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					                        U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
            OFFICE OF CIVILIAN RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT



                 PRESENTATION TO
    THE NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD



SUBJECT: 	 ANCIENT MATERIALS:
           ANALOGUES FOR
           REPOSITORY MATERIALS
PRESENTER: 	          DR. A. B. JOHNSON

PRESENTER'S TITLE
AND ORGANIZATION: 	   SENIOR STAFF SCIENTIST
                      PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORY
                      RICHLAND, WASHINGTON

PRESENTER'S
TELEPHONE NUMBER:     (509) 376-3761
                                 RENO, NEVADA 

                                APRIL 16-17, 1991 

CLASSES OF ANCIENT MATERIALS: 

   REPOSITORY APPLICATIONS 



MATERIAL    POTENTIAL APPLICATION

METALS        WASTE CONTAINERS

CONCRETES     SHAFT CLOSURE

GLASSES       VITRIFIED WASTE




                                ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16, ! 7-91
REPOSITORY MATERIALS QUALIFICATION 



                             TIME(YEARS)
       0           300 	                      1000



           I                                            II
     MODERN             "    .                 ANCIENT
 MATERIALS ~                                   _
                                              MATERIAL.~S
-	   CONTROLLED~                              -      ESTIMATED
     EXPERIMENTS    ~                                ENVIRONMENTS

-LIMITED       ~                  .           -RELEVANT
   TIME FRAMES               ~.                 TIME FRAMES


                                   III
                            THEORY/MODELING

                                                  ANCONTMP 125.NWTRB/4-16,17-91
CLASSES OF ANCIENT METALS 




 • ARCHAEOLOGICAL METALS

 • METAL METEORITES

 • NATIVE METALS




                           ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16,17-91
ASSESSMENT OF CONTAINER MATERIALS 

         PERFORMANCE 



THERMODYNAMIC -BASIS:
    DEMONSTRATE PERPETUAL COMPATIBILITY OF METAL WITH
    REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENT
    EXAMPLE: SWEDISH CONCEPT- COPPER IN LOW-OXYGEN/
    LOW-SULFUR GROUNDWATER (SHIELDED FROM RADIOLYSIS)

KINETIC BASIS:
    MEASURE CORROSION RATES OF CANDIDATE MATERIALS
    OVER A PERIOD THAT PERMITS EXTRAPOLATION
 • 	 EXAMPLE: ALLOY 304L (REFERENCE CONTAINER MATERIAL):
     GENERAL CORROSION STUDY IN YUCCA MOUNTAIN
     REPOSITORY CONDITIONS, EXTRAPOLATED TO 1,000 YRS

                                            ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16,17-91
ASSESSMENT OF CONTAINER MATERIALS 

          PERFORMANCE 

                        (CONTINUED)




NATURAL ANALOGUE BASIS:
   STUDY THE BEHAVIOR OF A CANDIDATE MATERIAL IN A
   RELEVANT ENVIRONMENT
   EXAMPLE: MICHIGAN NATIVE COPPER DEPOSITS IN BASALT
   AND GROUNDWATER (> 500,000,000 YR RESIDENCE OVER A 

   RANGE OF THERMAL CONDITIONS RELEVANT TO A REPOSITORY)

LESSONS FROM METAL DURABILITY:
 • 	 EVALUATE FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO METAL 

     DURABILITY 





                                            ANCONTMP. 125.NWTR B/4-16,17-91
SUMMARY OF ANALOGUES CONSIDERED 

      FOR HLW CONTAINERS 



 NATIVE METALS, SUCH AS Cu AND Fe, CAN EXIST FOR VERY
 LONG PERIODS OF TIME IN A REDUCING ENVIRONMENT

 IN AN OXIDIZING ENVIRONMENT, SUCH AS YUCCA MOUNTAIN,
 THESE METALS ARE MORE DURABLE UNDER DRY,CONDITIONS

 CERAMIC MATERIALS, SUCH AS ALUMINA AND TITANIA, AND
 MINERALS MAKING UP SYNROC B SHOULD SURVIVE UNDER
 A VARIETY OF GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

 THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT IS CURRENTLY STUDYING
 COPPER, COPPER ALLOYS, AND AUSTENITIC ALLOYS IN
 OXIDIZING ENVIRONMENTS



                                            ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16,17-91
INDEXING METAL AGES/WEATHERING


• ARCHAEOLOGICAL METALS
    -	 RADIODATING (e.g., 14C)
    -	 ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT (e.g., TOMBS)

•   METAL METEORITES
    -	 RADIODATING (e.g., =~CI)
    -	 ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT (e.g., HUMAN USE, 

       CRATER DATING) 

    -	 FUSION CRUST/ALPHA-2 METAL/REGMAGLYPTS

•   NATIVE METALS
    -	   HUMAN   USE

    - G E O L O G I C A L CONTEXT (e.g., GLACIALLY-TRANSPORTED
       COPPER)

                                                   ANCONTMP. 125.NWTR B/4-16.17-91
FACTORS IN METAL ENDURANCE 



  e D U R A B L E COATINGS
      - FUSION C R U S T - M E T E O R I T E S
      - CHINESE BRONZE COATING


  •       GETTERING
      - ROMAN NAIL HORDES


  e L O W - O X Y G E N CONDITIONS
      - IRON C A N N O N B A L L S IN S E A S E D I M E N T S


  e CONTACT WITH SOILS
      - METAL METEORITES
      - COPPER/BRONZE
      - IRON S W O R D S
                                                          (

                                                       A NCO NTMP. 125. NWTR B/4-16,17-91
IRON AND IRON-BASED METAL DURABILITY 




 O	   GENERALLY LOWER DURABILITY THAN
      COPPER-BASED MATERIALS

 e 	 EXAMPLES OF DURABLE IRON-BASED MATERIALS
                    c_

      -	 CANNON BALLS BURIED IN SEA SEDIMENTS (TENDS 

         TO DEPLETE OXYGEN) 

      -	 TUTANKHAMEN TOMB (PERIODICALLY MOIST)
         * 	 FREE STANDING MINIATURE TOOLS.
         * 	 IRON DAGGER WRAPPED WITH MUMMY
      - SELECTED METEORITES OR FRAGMENTS OF METEORITES




                                                 ANCONTMP.125.NWTR B/4-16,17-91
ANCIENT CEMENT- BASED BUILDING 

          MATERIALS*


                  • MATERIALS

                      --PLASTERS
                      - MORTARS
                      - CONCRETES



                  • AGES

                      -   1400-3000 YEARS




C.A. LANGTON AND DELLA M. ROY (1984) 


                                            ANCONTMP.125.NWTFIB/4-16,17-91
    ANCIENT CEMENT- BASED BUILDING
              MATERIALS*
                                       (CONTINUED)



•   CONDITION
      IN GENERAL, WELL CEMENTED, BUT SOME CONCRETES
      WERE FRIABLE DUE TO WEAK POROUS CEMENTS (PRESUMED
      DUE TO HIGH WATER/CEMENT RATIO)

O CONTROL OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES
    - ACCOMPLISHED BY CAREFUL SELECTION OF PROPORTIONING
      AND PROCESSING; CLEAN, WELL-GRADED, INERT AGGREGATES
      RESULTED IN DURABLE PRODUCTS

•   DURABILITY
    - SOME STRUCTURES STILL FUNCTIONAL (e.g., CISTERNS IN
      GREECE AND CYPRUS)

    C.A. LANGTON AND DELLA M. ROY (1984)
                                                     ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16.17-91
POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF ANCIENT 

          MATERIAL DATA 



• PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF DURABILITY

• LESSONS LEARNED IN MATERIAL DURABILITY

• GENERAL RANKING OF DURABLE MATERIALS

e SELECTED PROCESS AND PERFORMANCE ISSUES
  OF EBS COMPONENTS

-O   SELECTED VALIDATION OF COMPUTATIONAL 

     MODELS 




                                      ANCONTMP.125.NWTRB/4-16,17-91
    LIMITATIONS ,IN APPLICATIONS OF 

          ANCIENT MATERIALS 



• THERMAL CONDITIONS NOT GENERALLY ADDRESSED

e RADIATION EFFECTS NOT ADDRESSED

e ENVIRONMENTS OFTEN NOT WELL DEFINED




                                    ANCO NTMP, 125. NWTRI3/4- t 6, t 7-9 t

				
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