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					PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
     & EVALUATION
APPRAISAL POPULARITY

 Large Organizations: 95%
 Small Organizations: 84%
 All Private Organizations: 89%
 City Governments: 76%
 State Governments: 100%
TQM VIEW OF APPRAISAL

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    –
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RESPONSE TO DEMING

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KEYS TO BETTER APPRAISAL

 Increase objectivity
 Improve appraisal interview session
 Emphasize Performance Management
OBJECTIVITY

Recommendation 1:            Reality:
 Appraisals should be       
  objective, rational, and       –
  accurate                       –
                                 –
Scale Orientations

 Traits
 Behaviors
 Results
SCALE FORMAT

   Comparative (Comparison among workers)
    –   Forced Distribution
    –   Rank
    –   Paired Comparison
   Comparison among anchors
    –   Forced Choice
   Graphic Rating Scales (Compare to anchors)
    –   BARS
    –   BOS (summated scale)
   MBO
Common Rater Errors

   Negative and positive skew (LENIENCY/severity)
   Halo/Horn
   Central Tendency (Dilbert)
   Attribution error
   Stereotyping (representativeness)
   First Impression (anchoring)
   Recency (Dilbert)
   Contrast Effect
   Similar/dissimilar to me Effect
    REDUCING RATER ERRORS

 Memory aids
 Frame of reference training (rater training)
 Rater accountability
 Increased frequency
OBJECTIVITY

Recommendation:              Reality:
                              Subjectivity and
 Appraisals should be
                               inaccuracy often
  objective, rational, and     dominates the appraisal
  accurate                     process
                                – Subjective methods
                                – Manager’s unconscious
                                  bias/rater errors
                                – Deliberate manipulation
                                    » Why?
                                    » Impact?
                                    » Overcoming this
KEYS TO BETTER APPRAISAL

 Increase objectivity
 Improve appraisal interview session
 Emphasize Performance Management
     IMPROVING APPRAISAL:
       APPRAISAL SESSION

   Put Employee at Ease
   Participation
    –   Appeal
    –   Self-evaluation
   Performance Focus
   Sensitivity
    –   Tone
    –   Positive Feedback
   Examples
   Performance plans
KEYS TO BETTER APPRAISAL

 Increase objectivity
 Improve appraisal interview session
 Emphasize Performance Management
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

             Goal
            Setting


Formal
Feedback              Coaching
Session               And feedback



           Rate and
           Evaluate
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT
         & MBO

1.   Clarify goals/expectations
     –   jointly determined
     –   cascading
2. Periodic review and feedback
     –   based on input from multiple sources
     –   360 degree feedback
3. Coaching based on developmental sessions
4. Performance-based rewards
     IMPLEMENTING MBO

 Formulate overall objectives
 Allocate among departments
 Specific objectives for department members
 Implement action plans
 Review progress and provide feedback
 Provide performance-based rewards
    ADVANTAGES OF MBO

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posted:9/6/2012
language:English
pages:18