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					                   Energy
•   Sun is a thermonuclear reactor
•   Sun’s energy is released in many forms
•   Energy is neither created nor destroyed
•   Heat is a more random form of energy
•   Producers capture energy and make food
•   Consumers eat the producers to get food
•   ATP is the energy molecule for both
         Dependence on Plants
•   Solar energy converters use light energy
•   Plants make carbohydrates for themselves
•   Plants use some carbohydrate as food
•   Autotroph is a self-feeder
•   Heterotrophs rely on plants
•   Animals are heterotrophs
•   Plants are producers
•   Animals are consumers
              Photosynthesis
•   Chloroplasts located in leaf cells mostly
•   Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll
•   Chlorophyll uses light energy from sunlight
•   Plants need carbon dioxide and water too
•   Daylight waste product is oxygen molecule
•   Light reaction forms ATP and splits water
•   Dark reaction uses ATP to make glucose
     Sunlight and Plant Pigments
•   Sunlight is a form of radiation energy
•   Light is composed of different wavelengths
•   Chlorophyll reflects unabsorbed green
•   Carotenoids reflect unabsorbed yellow
•   Anthocyanin reflects red or purple
•   Other fall colors are mixtures
          Cellular Respiration
•   Plants respire at night or in the dark
•   Mitochondrion is the organelle involved
•   ATP is used and produced
•   Carbon dioxide is a waste product
•   Glucose is major food molecule
•   Oxygen is needed to produce most ATP
•   40% = work energy; 60% = heat (entropy)
Calories and the Cycle of Energy
•   Energy unit in carbohydrates, fats, proteins
•   ATP is changed to ADP+P
•   ADP+P is changed to ATP
•   Glucose is an important starting molecule
•   Kcal is the dietary unit we call a calorie
•   2000 Calories/day = 2,000,000 calories/day
•   ATP to ADP+P releases heat (entropy)
         Respiration in Animals
•   Ventilation = inhale and exhale
•   external = lung/blood gas exchange
•   internal = blood/ECF gas exchange
•   cellular = ECF/cell gas exchange
    – Glycolysis in cytoplasm
    – Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
    – Electron Transport System (ETS)
       • Oxygen is used here
       • Most ATP is produced here
         Anaerobic Respiration
•   If oxygen is not supplied, ATP decreases
•   Pyruvic acid changed to lactic acid
•   Lactic acid builds up and pH falls
•   Muscles become fatigued, sore, burning
•   Lactic acid = oxygen debt (must repay)
•   Lactic acid changed back to pyruvic acid
•   Pyruvic acid can now enter mitochondrion
     Fermentation in Microbes
• Yeast
  – Ethyl alcohol is waste product
  – Carbon dioxide is waste product
  – We get alcoholic beverages and breads
• Fungi and bacteria
  – Lactic acid is waste product
  – We get cheeses and yogurt from milk

				
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posted:9/6/2012
language:English
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