Improving the workplace by dfhdhdhdhjr


									          Coventry University Business
           Improvement Tools (CUBIT)
•   Aim of course:
•   To enable delegates to:
•   Identify opportunities for business improvement
•   Evaluate the ‘size’ of the issue
•   Identify causes and make recommendations for improvements
•   Quantify improvement
•   Design an implementation plan
•   Recommend sustainability measures
•   And finally
     – Develop a problem solving tool kit
• Donna Kendall, Director of HR
• Mark Holton, Head of Organisation
  Development and Learning
  – 2012 strategy
  – Customer satisfaction
  – Business viability
                     Coventry University
                 (Corporate Plan 2010-2015)

– Teaching and Learning
   • Sample Measures to be used
       –   Feedback questionnaires/NSS
       –   Qualification completion rate
       –   Positive destination measured by DHLE survey
       –   Staff to student ratio
– Applied Research
   • Sample Measures to be used
       –   Research income
       –   Proportion of academic staff that are research active
       –   Academic staff time spent on research
       –   Level in the next research assessment
          Coventry University
      (Corporate Plan 2010-2015)
– The Global University
   • Sample Measures to be used
       – Income from course delivery overseas
       – Overseas students offered work placements
       – Receive international experience in the programme of study
– Being a Sustainable University
   • Sample Measures to be used
       –   Income growth
       –   Achieving student number targets
       –   % Applied research income
       –   Income from non HEFCE sources
       –   Increase in staff performance levels
                  Coventry University
              (Corporate Plan 2010-2015)
• Coventry University (Corporate Plan 2010-2015)
   – Being a Sustainable University (Continuation)
      • Sample Measures to be used
          –   Reduction in carbon footprint
          –   Recycling/reuse rate
          –   Improvement in space utilisation
          –   Reduction in formal complaints
          –   Increase number of actively engaged alumini
                  Group Discussion

• Good and Weak Characteristics of a University
   – Student view
   – Business view
   – Staff view
                            Industry Definitions
Value Added :
Any process that changes the
nature, shape or characteristics of the
product, in line with customer requirements
e.g. pressing, welding,
assembly. (Maximise)                          Waste :
                                              All other meaningless, non
                                              essential activities.
                                              i.e. 7W Categories
Non Value Added :
Any work carried out, which is necessary
under current conditions, but does not
increase product value.
e.g. inspection, part movement
tool changing, maintenance (Minimise)

 Can you define University Value Add?
Can We Define value Added for CU
• Value Adding
   – Imparting Knowledge (academic qualifications / CPD)
   – Applying Knowledge (Applied Research)
   – Developing new Knowledge (Pure Research)
   – Positive student service experience
• Essential Non Value Adding
   – Facilitating systems /departments
• Waste
   – ?
      Airport Experience – check in

• What is value added
• In the old style system
   – How long did it take to get to the departure lounge?
   – How much time VA
   – What improvements have been done
   – Where is the waste still
               Work Streams
• Most activities form part of a work stream

• Benefits to be gained by looking at
  – The activity
  – Interactions
  – Total work stream (big picture)
        How much waste is in a finely
             tuned system?

Womack & Jones – Lean Thinking
Value Stream of a can of Cola

                    Womack & Jones – Lean Thinking
                 Toyota Waste
The Toyota Motor Company is credited as being the most efficient
Automotive Manufacturer in the world, yet have 85% waste in their
This clearly demonstrates the opportunities for other Automotive
 Objective: To remove waste and create more time to develop
 ‘High Value’ Value Add activity

                 OPERATOR TIME
     Waste                            NVA                     VA
         Eliminate                               Reduce
Time to Develop ‘High Value ‘ Value Add activity     NVA      VA
    Value Added in your work place

•   Define value added in your work place
•   Take this morning as an example 9:00am – 12:00pm, 3 hours
•   Estimate VA time, NVA time
•   why so much waste?
 Improving the University workplace

When looking to improve the workplace and reduce waste, we need to

•What it is we want to improve?
•Which category of waste we are removing?
•How we are going to measure it?
•And how are we going to improve it?
•We will be using the A3 reporting methodology
•Speak with data
 Improving the University workplace

When looking to improve the workplace and reduce waste, we need to
know cont:-

•Assess the benefits

    If we save 15 minutes per day over a year (42 weeks)
    We release 52.5 hours per year
    or 1.5 weeks for one person

    If we have an office with 3 people we can save over a months work
               A3 problem solving sheet

Jimmerson, 2007,A3 problem Solving
                                                                                                   A3 Sample: Recruitment Process
                                    Background and Importance                                                                                                                                                                                          Target Condition
                                    Departments complaining having to wait                                                                                          Create                                                                Distribute                                     HR confirm                HR confirm
                                                                                                                                     Completion of                                                               Respond to                                     Shortlist in HR/                                                                                            Send approval                   Prepare &
                                          long to have staff employed                                                                  AP form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Business area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HR & Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         details with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        business area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HR & Business
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Interview          Make offer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                form                       send contract

                                                                                                                                                                                        HR/Barkers                   HR                      HR                                                                                     HR & Business
                                                                                                                                         Business Area                 HR                                                                                            area                       area                      HR                                 HR                     HR                               HR

                                                                                                                                                                    TT: 15 min          TT: 0.5 day                                       TT: 60 min                                                                   TT: 30 min     TT:1 day           TT: 60 min            TT: 10 min                      TT: 60 min

                                                    KPI: Lead-time                                                                   Informal Start
                                                                                                                                      up talk with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Short listing
                                                                                                                                          HR                                                                                                                     Candidates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  completed                                                                      HR
                                                                                                                                     Business Area/HR                                                            applications                                    expenses,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HR                                           expenses                    Prepare
                                                                                                                                                                   Inform HR/

                                                 Current State
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HR                     induction
                                                                                                                                             Sort                 Business area                                   TT: 60 min                                                                   packs
                                                                                                                                          publication                                                                                                              TT: 0.5 day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Business area
                                                                                                                                                                  VC and Finance
                                                                                                                                         dates, costs,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TT: 60 min
                                                                                                                                         Business Area
   Business Area

                    Prepare AP                                                                                                           Setup
                                                                                                                                     authority chair
                                                                                                                                                                  Approval of AP
                                                                                                                                         Business Area
                                                                                                                                                                  VC and Finance
                   Business Area/HR
                                                                                                                                         Set interview
                                                                                                                                                                     TT: 30 min                                                                                                                                                                                    6 days                3.5 days
                       TT: 3 hrs                                                                                                         date, venue
                                                                                                                                          and advert
                                                                                                                                         Business Area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  96 days                44 days
                                                                                         Enter vacancy
                                                                                         into database
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              54% Reduction!

                                                                                                 HR                                       questions
                                                                                                                                         Business Area

                                                                                            TT: 2 min
                                                                                                                                    Agree on short
                                                                                                                                     listing date
                                                                                                                                                                  Improve AP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Develop key                                                                                                                    Pull references,
                                                                                                                                         Business Area                                                                                                              schedule                                                                                                                      signed contract
                                                   Approval               Approval                                                                                                   Job des, advert                                                                 triggers                                                                                                                           form

                                                                                                                                           TT: 1day

                                                     Finance                 VC                                                                          2 days                                        10 days                 11 days                  1 day                      2 days                   7.5 days                                2 days                 2 days                     3 days
                                                                                                                                             1 day                    45 min                0.5 day                60 min                   60 min                   0.5 day                     60 min                    30 min          1 day                  60 min                 10 min                      60 min

                                                   TT: 15 min             TT: 15 min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   44 days

  10 days                             5 days                     5 days                2 days                                     Phone                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.5 days

                      3 hrs                        15 min                   15 min                    2 min                       Email


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Implementation Plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            S/No                                   Action                                                                When                                 Who by
                                                                                                                                                            Pre-emp                          AP form
                       Vacancy                                                                                                Coordination
                                                                                                                                                            checks                           Approval Scanner
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1                      Approval of AP in the absence of                                                    DD-MM-YY                               A
                        advert                                                              Start work                          System
                       approved                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    VC/PVC. Is it possible to designate
                                                                                                                                                                                   New AP
                          HR                                                                    Candidate
                                                                                                                                                                                    form      Use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   someone to sign the AP form(s)
                                                                                                                                                                                            templates                                                                              during their absence?

                       TT: 30 min                                                                  TT:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Also put a system in place that allows
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Answering                                                   the PA to inform Finance that
                                               Place advert                                                                                                                                                            Machines                                                    VC/PVC unavailable so AP goes to
                                                  Barkers                                                                                                                                                                                                                          delegated person.
                                                 TT: 4 hrs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            n                      VC/PVC/Support to use email to send                                                 DD-MM-YY                               B
2 days                              15 min                      5 days                           6 days                                                           Ease of Implementation
                    30 min                       4 hrs                                          96 days                                                                                                                                                                            approved AP to originator & HR

                                                                             Cause Analysis
                                                               Why are people away from their desk?
                                                      They have to take recruitment CVs to various departments                                                                                                                                                  Average Lead-Time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Follow Up
                                                               Why do they have to take it physically?
                                                                      They are required urgently
                                                                   Why are they required urgently?
                               Because all CVs are batched and taken together and therefore recipients have little time to process them
                                                     Why cant they be forwarded as they come into the system?
                                                    High consumption of resources if taken one at a time or posted
                                                                Why cant they be sent electronically?
                                                              CVs are not available in electronic format
                                                       Why are they not or made available in electronic format?
                                                                              No Scanner
        Review A3 case studies
• Please review the A3 case study for your
  group and prepare a 2 minute explanation for
  the class
Problem Solving Tools for Session 1
• 7 Waste Analysis
• Gap Analysis
         Coventry University Business
        Improvement Training (CUBIT)

Whenever the way work happens is not ideal, or when a goal or objective is
not being met, you have a problem (or, if you prefer, a need). The best
problems to work on are those that arise in day-to-day work and prevent
you from doing your best.

•What it is we want to improve?
•Which category of waste we are removing?
•How we are going to measure it?
•And how are we going to improve it?
                Areas of Waste

It is important that we identify the different types of business
waste that happen around use and the problems that they

These wastes are not just found in manufacturing but all around
in every environment were work/ tasks are being performed.
                7 Workplace wastes
•1. Delay on the part of customers waiting for service, for delivery, in
queues, for response, not arriving as promised. The customer’s time may
seem free to the provider, but when she takes custom elsewhere the pain

•2. Duplication. Having to re-enter data, repeat details on forms, copy
information across, answer queries from several sources within the same

•3. Unnecessary Movement. Queuing several times, lack of one-stop, poor
ergonomics in the service encounter.4.

                                                    Bicheno and Holweg (2009)
                 7 Workplace wastes
•4. Unclear communication, and the wastes of seeking clarification,
confusion over product or service use, wasting time finding a location that
may result in misuse or duplication.

•5. Incorrect inventory. Being out-of-stock, unable to get exactly what was
required, substitute products or services.

•6. An opportunity lost to retain or win customers, a failure to establish
rapport, ignoring customers, unfriendliness, and rudeness.

•7. Errors in the service transaction, product defects in the product-service
bundle, lost or damaged goods.

                                                      Bicheno and Holweg (2009)
University Workplace wastes their
measures and improvement tools

The 7 areas of waste which appear in some form or other in our daily
activities and can be remembered using S.W.I.M.T.O.O
  University Workplace improvement
 activities and the associated measures
• remarking students work (second attempt, late submission)
•Re entering lost data onto the system
•Imputing from paper forms onto electronic format
•Chasing payments after due dates
•Etc, etc

            Measured in terms as Not Right First Time (NRFT)
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures


 •Replies from another department or feedback from lecturer(s)
 •Assignments to be released from registry
 •Payment from customers
 •Etc, etc

             Measured in terms of Delivery Schedule Achievement
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

  Raw material, Work in progress & finished goods

  •Excess stationary
  •Excess photocopies
  •First year to third year students
  •Etc, etc

            Measured in terms of Stock turns
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

    Motion (people)
    •Travelling between different sites
    •Walking to a printer at the other end of the office
    •Etc, etc

          Measured in terms of People productivity
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

    Transportation (goods)
    •Photocopies from central to departments
    •Paper forms from one department to another
    •Student assessments into registry, then to lecturer and back
    to registry then returned to students
    •Etc, etc

          Measured in terms of People productivity
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

    Over processing
    •Doing more than the customer needs
    •Etc, etc

         Measured in terms of People productivity
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

    Over producing
    •Making more photo copies than needed
    •Filling out duplicated forms
    •Ordering more stationary than is needed
    •Etc, etc

          Measured in terms of stock turns, NRFT, People productivity,
          delivery schedule achievement
 University Workplace improvement
activities and the associated measures

 10 minute Activity
 Using the cards provided in your groups
 Identify the different types of waste.

             Measured in terms of stock turns, NRFT, People productivity,
             delivery schedule achievement
                         Waste Review
Slide   Waste type               Why?
   1    O Prod, O Proc, S
   2    S or Inv
   3    W or O Proc
   4    M
   5    O Prod, O Proc, S, Inv
   6    O Prod, Inv, S
   7    Skills utilisation
   8    W, O proc
   9    S
  10    Inv
  11    Tran
  12    S
                   Next Session Activity
                            Waste             Observation   Counter measure

                            Scrap / Rework
•   For the next session,
•   Using the 7 waste
    sheet identify the
    wastes that are         Inventory
    apparent in an area
    of your choice at       Motion

                            Over Production

                            Over Processing
Next Session Activity: Gap Analysis
    MASS                           WORK ORGANISATION                                         LEAN

     Work is carried out ‘as and when’,    1   2   3   4   N/A   Work is always conducted
     with no apparent sense of direction                         following a pre thought-out ‘mini
                                                                 plan’, which may have been
                                                                 created in the morning or the
                                                                 previous day.
     Numerous jobs are overloaded          1   2   3   4   N/A   Work is appropriately delegated to
     onto individuals, on top of their                           those who are capable and trained
     existing work loads                                         to do so
     Work is often interrupted and may     1   2   3   4   N/A   Work is always completed to the
     be left incomplete if other work                            end before other work is carried
     takes precedence                                            out
     Allocated work, is expected to        1   2   3   4   N/A   ‘Own work time’ is allotted to each
     continue and meet deadlines whilst                          person where they are at their most
     juggling other                                              ‘productive’ and can work without
     demands/interruptions throughout                            the fear of distractions or
     the day                                                     interruptions
     Current work is often succeeded       1   2   3   4   N/A   Work which is the ‘most
     by more ‘urgent’ work                                       important’ is always conducted
                                                                 rather than being pushed aside for
                                                                 work labelled ‘most urgent’
     Employees continue about their        1   2   3   4   N/A   All employees have established
     job without knowing of their                                goals and objectives which relate
     companies goals and objectives                              to the Company’s goals and
     and how what they do fits in to                             objectives.
     Procedures for the same task can      1   2   3   4   N/A   Procedures are standardised to
     vary from employee to employee                              reduce variability, ensure that it is
     which can potentially lead to areas                         the least expensive, fastest and
     of waste                                                    easiest way to perform the task
     Work peaks and troughs are            1   2   3   4   N/A   Work is levelled off to create a
     continued with as and when an                               steady work flow which is of
     employee receives them                                      superior quality and produces less
                                                                 stress for the employee
                           Gap Analysis
MASS                         EMPLOYEE ORGANISATION                                      LEAN

The work environment is                   1   2   3   4   N/A   The work environment is clean, safe
disorganised and cluttered, with piles                          and orderly.
of material etc ‘littering’ the area

Desks have no apparent sense of           1   2   3   4   N/A   Desks are arranged with trays or
organisation, with material that is not                         other means detailing ‘work-
relevant to the current work                                    in’/‘work-out’/’current work’ areas.
Paperwork is handled in a ‘cyclical’      1   2   3   4   N/A   All paperwork is dealt with upon
motion where it can be handled                                  initial contact
multiple times
Emails and other forms of                 1   2   3   4   N/A   Emails and other means of
communication are checked as when                               communication are checked on a
they are received                                               regular basis i.e. hourly, to avoid
                                                                constant interruption
Phone calls are made as when needed       1   2   3   4   N/A   Phone calls are batched and then
or requested                                                    made when there is enough time to
                                                                make all the calls in ‘one go’.
Tasks that have been allocated are        1   2   3   4   N/A   All allocated tasks are noted on a ‘to-
remembered mentally                                             do list’ which will help prevent them
                                                                from being forgotten
Jobs are carried out as and when they     1   2   3   4   N/A   All jobs are prioritised, before they
are requested                                                   are undertaken, namely jobs ‘a’ will
                                                                be done followed by ‘b’ and ‘c’ and
                                                                so on.
Outdated documents, emails, files         1   2   3   4   N/A   Employees regularly remove
and other materials are found to                                outdated material/unnecessary
persist long after they have no use                             items/emails/documents within the
                                                                office at regular intervals to ensure
                                                                waste does not build up
                        Gap Analysis
MASS                             VISUAL CONTROLS                              LEAN

Visual Controls are not used or are    1   2   3   4   N/A   Visual Controls are used and can be
not apparent                                                 easily understood
Storage facilities have no             1   2   3   4   N/A   All storage facilities are
appropriate ordering system, or                              appropriately labelled and
labels to identify the                                       documentation is stored either
documentation/material contained                             alphabetically, chronologically etc,
within them. To retrieve                                     to create ease in finding and
documentation subsequently takes                             retrieving documentation/material.
Files, stationary boxes etc can be     1   2   3   4   N/A   All files and stationary boxes are
moved, without individuals realising                         marked with visual controls, namely
they are missing.                                            diagonal lines to easily denote to an
                                                             individual that certain files etc have
                                                             been moved.
Visitors queries are answered as       1   2   3   4   N/A   Visitors are able to get accurate and
when they pose questions/queries                             timely information by the visual
                                                             controls as and when they are used
Waste is visually evident in the       1   2   3   4   N/A   The office is ‘transparent’ where
office, upon desks, in cabinets and                          waste cannot be hidden without
storage facilities etc                                       immediately attracting attention

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