Industrial and Postindustrial Societies - Oshkosh Area School District by hcj

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									Industrial and Postindustrial
Societies
   Chapter 5, Section 4
Industrial Societies

    Industrial Revolution
      Created a society that is dependent on
       science and technology to produce its basic
       goods and services
      Called an Industrial Society
Transitioning from an Agricultural
Society to an Industrial Society
  Vietnam and Malaysia currently transitioning
  From simple tools (plows, hammers) to
   complex technological devices (computers,
   steam engines)
  Machines replace intensive animal and human
   labor = mechanization
        But people create and operate the machines
    Surplus!
        Expecially a surplus of farm goods, so people move
         to cities = urbanization
Transitioning contd.
    Work moves from homes to factories
        Effects?
    Education moves from homes to schools
        Effects?
        Need an educated work force
    Women enter the work force
        Effects?
  Personal choice and love replace arranged
   marriages
  Social class now based on occupations, not
   parents’ social class
Ferdinand Tonnies

  German sociologist in late 1800s
  Gemeinschaft = “community”
      A society based on tradition, family, and
       intimate social relationships
      Preindustrial

    Gesellschaft = “society”
        An industrial society with its weak family
         ties, competition, and less personal social
         relationships
Emile Durkheim

  French sociologist in late 1800s
  Social solidarity = the degree to which a
   society is unified or can hold itself
   together in the face of obstacles
        Based on division of labor
Durkheim contd.

    Mechanical solidarity = a type of social
     unity achieved by people doing the same
     type of work and holding similar values
      Simple division of labor
      Consensus of beliefs, norms, values
      Pressure to conform
      Depend on tradition and family
      Places group above individual
      Best in small, nonliterate societies
Durkheim contd.

    Organic solidarity = a type of social unity
     in which members depend on each other
     because people serve specialized
     functions and statuses
      Parts of society must work together to
       survive
      Common in modern industrial societies
Postindustrial Societies

    A society where the economic emphasis is on
     providing services and information rather than
     on producing goods through manufacturing
        A service economy
        Ex: U.S.
    Progression from Industrial to Postindustrial
     usually brings a higher standard of living and
     quality of life
        Through higher earnings
Characteristics of a Postindustrial
Society
     Majority of the labor force are employed in the
      service industry rather than agriculture or
      manufacturing
         Services include banking, medical care,
          entertainment, food service
         In 2004, 75% of all employed workers in the US
          were in service jobs
     White-collar employment replaced much blue-
      collar work
         Happened in 1956 in US and gap is still increasing
Characteristics contd.
    Technical knowledge is the key organizing feature in
     Postindustrial Societies
        Need knowledge for innovations and for making
          govt policy
        So more emphasis should be put on schools

    Technological change is planned and assessed before
     it is introduced into society
        Ex: Car engine and its effect on the environment

    Reliance on computers in all areas
        Education, govt, food, etc.
Transitioning from Industrial to
Postindustrial
     May bring increased social instability
     In the US, starting in the 1960s:
         Crime increased
         Importance of family decreased
         Marriages and births decreased
         Divorce increased
         Increased # of children born out of wedlock
         Trust and confidence in institutions decreased
     The 1990s brought more stability and new
      norms
         Difficult and uncomfortable to live without norms

								
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