many families had seriously put their efforts but could not succeed to trace
their daughters. In some cases missing complaints have also been lodged with the local
police. It is our experience that most of the rural parents heartily come forward to accept
their daughters if the real facts are revealed. Therefore, we had to convince the parents
with different stories such as torture in domestic slavery, mental sickness etc. These
stories gained the sympathy and affection of the parents made them to accept the girls
and handle them with care. This family counseling in their respective villages created a
positive atmosphere for the future life of the rescued girls and made the reintegration
process easier.


Persons are exposed to drugs, alcoholic products, gang rape, and higher number of sexual
courses obviously; they are forced to cultivate different behaviors. They may like to
sleep during the days or would like to have some good food. But the denial or rejection
may to their requests spoil the rehabilitation process.



4. Rehabilitation to a “Victim” not to a “Criminal”                                               Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
Though a developmental approach has been introduced to tackle the issue of prostitution,
still a major segment of the society considers the victims as criminals. If we treat
prostitution as a moral issue than a developmental issue, there will be dangers of treating
the victims as criminals. Therefore the counseling or rehabilitation process should be
free from any punitive actions against the victims of flesh trade. And the counselors,
organisations and other structures should have a modern and breeder perspectives.

5. Childhood with education:                                                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


In case of a child victim of trafficking, it is always advisable to bring the child back to
childhood, which can guarantee her/him a joyful learning, a home recreation, protection
and a healthy environment.

6. Economical Rehabilitation:                                                                    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


Economical rehabilitation by creating an alternative livelihood is an equal as other factors
of rehabilitation. But the economic support to the victim should be preplanned on the
basis of the victim’s desire. Any imposed training, financial support or forced marriages
leads to further problems and ultimately the whole rehabilitation becomes a failure.

7. “Marriage” as a mode of rehabilitation:                                                       Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


Limited to our social system, marriage can also be treated as a better way of rehabilitating
a girl who is above 18 years of age. Though it seems to be a risky and tough task, there
are possibilities to lead a normal life, if proper precautions are taken and a thorough
counseling is given to the groom.

8. A free and secure environment for living:                                                     Formatted: Bullets and Numbering


As a matter of fact the rescued girls from the brothel areas have lived a mechanical,
miserable life. The expectative situation in the red light areas and other brothels and the
forcefully captivity have transformed these victims into totally a different kind of
adulterated personalities. Fear, distress, anger, stubborness, inferiority, hatredness, guilty
feelings, suspiciousness etc. are some of the common feelings among the rescued girls.
To release them from these complexities it is require to leave them on their own for a
initial period of time. This strategy helps both the counselors and the victims to
understand each other. During this period the rescued girls will have a chance to
understand the other victims better. In Odanadi the existing residential school for the
children of prostituted women plays an important role to bringing the girls to a normal
stage. It was found that the rescued girls were happy in engaging themselves with the
small children, participating in day to day activities like cultural programmes and
vocatioal programes, cooking kitchen gardening etc. Secondly the victims will have
opportunities to mingle with Odanadi’s volunteers and sympathisers who are quite
sensitive in dealing with the rescued girls. During this period, the counselor gains the
confidence of the victims but no counseling programme takes place. All together this
process meet the victims to feel at home.
9. Recreation and Joyful:

As the rescued girls starts coming out of their complexities. Voluntarily they join the day
to day affairs of Odanadi. At Odanadi cultural programmes like street plays, folk dances,
mimicry, skits etc. are common to keep the girls happy. They also involves themselves in
the regular vocational trainings like wool weaving, tailoring plastic wire weaving, kitchen
gardening etc.

7. REINTEGRATION:

Reintegration program is really a difficult job. It includes a few important components:

a. The girl should be ready to go back with a new life.

b. The counseling given to the girl as well as to her family should match each other and
there should not be any room for distress, suspiciousness and confusions among the
family members of the girls.
c. The village folk should be given a positive picture about the girl. So that to accept her    Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
into the community.
d.The reintegration should not be forced but should be a choice of the girl.

Taking about all the factors into consideration, the Odanadi as a team works for the
successful to reintegrate the girls one by one to their families.

During the reintegration, it is not possible to take all the girls together. Each girl’s
whereabouts and the real stories will be kept confidential to make their reintegration a
success and to gain the family affection and acceptability. During the counseling
program the girls are encouraged to forget their past. The counseling for the parents and
the village folk defenitely plays a bigger role in a successful reintegration of the rescued
girls.

Most of the supply areas are villages and many times, reintegration becomes impossible,
because of the rigid customs, traditions and the prevailing laws of the villages. Though
the parents are ready to accept the girl, the villagers do not permit them to do so. So it is
very important to hide the whereabouts (name, parents, place, etc..) of the victim as much
as possible.

         As a prime factor in the rehabilitation part, counseling plays a bigger role in
reintegration. But here, counseling to the parents and the third parties (villagers, teachers
etc..) is mandatory the organization or the homes are required to give a positive opinions
about the victim so that a supportive atmosphere can be built up in the family and the
village as well. It is also an established factor that trafficking becomes easier when the
parents are not vigilant and not discharging their drawbacks and limitations.
        In case of a severe threat from the village mass, legal and social support should be
given to the girl and here family on time.


FOLLOW-UP ACTION:

        The story of a trafficked and rehabilitated girl does not end with reintegration. In
almost all cases the persons responsible for introducing or in other words selling the
victim, belongs to the family, clan or village. Hence it is of utmost importance to
reassure the victim that the institution or people who rescued her would always continue
to be a second home and a second family to her. All victims fear retaliation from their
captors, hence they look to their rescuers for protection. In the process of rescue and
rehabilitation most victims form an emotional bond with their surrogate family and start
experiencing feelings of trust. Therefore keeping in constant touch gives the victim a
sense of security and confidence to find her home and village.

				
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