Electromagnetic Pulse - PRACTICAL PROTECTION

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					    Electromagnetic Pulse - PRACTICAL PROTECTION
An atomic bomb exploded high over the center of the North American continent would
damage delicate, unprotected electronic devices from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the
middle of Canada to the middle of Mexico. Iran is planning just such an attack. The
word May 27, 2005 is that Iran is now equipped for an atomic weapon, news that
reportedly stunned President Bush. The "possibility" has now turned into a "probability,"
not if, but when we get hit with a terrorist EMP bomb. It is for that reason that major US
ports have, or soon will have, radiation detection equipment for scanning all inbound
ships.

     Nuke Over U. S. Could Unleash Electromagnetic (EMP) Tsunami

    Military Source Warns of North Korea's EMP Bomb Sept. 7, 2009

                       Surviving EMP to depend on preparation

                      An EMP Attack, Thinking The Unthinkable

"Project STARFISH PRIME is probably the most famous test shot in EMP lore because
it burned out street lights in Hawaii at a slant range of 800 miles, but it was a high
altitude detonation (about 240 miles up). STARFISH was 1.4 Mt; a larger bomb at
higher altitude would reach out farther.

Conversely, a surface burst also creates an EMP, but the pulse is very quickly attenuated.
Depending on the size of the burst, the pulse could be gone in 10-30 miles, depending on
the size of the yield. It’s not as much the pulse that’s being attenuated, but the ionizing
radiation (which creates the pulse) that’s stopped fairly quickly in the lower atmosphere."
 Ikstrums, Sept. 2, 2005

A surprise EMP attack could well destroy all exposed electrical equipment, including
generators, and leave the country in the dark for decades. The electrical infrastructure
would fail, of course, but so would the banking system, virtually all transportation, the
pumping of fuel, etc. In short, our country would be reduced to 1870's technology almost
instantly. But individuals can prepare now, while there is still time.

"EMP effects go beyond damaging equipment. They also disrupt the ionosphere severely,
which affects RF propagation of several radio bands for anywhere from one hour to over
a day. Projects TEAK and ORANGE (high altitude, 3.8 Mt each) disrupted a Navy VLF
comm link that was 3,000 miles away at the closest point to the blasts.

"But there’s also good news here. VHF and UHF transmissions are typically line-of-sight
and not impacted by ionospheric disturbances, assuming the equipment survived the
initial blast and pulse. Among other things, the 2 m and 70 cm amateur bands would be
functional after a blast." Ikstrums, Sept. 2, 2005
"The electromagnetic field pulses produced by weapons designed and deployed
with the intent to produce EMP have a high likelihood of damaging electrical
power systems, electronics and information systems upon which any
reasonably advanced society, most specifically including our own, depend
vitally," Wood said. "Their effects on systems and infrastructures dependent on
electricity and electronics could be sufficiently ruinous as to qualify as
catastrophic to the American nation." EMP Warning, June 20, 2005


An Iranian political-military journal, in an article entitled “Electronics To
Determine Fate Of Future Wars,” suggests that the key to defeating the United
States is EMP attack: “Advanced information technology equipment exists
which has a very high degree of efficiency in warfare. Among these we can
refer to communication and information gathering satellites, pilotless planes,
and the digital system.... Once you confuse the enemy communication network
you can also disrupt the work of the enemy command and decision-making
center. Even worse, today when you disable a country’s military high command
through disruption of communications you will, in effect, disrupt all the affairs
of that country.... If the world’s industrial countries fail to devise effective ways
to defend themselves against dangerous electronic assaults, then they will
disintegrate within a few years.... American soldiers would not be able to find
food to eat nor would they be able to fire a single shot.” (Tehran, Nashriyeh-e
Siasi Nezami, December 1998 -January 1999) (Click here for the entire article.)

For more information on EMP, please see the following articles on this web
site:

Building Faraday Cages; Iran plans to knock out U.S. with 1 nuclear bomb;
America in the dark, Ex-CIA chief warns of EMP nuke threat, and Nations
Planning an EMP Attack.

As most people depend upon city water that must be pumped through electric pumps, a
gravity flow water system would be a decided advantage in long term survival. My
booklet, "Rainwater Collection and Storage," gives precise information on how to collect
and store water for your own family without attracting attention to yourself.

Even if you have taken the protective measures given below, the most likely timing of an
EMP attack would be before noon on the West Coast, about 3:00 PM on the East Coast,
to catch as many vehicles on the highway as possible - and while people are at work, far
from their homes. The roads would be clogged with vehicles that no longer worked,
families separated, and thus maximum disruption of the economy and fear instilled in the
populace. Remember, an EMP attack would be a terrorist's dream, and causing
maximum panic in the civilian population would factor highly into the timing of such an
event. Therefore, wise people will have an evacuation plan already formulated!
So how do we protect our equipment? There is no definitive answer, as the results of
testing for EMP has not been released to the general public. An EMP is both an electric
field and a perpendicular magnetic field. The electric field is what does the damage and
is measured in volts per meter (V/m). We can infer and extrapolate, but there are no
guarantees, as an EMP pulse can only last 1/100th of a second but project 50,000 to
100,000 volts per meter (V/m). [Ikstrums, Sept. 2, 2005.]

There are two sorts of damage that can occur as a result of an EMP pulse. The first type
of damage is that caused directly to exposed transistors, diodes, and circuit boards in
radios, transmitters, ignition circuits in vehicles, solar panel controllers, etc. An EMP
pulse travels in a straight line, so protection is needed from an EMP from the sides and
the top except if the object to be protected is sitting on a conductive surface.

The second is through the accumulation of an overload of electricity on a long line, such
as a power line.




Faraday cages can be built to totally enclose sensitive equipment not in use. This subject
is covered in more detail at this link for Faraday cages. In general, the equipment is
placed in a metal or foil covered box, insulated on the inside, and preferably grounded.
Exposed radios and similar equipment are extremely difficult to protect, particularly if
they are plugged into a 110 volt household electric circuit. In that case, spare equipment
stored in Faraday cages would be most advantageous. If the Faraday cages are sitting on a
conductive surface, they should be grounded. Grounding is safer in any case, though.

The second problem, long line accumulation of an EMP surge, requires isolation of
equipment and proper grounding, so the EMP pulse has an easier path to earth than
through the equipment. Ground rods should be driven down to wet earth, if at all
possible, to provide a sufficient ground. That may mean an 8 foot ground rod, or even
longer, depending upon your location.

All the photos below are "thumbnails." Click on the photo to enlarge it, then use the
"back" button on your browser to come back to this page.

                     At left is an assortment of various types of ground clamps. The straps
                     can be bolted around odd shaped or large pieced of metal. Click the
                     picture to enlarge it. The clamp at the bottom right attaches to a water
                     pipe.

The ground clamps in the photo above cost less than $3.00 each, and are available at
almost any hardware store.
                     At left are simple ground wires for electrical equipment
                     that must be plugged in, such as freezers. One end slides
                     under the cover plate in an electrical outlet, and the other
                     end has a screw which can be connected to a ground wire
                     and thence to a ground rod. (See below)



The package of two ground screws above cost me $2.49 at a True Value Hardware store.
True Value Hardware part #GCS12SM2.

                   At left is a 100 foot coil of steel guy wire. It can be cut to
                   whatever length is needed with strong bolt cutters. Being
                   flexible, it is easy to bend around corners. Steel is not as
                   good as copper, but will work.
                   Here a ground screw is attached to a length of guy wire. A
                   freezer or water pump can now be protected from an EMP
                   surge.

There are no guarantees that a simple ground screw will completely protect an electric
motor plugged into the socket to which the ground screw is attached. Grounding electric
motors is hard! But it is a very inexpensive way to help make sure that any electrical
surges find an easier path to ground than through an electric motor, and thus a well pump
or freezer have a chance of surviving an EMP pulse.

                                At left is a common steel garden shed. At the
                                back left corner I have grounded it using 1/4"
                                ground wire: The insulated ground wire does not
                                touch the base/floor of the shed so things inside
                                are safe.

The shed has a wooden floor, which is nonconductive. An EMP pulse hitting the metal
shed would be bled off to the ground wire, so items inside should be safe. If items inside
a metal shed need to be grounded, the ground wire should be insulated and go to a
separate ground rod to prevent feedback! Let me explain "feedback." If two ground wires
are attached to the same ground rod, and only one wire, say the one from a metal shed,
feeds an EMP pulse to the ground, that same electricity can flow back up (feedback) the
ground wire to a grounded generator inside the shed, for example, as the ground wires are
effectively joined by the ground rod. If two ground rods cannot be used, it is far better to
ground the shed and not ground a generator or ATV on a nonconductive floor in the
shed.
                A vehicle can be grounded with a chain attached to a trailer
                hitch or the frame. This is not an ideal ground, but should work
                with the voltages produced by EMP providing the chain is
                laying on a wet, conductive surface. This is about the only
                method of vehicle grounding that is truly portable. If the
                vehicle is stored in a garage with a dry concrete floor, it would
                be better to use an alligator clip clamped to the frame or trailer
                hitch (see below), with the ground wire shown above. The
                other end of the ground wire should be attached to a ground rod
                or water pipe.


The illustration above is for grounding a vehicle that is not moving. How does one
ground a moving vehicle? A dragging chain! The chain above has enough length to
wrap around the front of the trailer hitch, just behind the rear axle and about 3 feet in
front of the rear bumper, with about 4" of chain left to drag on the ground. It would be
very hard for someone to see the dragging chain except on vehicles with lift kits. The
chain simply drags along on the pavement, makes very little noise, and wears out
relatively slowly. The frame and body of the vehicle are normally insulated from the
ground by the rubber tires, but the dragging chain makes a good ground. I use a long
enough chain so that I could make 3 loops around the front of the trailer hitch and still
have 4" of chain dragging. When the chain wears down, I can remove the attachment
clamp, unwrap one loop in the chain, and again have enough chain dragging to make a
good ground. So, attach a ground chain and go on vacation without worrying about
being stuck.

Will a dragging chain actually ground a vehicle? Yes. Until perhaps 40 years ago, many
states required gasoline tankers to be grounded via a dragging chain so a buildup of static
electricity would not cause a gasoline explosion. Then some bureaucrat realized the
dragging chain might cause some idiot to think there was a reason for the chain, and
therefore an explosion was possible. So, instead of using chains to eliminate the
problem, gasoline tankers were required to have a tiny diamond shaped sign on the back
reading "1203." The public was not told that "1203" meant highly volatile gasoline was
in the tank as that too might scare them, but the sign was all the "cover" the bureaucrats
needed to say they had warned the public. Very clever. Insane, but clever.

                This small alligator clip can be attached to bare metal on a
                vehicle frame or trailer hitch, while the other end of the ground
                cable is clamped to a ground rod. The alligator clip from
                NAPA (part #BEL 726142) cost only $1.99, which is cheap
                enough protection for a vehicle. The same clip can be used to
                ground Faraday cages. This is an ideal setup for grounding a
                vehicle in a garage.

Older diesel engine vehicles are more reliable under EMP conditions because they
lack the computerized fuel management and ignition systems of modern gasoline engine
vehicles. However, that does not mean that an ungrounded diesel vehicle would still
start! It would run, but getting current to the glow plugs might well mean the use of a
small, easily made jumper cable. Note on the diagram below the controller, sensing
resistor, dropping resistor, thermo switch, relays, etc, all between the battery and the glow
plugs. All those susceptible components can be bypassed by using a jumper cable from
the positive terminal on the battery to the glow plug buss.

                                                         A jumper cable between
                                                        the positive terminal on
                                                        the battery and the glow
                                                        plug buss (see arrow) will
                                                        heat the glow plugs when
                                                        the engine is cold. The
                                                        hood is opened, the
                                                        jumper cable attached,
                                                        run back inside the
                                                        vehicle and start the
                                                        engine, then run back and
                                                        yank off the jumper cable.
                                                        Bingo, your diesel engine
                                                        will start and run!

You will want to be pretty quick when using the jumper cable. Each glow plug draws
about 12 amps, so a 4 cylinder engine is drawing almost 50 amps through that 10 gauge
jumper wire. Once the engine is running, you will want to pull off the jumper cable as
fast as you can. As long as the engine is warm, it will start without the use of the jumper
cable and glow plugs. The radio and some other electrical devices would not work, but
the vehicle would run!

                   A jumper cable made using 10 gauge wire and small alligator
                   clips on each end. I made this one in 1977 for a Diesel
                   Rabbit.

A running vehicle will be rare after an EMP attack, and you won't want yours stolen.
Some people know how to "hot wire" the ignition system and may know about the
jumper cable system described above. But you can fool them if you want to. Take a look
at the fuel injector pump on a diesel engine. You will find a single, small electrical wire
attached to the injector pump. Diesel engines will run until the fuel is shut off, so a small
electro magnet pulls a shut off plug out of its socket when the ignition key is turned on.
When the ignition key is turned off, electric current is off and the electro magnet releases
the plug to shut off the flow of fuel to the engine. It is easy to cut the wire to the injector
pump, splice in a small micro switch, run the wires through an existing hole in the
firewall, and install the micro switch under the dashboard. Only you will know the
switch is there. Flip off that micro switch and the engine will not get fuel, it will not
start, even if the ignition switch is "hot wired."
This same technique can be used on older gasoline engine vehicles with carburetors,
points and a distributor that would still be running after an EMP attack. There is a small
black wire running from the bottom edge of the distributor to the coil. Snip that wire,
splice in a micro switch installed under the dashboard, and turn the switch off when the
vehicle is parked. Even if someone "hot wires" the ignition switch, the vehicle will not
start because no electricity is getting to the spark plugs! The battery would be ground
down and too weak to start the vehicle, but it would still be there and still be yours! All
you would need to do is charge (or replace) the battery, flip on the micro switch, and the
vehicle will start...roughly, as it would have been flooded with fuel...but it would start
and run again. The radio and some other electrical devices would not work, but the
vehicle would run!

To really confuse would-be thieves, it is possible to install another micro switch to turn
off the air conditioner compressor, and it looks exactly like the micro switch to kill the
engine. Only you would know the combination of "up" or "down" on the switches to turn
them on or off. The pulley on the front of air conditioner motors is always being turned
by a fan belt, but the compressor itself is not engaged until it is turned "on" by the switch
on the dashboard...that switch energizes an electro magnet which engages a clutch and
the air conditioner compressor motor will turn and work. But there is a safety device, a
low pressure cut off switch, built into the back of the air conditioner receiver/drier: look
for the sight glass on the vertical cylinder and you will see a wire behind it. Snip that
wire, splice in a micro switch, and you can control whether or not the air conditioner
clutch will engage, while the normal dashboard switch still controls the air conditioner
vents and fan. In this era of high gasoline prices, that little switch can save a lot of fuel in
normal driving conditions. Air conditioners can use up to 20% of available engine
power. When driving up a long hill, for example, the micro switch can be flipped "off,"
the air conditioner compressor motor will stop working, but cold air will still blow
through the normal vents, saving you precious fuel and preventing the engine from
overheating while driving up steep hills. In an emergency where you could literally be
"heading for the hills" with a heavily-loaded vehicle and probably pulling a trailer, this
little switch could very well keep the engine from overheating and dying - the last thing
you would need to happen in an emergency.

If you do any of this rewiring, plan ahead and use long enough leads to the under-dash
micro switches, or the engine compartment will begin to resemble a spaghetti factory.
Run the wires over to the side of the engine compartment and try to make them look like
normal engine wiring. Those extra wires may drive your auto mechanic nuts, but they
will keep your vehicle running and safe!

None of the EMP protective systems described above are expensive...they just take time
and effort. And, of course, this must be done now, before an EMP attack!

Several things you should have are the GP-L4 Survival Radio in a small Faraday Cage,
and an LED hand pump flashlight. You may be on the road, and these items are small
and portable.
Questions from readers:

Question. I have read in the last week about EMP one article mentioned stored
fuels or ammo exploding?

Answer. EMP is nothing more than a light wave with a different frequency. It
would go right through ammo or fuel. The French have done testing on EMP for
us for over 20 years. If ammo or gasoline exploded from EMP, every infantryman
would be killed by exploding ammo strapped to his body, and everyone in a
vehicle would be incinerated by exploding fuel tanks. The military would cease to
exist. The government has tested for EMP effects, and soldiers still carry ammo
and ride in vehicles.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Question. How far into earth (dirt) the EMP would "flow"?

Answer. Depends on the dirt. If it's dry, then it penetrates straight down to moist
dirt. If wet, not very far. EMP is of uniform "density," not concentrated like a
lightning bolt. EMP would pass right through a tree without hurting it or people
standing beneath the tree, whereas lightning can kill the tree and those standing
near it. Of course if EMP hit a metal building and someone was holding the
ground wire in their hands, it could get real hair-raising, as then it is
concentrated. If the ground wire is laying on wet dirt or a conductive surface,
someone standing nearby could get fried. That is why I ran very short ground
wires at the back of buildings, etc, where possible.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~




                  MAKING FARADAY CAGES
The reality of needing to protect all electronic equipment against EMP from a nuclear
explosion over our shores is becoming imminent. We now live in perilous times. The
world is a becoming dangerous place, with China now threatening Taiwan with
annihilation from hundreds of neutron bombs. Russia is modernizing their military
infrastructure with an emphasis on first strike capability, they have an stretegic alliance
with China, and Putin is exporting "special nuclear materials" to Iran, Syria and Egypt.
President Clinton renounced "launch on attack" in favor of absorbing a first strike
without retaliation, while President Bush wants "first strike" authority to attack anywhere
with nukes without warning, and it is easy to see that our enemies are virtually being
invited to hit us with nukes! Iran has plans to do just that!

     Nuke Over U. S. Could Unleash Electromagnetic (EMP) Tsunami

The information to follow on building "Faraday cages" is timely indeed. A single
atmospheric nuclear detonation releases enough electromagnetic pulse (EMP) to equal
100,000 volts per meter (V/m). A single detonation 200 to 400 miles over the center of
the continental United States would fry every unprotected computer chip from coast to
coast, and from the middle of Canada to the middle of Mexico. And we are now into
Solar Cycle 23, with solar flares common and expected to continue until the first of next
year. CME's are capable of extreme damage to modern computerized equipment! Sure,
we have our windup BayGen radio's and spare lap top computers, but unless electronic
equipment is protected from an electromagnetic pulse, they will be fried!

When Einstein and the others first refined and purified uranium, they took time off and
studied its properties. That is when they discovered the "rays" that were harmful, as well
as the phase transformations. In the course of their work, one of the scientists discovered
that simply covering an object with a grounded copper mesh would stop virtually all
electromagnetic radiation, whether proton or neutron. Obviously, they had to protect their
monitoring equipment! Thus was born the "Faraday cage."

The copper mesh, like 1 inch chicken wire, worked well in large uses, like covering
buildings, and it is still in use today: FEMA headquarters buildings are dome-shaped
earth-bermed structures, and under the earth is a copper mesh that extends out from the
base and is secured by grounding rods.

As an Electro Magnetic Pulse (EMP) travels to earth, whether from a Coronal Mass
Ejection (CME) or a nuclear detonation in the atmosphere, it hits and runs along
electrical power lines as well, building up voltage and amperage, which is what happened
during the last solar storm a dozen years ago, blowing out transformers and leaving 6
million people in eastern Canada without power for weeks.

To prevent that problem, if you have a hard-wired generator, the wiring from the
generator to the house should run in conduit that is grounded. The generator itself can
have the frame grounded for added insurance, but that ground wire MUST be insulated
and run to a different ground rod well away from the ground rod for building and
conduit! See the article on EMP and various grounding techniques for electrical
appliances, plus grounding metal sheds for generators.

"Electric fields travel in straight lines, unless bent by other fields. Theoretically, the
bottom of a cage doesn’t need to be closed. If someone could offer me actual EMP test
data that an open bottom is OK, I’d consider believing it. However, if you’re in an area of
high ionization, the field could bend around. Complete enclosure is the best technical
solution.

"Faraday cage material: Electric fields are best conducted by materials that conduct
electric current the best – silver is #1 and copper is #2. Aluminum is ~60% of copper.
Iron/steel is farther down the scale. Aluminum is a good poor man’s foil against EMP;
double wrap it to be safe. I prefer copper foil." Ikstrums, Sept. 2, 2005




Here is the tiny Survival Radio and Faraday Cage in my Survival Shop.
Steel tinned EMP box, hinged lid, 4 1/4" x 3 1/8" x 1". Holds the Survival radio
nice and secure. With strong, thin cardboard inside to provide insulation, the radio is
protected against dust, dirt, etc, and EMP!!! Stronger and easier to make than a cardboard
box covered with tinfoil.


With radio's and smaller appliances, a Faraday cage can be built by using two
cardboard boxes: one should fit tightly inside the other, and the item to be covered should
itself fit reasonably well inside the smaller box. That is about the most work involved--
finding the right size boxes! The outer box is then covered with aluminum foil or Mylar,
as from a cheap "space blanket." A grounding wire is then taped to the foil. I then cover
the foil with black 6 mil plastic, taped securely in place, to protect the foil from ripping.
At the end of the ground wire I attach a cheap small alligator clip from Radio Shack. The
item to be protected is placed inside the inner box, which acts as insulation from the outer
box, and any EMP hitting the foil and is bled away by the ground wire.

Some medium sized electrical equipment can also easily fit into boxes covered with foil
for EMP protection. My laptop computer, for example, fits easily into a Faraday box
made from a box that held reams of paper: the entire lid is removable, allowing easy
access to the laptop in its case, but is safely stored when not in use.

For larger items which cannot be boxed, such as living room TV sets, etc, I tape a Mylar
space blanket to a piece of 6 mil black plastic sheet, using double-sticky tape every foot
or so to make sure the Mylar stays in place (it is slippery). I leave a 2 inch edge of black
plastic showing all around the space blanket, and while taping down the edges I put on a
short lead of ground wire. When it appears that EMP or CME's are on the way, the
blanket can be draped over the appliance, the alligator clip attached to a small,
unobtrusive ground wire behind the cabinet, and any electromagnetic radiation will be
diverted to the ground wire. Very cheap, simple, and once done, items can be "draped"
for protection very quickly indeed. The "EMP Blankets" roll up for storage, but can be
unrolled and thrown over a TV/VCR setup, a computer/monitor combo, etc. As EMP
comes from altitude and is line of sight, it's OK that the bottom isn't covered, as the
bottom of the units sit on non conductive wood.

The time to build Faraday cages or blankets is NOW, as when they are actually needed it
will be far too late. Each box should be labeled on the ends and the top for the exact
appliance they were built for, to eliminate any confusion when they must be protected in
a hurry. Any electrical appliances not in use should be stored in the Faraday cage, where
they will be kept clean, neat, in a known location, and protected against any sudden EMP
surge.



                                                   Back, left corner of metal shed is
                                                   grounded with 1/4" ground wire to a
                                                   ground rod. The wooden floor of the
                                                   shed is non conductive.



A nuclear ground burst over 200 miles away should only result in 50,000 volts per square
centimeter (sc) on your equipment, so the above Faraday cages should work. An air burst
within 200 miles can result in up to 100,000 volts per sc, and that would require
grounding of any Faraday cage to a separate ground rod well away from any house
ground rods. An enhanced EMP weapon exploded at 200 miles elevation can yield over
120,000 volts per sc within up to 600 miles below the detonation point, and that would
definitely require insulated metal boxes which are grounded. Remember, in the battle of
warhead versus armor, the warhead usually wins, as the warhead can be made bigger.
However, for those who build simple Faraday cages and live in an area not likely to
receive a direct or close nuclear attack, the foil cages described should work. Those
under a direct or close nuclear attack would probably not survive to use their electronic
equipment in any case.

For a more details examination on EMP and its effects, click at left.

~~~~~~

Question from reader Augustino: August 11, 2010

Miles -
Question... I'm reading that one should have electronic equipment such as 2 way radios,
AM - FM - SHORTWAVE radios, etc... stored in a faraday cage or box to protect from
EMP.

And sure you can use a microwave oven to stash radios in but most are rather small. So
as I'm reading and researching I see something that really floors me! They say the best
faraday is a galvanized garbage can. Place doubled up contractor grade trash bags one
inside the other, inside the trash can. Place items you want protected into the trash bags
that are inside the garbage can. Place the lid on tight and for added security attach a
copper wire to the galvanized can and then to a grounded rod! There you go a super
sized faraday container.
augustino

Response.
Virtually any metal container can be used as a Faraday cage. Actually,
galvanized garbage cans are an inefficient method because of two reasons:
wasted space and insulation. They are round and things put into them are
rectangular or square, so a lot of "corner space" cannot be used.

Second, the garbage bags are not sufficient insulation. One little tear in the bag
allowing one item to touch the side of the metal can could be enough to
electrocute everything inside. Cardboard is a much better insulator.

Garbage cans can be used, but old filing cabinets or freezers are better. Pieces
of cardboard can be easily cut to line the inside for insulation. The shape of the
interior space provides more items to be stored per square foot of exterior
space. The shelving allows items to be separated and organized, used as
needed, and then easily stored safely again. With a garbage can, half the items
would be deeply buried. Retrieval of one item could mean removing half the
items, and use such as that could easily translate into a tear in a garbage can
liner which would endanger all of the stored items.
Miles


     Nuke Over U. S. Could Unleash Electromagnetic (EMP) Tsunami

                         SPECIAL TO WORLD TRIBUNE.COM

Wednesday, December 7, 2005. The following excerpt from the new book, "War
Footing: 10 Steps America Must Take to Prevail in the War for the Free World", by
Frank J. Gaffney and Colleagues, is reprinted with permission from the publisher, Naval
Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland.

If Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda - or the dictators of North Korea or Iran - had the ability
to destroy America as a superpower, would they be tempted to try?

Wouldn't that temptation be even greater if that result could be achieved with a single
attack, involving just one nuclear weapon, perhaps even one of modest power and
relatively unsophisticated design?

And, what if the attacker could be reasonably sure that the United States would not know
who was responsible for such a devastating blow?

Unfortunately, that scenario is not far fetched. It is the conclusion of a report issued in
2004 by a blue ribbon commission created by Congress. The commission found that a
single nuclear weapon, delivered by a ballistic missile to an altitude of a few hundred
miles over the United States, would be "capable of causing catastrophe for the nation."

How is that possible? By precipitating a lethal electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack.

In 2000, concerned about EMP technology, Congress created the "Commission to Assess
the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack" (the EMP Threat
Commission, for short). In its final report, presented in summer 2004, the panel warned
that terrorists could indeed execute such an attack by launching a small nuclear armed
missile from a freighter off the coast of the United States.

The ingredients for an EMP attack may be already within reach. Al-Qaeda is known to
have a fleet of freighters.

One of those freighters could easily be outfitted with a short- range ballistic missile
capable of getting a nuclear weapon to almost any point in the airspace above our
country.

Thousands of Scud missiles exist around the world, and they are said to cost less than
$100,000 to purchase from willing suppliers like North Korea. (In December 2002, a
North Korean ship was intercepted, temporarily, as it prepared to deliver twelve Scud
missiles to Yemen.)
North Korea has also declared its willingness to sell nuclear weapons to terrorists.

Iran has demonstrated it has the capability to launch a Scud missile from a vessel at sea.

Ship-launched ballistic missiles have a special advantage. The "return address" of the
attacker may be difficult to determine, especially if the missile is a generic Scud type
weapon, found in many countries' arsenals.

But even though all the tools needed for this nightmare scenario could be in the hands of
terrorists already, and even though a high altitude EMP attack could be considered the
ultimate "weapon of mass destruction," little has changed in our level of preparedness or
even our policy debates. EMP is still rarely mentioned in discussions of the WMDs we
need to worry about.

We need to start worrying.

An Atmospheric Tsunami

A nuclear weapon produces several different effects. The best known are the intense heat
and hyperpressures associated with the fireball and the accompanying blast.

But a nuclear explosion also generates massive outputs of other kinds of energy. These
include the creation of intense streams of x-rays and gamma-rays. If those are unleashed
outside the earth's atmosphere, some of them will interact with the air molecules of the
upper atmosphere.

The result is an enormous pulsed current of high energy electrons that will interact, in
turn, with the earth's magnetic field.

In an instant, an invisible radio frequency wave is produced - a wave of almost
unimaginably immense intensity, approximately a million times as strong as the most
powerful radio signals on the earth. The energy of this pulse would reach everything in
line of sight of the detonation. And it would do so at the speed of light.

The higher the altitude of the weapon's detonation, the larger the affected area would be.
At a height of three hundred miles, for example, the entire continental United States
would be exposed, along with parts of Canada and Mexico.

As the fireball expands in space, it would also generate electrical currents on earth - ultra
high-speed electromagnetic "shock waves" that would endanger much of our
technological infrastructure. Such high speed currents would disable, temporarily or
permanently, extended electrical conductors, such as the electricity transmission lines that
make up our power grid.

any unprotected computers and microchips. all the systems that depend on electricity and
electronics, from medical instruments to military communications.

As the EMP Threat Commission put it: The electromagnetic fields produced by weapons
designed and deployed with the intent to produce EMP have a high likelihood of
damaging electrical power systems, electronics, and information systems upon which
American society depends. Their effects on dependent systems and infrastructures could
be sufficient to qualify as catastrophic to the nation. [Emphasis added.]

The systems at risk from EMP include: electronic control, sensor, and protective systems
of all kinds, computers and cell phones, cars, boats, airplanes, and trains

the infrastructures for handling electric power, telecommunications, transportation, fuel
and energy, banking and finance, emergency services, and even food and water.

A One Two Three Punch

Following rapidly on this electromagnetic tsunami, there would be a "medium speed
component" of EMP. It would cover roughly the same geographic area as the first, "high-
speed" component, though its peak power level would be much less.

This medium-speed component follows the high speed component by merely a fraction of
a second. It further damages the electric systems that are already impaired and exposed
by the initial electromagnetic impact.

And finally, there is a third wave of EMP attack, the "slow component" produced by the
continuing expansion of the fireball in the earth's magnetic field. This slow component - a
pulse that may last just seconds or minutes - creates disruptive currents in electricity
transmission lines, damaging the surviving electrical supply and distribution systems.

Unpredicted Test Effects

The destructive power of EMP effects was first glimpsed in the atmospheric nuclear tests
of the Cold War era. The United States and the Soviet Union independently discovered
the same phenomenon: a high- altitude nuclear explosion could damage or destroy
electronic systems on the earth, with potentially devastating consequences for the
targeted society.

In 1962, the United States conducted a test called "Starfish," detonating a nuclear weapon
about 250 miles above Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. The resulting EMP reached
all the way to the Hawaiian Islands, a little over 700 miles away. There, on the far edge
of the EMP field, the explosion extinguished streetlights in Honolulu, tripped circuit
breakers, triggered burglar alarms, and damaged a telecommunications relay facility.

The Soviet tests included a series of high altitude nuclear detonations over South Central
Asia. EMP from these tests damaged overhead (and even underground) electrical cables
at a range of 375 miles, causing surge arrestor burnout, blown fuses, and blackouts.
The consequences of an EMP attack would of course be far more significant today, with
so much of our infrastructure (civilian as well as military) dependent on electricity and
electronics. The EMP Threat Commission estimated that it could take "months to years"
to fully restore critical infrastructures after an EMP attack:

Depending on the specific characteristics of the attacks, unprecedented cascading failures
of our major infrastructures could result. In that event, a regional or national recovery
would be long and difficult and would seriously degrade the safety and overall viability
of our nation. The primary avenues for catastrophic damage to the nation are through our
electric power infrastructure and thence into our telecommunications, energy, and other
infrastructures. These, in turn, can seriously impact other important aspects of our
nation's life, including the financial system; means of getting food, water, and medical
care to the citizenry; trade; and production of goods and services.

The recovery of any one of the key national infrastructures is dependent on the recovery
of others. The longer the outage, the more problematic and uncertain the recovery will be.
It is possible for the functional outages to become mutually reinforcing until at some
point the degradation of infrastructure could have irreversible effects on the country's
ability to support its population. [Emphasis added.]

What Is Being Done to Address the Danger?

An EMP attack potentially represents a high tech means for terrorists to kill millions of
Americans the old fashioned way, through starvation and disease. Although the direct
physical effects of EMP are harmless to people, a well designed and well-executed EMP
attack could kill - indirectly - far more Americans than a nuclear weapon detonated in our
most populous city.

Dr. Lowell Wood of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, a member of the EMP Threat
Commission, has warned in testimony before Congress that an EMP attack could reduce
the United States to a pre-Industrial Age capacity, in terms of its ability to provide vital
food and water to its population.

In 1900, prior to widespread electrification of the United States, our country's population
was less than one-third of its size today. An attack that destroyed our technological
infrastructure would certainly decimate the population.

But if EMP is such a big threat, why have we not heard more about it? Why do we not
hear discussions of how to reduce its potential impact on this country? In fact, the EMP
Threat Commission was the outcome of four years of hearings and briefings, as a
frustrated Congress tried to alert the executive branch to the danger of EMP attack.

Their efforts seemed futile. In 1997, Gen. Robert Marsh (then- chairman of the
Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection) told the House Armed Services
Committee:
[W]e consider a terrorist acquiring a nuclear weapon, and positioning it at the high
altitude necessary for generation of an EMP burst that would debilitate our
infrastructures, to be a very remote possibility. . . . Such an event is so unlikely and
difficult to achieve that I do not believe it warrants serious concern at this time.
[Emphasis added.] In contrast, the testimony Congress received from other sources
strongly suggested that such a devastating attack was neither unlikely nor difficult to
achieve. It seemed that there was, in fact, reason to be concerned that terrorists and rogue
states might present an EMP threat to the United States.

Concerned members of congress received help from an unlikely quarter in May 1999,
when Russia explicitly invoked the specter of an EMP attack on the United States.

Vladimir Lukin (the chairman of the Duma International Affairs Committee) assured a
delegation of American legislators that Russia was not helpless in the face of U. S. led
interventions:

Hypothetically, if Russia really wanted to hurt the United States in retaliation for NATO's
bombing of Yugoslavia, Russia could fire a submarine launched ballistic missile and
detonate a single nuclear warhead at high altitude over the United States. The resulting
electromagnetic pulse would massively disrupt U. S. communications and computer
systems, shutting down everything. This blunt statement succeeded in getting the
attention of both parties in Congress. A second opinion was clearly needed. And on
October 30, 2000, the EMP Threat Commission was established by law.

The EMP Threat Today

The EMP Threat Commission conducted a worldwide survey of foreign scientific and
military literature to assess the knowledge and intentions of foreign states regarding an
EMP attack. The survey confirmed that both the physics and the military potential of
EMP are indeed widely understood in the international community.

The commission survey found that the following nations were knowledgeable about
EMP: China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Iran, Saddam Hussein's Iraq, North Korea, Pakistan,
and Russia.

The commission also learned that some foreign military experts regard EMP attack as a
form of electronic or information warfare, not primarily as a form of nuclear war. One of
China's leading military theorists has written:

Information war and traditional war have one thing in common, namely that the country
which possesses the critical weapons such as atomic bombs will have "first strike" and
"second strike retaliation" capabilities . . . . As soon as its computer networks come under
attack and are destroyed, the country will slip into a state of paralysis and the lives of its
people will grind to a halt. (Su Tzu Yun, World War: The Third World War - Total
Information Warfare, 2001.)
In Iran - the most unabashed state sponsor of international terrorism today - some
theorists have argued that the key to defeating the United States lies in attacking its
electronics. This is from an Iranian political military policy journal:

Once you confuse the enemy communication network, you can also disrupt the work of
the enemy command and decision making center. Even worse, today when you disable a
country's military high command through disruption of communications you will, in
effect, disrupt all the affairs of that country. . . . If the world's industrial countries fail to
devise effective ways to defend themselves against dangerous electronic assaults, then
they will disintegrate within a few years. . . . American soldiers would not be able to find
food to eat nor would they be able to fire a single shot. ("Electronics to Determine Fate of
Future Wars," Nashriyeh e Siasi Nezami, 1999.)

And this implied threat may not be empty words. In addition to their successful ship
launched Scud missile test, the Iranian military has reportedly performed tests of its
Shahab 3 medium range ballistic missile in a manner consistent with an EMP attack
scenario.

The above excerpt is from Chapter Six, "Counter the Mega-Threat: EMP Attack" of the
book "War Footing " by Frank J. Gaffney (Naval Institute Press) and included
contributions from U. S. Rep. Curt Weldon and U. S. Rep. Roscoe Bartlett.


Surviving EMP to depend on preparation

'Many people may die for lack of basic elements necessary'

http://www.worldnetdaily.com/index.php?fa=PAGE.view&pageId=70472
Posted: July 26, 2008
12:00 am Eastern

A report from the federal Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack has painted a bleak picture for America under such
attack: Electricity grids down, uncontrolled fires from exploding gas transport systems,
no communication to summon firefighters and if they could come, no water to battle
fires. All in city after city after city.

The 200-page report says Americans should look to past incidents, then multiply those
impacts by the number of cities that could be hit by such an attack. For example: San
Diego County Water Authority and San Diego County Gas and Electric companies
experienced severe electromagnetic interference. … Both companies found themselves
unable to actuate critical valve openings and closings. This inability necessitated sending
technicians to remote locations to manually open and close water and gas valves,
averting, in the words of a subsequent letter of complaint by the San Diego County Water
Authority to the Federal Communications Commission, a potential 'catastrophic failure'
of the aqueduct system.

The report explained the potential impact could have included an "aqueduct rupture" with
disruption of service, severe flooding and related damage to private and public property.
The source of the 1999 problem? Errant radar on a ship 25 miles off the coast of San
Diego, the report said.

The report, published on the commission website, cited other scenarios that should be
expected to develop subsequent to an EMP attack on the U. S. On Aug. 19, 2000, an
explosion occurred on one of three adjacent large natural gas pipelines near Carlsbad, N.
M., … Twelve people, including five children, died. The explosion left an 86-foot-long
crater. … The explosion happened because of failures in maintenance and loss of
situational awareness, conditions that would be replicated by data acquisition disruptions
caused by an EMP event.

The report also cited a 1994 refinery disaster in the United Kingdom in which lightning
strikes resulted in a half-second power loss.

"Consequently, numerous pumps and overhead fin-fan coolers tripped repeatedly,
resulting in the main crude column pressure safety valves lifting and major upsets in the
process units in other refinery units … There was an explosion in the FCC unit and a
number of isolated fires. … As a result of this incident, an estimated 10 percent of the
total refining capacity in the United Kingdom was lost until this complex was returned to
service."

WND has reported several times on the threat of EMP attacks, including just two weeks
ago when William R. Graham, chairman of the commission, told the House Armed
Services Committee an EMP attack is "one of a small number of threats that can hold our
society at risk of catastrophic consequences."

Not taking the steps necessary to reduce the threat in the next three to five years "can
both invite and reward attack," Graham told the committee.

The scariest and most threatening kind of EMP attack is initiated by the detonation of a
nuclear weapon at high altitude in the range of 25 to 250 miles above the Earth's surface.
The immediate effects of EMP are disruption of, and damage to, electronic systems and
electrical infrastructure. Such a detonation over the middle of the continental U. S. "has
the capability to produce significant damage to critical infrastructures that support the
fabric of U. S. society and the ability of the United States and Western nations to project
influence and military power," said Graham.

"Several potential adversaries have the capability to attack the United States with a high-
altitude nuclear weapon-generated electromagnetic pulse, and others appear to be
pursuing efforts to obtain that capability," said Graham. "A determined adversary can
achieve an EMP attack capability without having a high level of sophistication. For
example, an adversary would not have to have long-range ballistic missiles to conduct an
EMP attack against the United States. Such an attack could be launched from a freighter
off the U. S. coast using a short- or medium-range missile to loft a nuclear warhead to
high altitude. Terrorists sponsored by a rogue state could attempt to execute such an
attack without revealing the identity of the perpetrators. Iran, the world's leading sponsor
of international terrorism, has practiced launching a mobile ballistic missile from a vessel
in the Caspian Sea. Iran has also tested high-altitude explosions of the Shahab-III, a test
mode consistent with EMP attack, and described the tests as successful. Iranian military
writings explicitly discuss a nuclear EMP attack that would gravely harm the United
States. While the commission does not know the intention of Iran in conducting these
activities, we are disturbed by the capability that emerges when we connect the dots."

The committee's report analyzes the impact of an attack on electrical supplies,
telecommunications, banking and finance, petroleum and natural gas, transportation,
food, water, emergency services, space systems and government.

The news was dire throughout. The electrical grid, for example, is needed to distribute
water, food, fuel, communications, transport, financial transactions, emergency services
and government services. "Should significant parts of the electrical power infrastructure
be lost for any substantial period of time, the commission believes that the consequences
are likely to be catastrophic, and many people may ultimately die for lack of the basic
elements necessary to sustain life in dense urban and suburban communities," the report
said.

"In fact, the commission is deeply concerned that such impacts are likely in the event of
an EMP attack unless practical steps are taken to provide protection for critical elements
of the electric system and for rapid restoration of electric power, particular to essential
services," the report said.

Current disaster preparedness and recovery plans "may be of little or no value" under an
EMP attack because of the length of time it would take to obtain and install replacement
parts or repair other damage. The cascade of trouble would be significant. No electricity
would mean out-of-control water, natural gas or fuel flows through distribution systems.
Some explosions likely would happen, fires could ignite. But no emergency services
could be contacted for help, and if they already were on scene, it's unlikely water would
be ready. Even worse, when such fires burn themselves out, and repairs are begun,
supplies could neither be ordered nor delivered because of communications and fuel
disruptions, and the critical workers needed for repairs might not be able to get to the
location.

At some point, repair and recovery simply become impossible, the report said.

"There is a point in time at which the shortage or exhaustion of critical items like
emergency power supply, batteries, standby fuel supplies, replacement parts, and
manpower resources which can be coordinated and dispatched, together with the
degradation of all other infrastructures and their systemic impact, all lead toward a
collapse of restoration capability.

"Society will transition into a situation where restoration needs increase with time as
resources degrade and disappear," the report warned. It is the first report from the
commission since 2004 and identifies vulnerabilities in the nation's critical
infrastructures, "which are essential to both our civilian and military capabilities."

Graham also had warned Congress such an attack could come without the backing of an
international power, such as China or Russia.

Theoretically, an EMP attack is devastating because of the unprecedented cascading
failures of major infrastructures that could result. Because of America's heavy reliance on
electricity and electronics, the impact would be far worse than on a country less advanced
technologically Graham took the EMP debate out of the realm of science fiction by
reminding the committee that as recently as May 1999, during the NATO bombing of
Yugoslavia, Russian leaders threatened a U. S. congressional delegation with the specter
of an attack that would paralyze the U. S.

He also quoted James J. Shinn, assistant secretary of defense for Asian and Pacific
Security, who several weeks ago told the same House committee that China's arms
buildup includes exotic experiments with electromagnetic weapons that can devastate
electronics with bursts of energy similar to those produced by a nuclear blast.

"The consequence of EMP is that you destroy the communications network," Shinn said.
"And we are, as you know, and as the Chinese know, heavily dependent on sophisticated
communications, satellite communications, in the conduct of our forces. And so, whether
it's from an EMP or it's some kind of a coordinated [anti-satellite] effort, we could be in a
very bad place if the Chinese enhanced their capability in this area."

Graham says terrorists who get their hands on one or a few unsophisticated nuclear
weapons might well calculate they could get the most bang for their buck from
attempting an EMP attack.

Ultimate recovery from an EMP attack could end up taking years, during which time
America very well may have to exist without many high-tech services, from cell phones
inoperable due to damaged towers unrepaired because of parts shortages to a disruption
in the food supply path because of fuel shortages.

"A serious national commitment to address the threat of an EMP attack can lead to a
national posture that would significantly reduce the payoff for such an attack and allow
the United States to recover from EMP, and from other threats, man-made and natural, to
the critical infrastructures," Graham told the committee.
           An EMP Attack, Thinking The Unthinkable
                                          James Carafano

http://www.nationalterroralert.com/updates/2009/07/27/an-emp-attack-thinking-the-unthinkable-james-
carafano/
July 27, 2009

When the 9/11 Commission issued its report, it complained that federal agencies had a
colossal "failure of imagination." Nobody could accuse Newt Gingrich from suffering
that shortfall.

When he delivered a major address on national security last week, the former Speaker of
the House went after Defense Secretary Robert Gates for planning for the future the
Pentagon wants, rather than dealing with the many serious problems it may actually face.
Gingrich mentioned one challenge that many find too terrible to contemplate - which is
why our government should spend a lot more time doing exactly that.

I'm referring to the Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP). This method of attack is usually
associated with a nuclear blast. In addition to thermal, radiation, heat and concussive
force, an atomic detonation throws off an incredible amount of electro-magnetic energy.

Picture a massive tsunami, but with lightning instead of water. And, like the surge
produced by lightning, electrical systems act like antennas sucking down a rush of
electrons that fry circuits and burn out micro-chips.

EMP is not normally addressed when talking about nuclear attack, because most nuclear
strikes are planned as low-air bursts where most of the energy, EMP included, go straight
into the ground (and flattening the city in-between). In such scenarios, electrical systems
would be disabled by EMP, though few would notice, because most people would have
been crushed or melted in the firestorm following the detonation.

A deliberate EMP attack, however, would be different. If, for example, an enemy
detonated a nuclear weapon carried on a ballistic missile 200 miles or so above the earth,
people on the ground might never know an attack occurred. But if the explosion
happened high enough over North America, the blossom of EMP might cover the entire
United States.

Last year, a congressional commission studied how a high-altitude EMP strike would
affect the nation's infrastructure. The answer was simple: It would be devastating. The
entire U.S. electrical grid might be gone and all the instruments of daily life that depend
on electrical power useless. Life in United States, concluded the commission's chair,
scientist William Graham, "would be a lot like life in the 1800s," except with a
significantly bigger population.

Just keeping modern-day America fed would be virtually impossible without working
transportation or communications systems. Water pumping and sewage treatment plants
would be off-line. Modern medical care would be virtually non-existent. Even if the rest
of the world mustered the largest humanitarian mission in human history, the suffering
would be unprecedented.

EMP attacks are often thought off of as attacks against the U.S. infrastructure. But the
truth is a large-scale EMP attack would be an instrument of genocide.

Shockingly, some dismiss the threat out of hand. Michael Crowley, writing in The New
Republic, dismissed the "Newt Bomb" as science fiction. That seems a real stretch,
especially given the report handed to Congress.

The EMP problem isn't talked about much, yes. But not because responsible people think
it's a sci-fi scenario. They don't talk about it because they are so overwhelmed by the
challenges such an attack would pose.

Washington is truly out to lunch on this one. Both the Department of Defense and the
Department of Homeland Security place dealing with the threat of catastrophic attack
high on their lists of what keeps them up at night. Yet DHS doesn't include an EMP as
one of their disaster-planning scenarios.

As for the Pentagon, Secretary Gates just cut 10 percent of the missile-defense budget,
the best weapons we have to prevent EMP attacks. The Congress is equally in la-la land.
Having commissioned the EMP report and accepted its findings, last week the Senate
joined the House in rubber-stamping Gates' missile-defense cuts.

The idea that someone would attack the U.S. with jet airliners once seemed unthinkable.
An EMP attack may seem today just as remote. But it's time to play it safe -- and start
figuring out how to deal with it.

Examiner Columnist James Jay Carafano is a senior research fellow for national security
at The Heritage Foundation (www.heritage.org heritage.org)



   FOREIGN VIEWS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP) ATTACK

             DR. PETER VINCENT PRY, EMP COMMISSION STAFF

        BEFORE THE UNITED STATES SENATE SUBCOMMITTEE ON
         TERRORISM, TECHNOLOGY AND HOMELAND SECURITY

March 8, 2005

The EMP Commission sponsored a worldwide survey of foreign scientific and military
literature to evaluate the knowledge, and possibly the intentions, of foreign states with
respect to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack. The survey found that the physics of EMP
phenomenon and the military potential of EMP attack are widely understood in the
international community, as reflected in official and unofficial writings and statements.
The survey of open sources over the past decade finds that knowledge about EMP and
EMP attack is evidenced in at least Britain, France, Germany, Israel, Egypt, Taiwan,
Sweden, Cuba, India, Pakistan, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, Iran, North Korea, China
and Russia.

Numerous foreign governments have invested in hardening programs to provide some
protection against nuclear EMP attack, indicating that this threat has broad international
credibility. At least some of the new nuclear weapon states, notably India, are concerned
that their military command, control, and communications may be vulnerable to EMP
attack. For example, an Indian article citing the views of senior officers in the Defense
Ministry (including General V. R. Raghavan) concludes: “The most complicated, costly,
controversial and critically important elements of [nuclear] weaponisation are the C3I
systems.... Saving on a C3I system could be suicidal. With a no-first-use policy, the
Indian communications systems have to be hardened to withstand the electromagnetic
pulses generated by an adversarial nuclear first strike. Otherwise, no one will be fooled
by the Indian nuclear deterrent.” (C. Rammonohar Reddy, The Hindu, 1 September 1998)

Many foreign analysts perceive nuclear EMP attack as falling within the category of
electronic warfare or information warfare, not nuclear warfare. Indeed, the military
doctrines of at least China and Russia appear to define information warfare as embracing
a spectrum ranging from computer viruses to nuclear EMP attack. For example, consider
the following quote from one of China’s most senior military theorists–who is credited by
the PRC with inventing information warfare– appearing in his book World War, the
Third World War–Total Information Warfare: “With their massive destructiveness,
longrange nuclear weapons have combined with highly sophisticated information
technology and computer technology today and warfare of the looming 21st century:
information war under nuclear...Information war and traditional war have one thing in
common, namely that the country which possesses the critical weapons such as atomic
bombs will have ‘first strike’ and ‘second strike retaliation’ capabilities.... As soon as its
computer networks come under attack and are destroyed, the country will slip into a state
of paralysis and the lives of its people will ground to a halt Therefore, China should focus
on measures to counter computer viruses, nuclear electromagnetic pulse... and quickly
achieve breakthroughs in those technologies in order to equip China without delay with
equivalent deterrence that will enable it to stand up to the military powers in the
information age and neutralize and check the deterrence of Western powers, including the
United States.” (2001)

Some foreign analysts, judging from open source statements and writings, appear to
regard EMP attack as a legitimate use of nuclear weapons, because EMP would inflict no
or few prompt civilian casualties. EMP attack appears to be a unique exception to the
general stigma attached to nuclear employment by most of the international community
in public statements. Significantly, even some analysts in Japan and Germany–nations
that historically have been most condemnatory of nuclear and other weapons of mass
destruction in official and unofficial forums–appear to regard EMP attack as morally
defensible. For example, a June 2000 Japanese article in a scholarly journal, citing senior
political and military officials, appears to regard EMP attack as a legitimate use of
nuclear weapons: “Although there is little chance that the Beijing authorities would
launch a nuclear attack, which would incur the disapproval of the international
community and which would result in such enormous destruction that it would impede
postwar cleanup and policies, a serious assault starting with the use of nuclear weapons
which would not harm humans, animals, or property, would be valid. If a... nuclear
warhead was detonated 40 kilometers above Taiwan, an electromagnetic wave would be
propagated which would harm unprotected computers, radar, and IC circuits on the
ground within a 100 kilometer radius, and the weapons and equipment which depend on
the communications and electronics technology whose superiority Taiwan takes pride in
would be rendered combat ineffective at one stroke... If they were detonated in the sky in
the vicinity of Ilan, the effects would also extend to the waters near Yonakuni [in
Okinawa], so it would be necessary for Japan, too, to take care. Those in Taiwan, having
lost their advanced technology capabilities, would end up fighting with tactics and
technology going back to the 19th century... They would inevitably be at a disadvantage
with the PLA and its overwhelming military force superiority.” (Su Tzu-yun, Jadi, 1 June
2000)

An article by a member of India’s Institute of Defense Studies Analysis openly advocates
that India be prepared to make a preemptive EMP attack, both for reasons of military
necessity and on humanitarian grounds: “A study conducted in the U. S. during the late
1980s reported that a high-yield device exploded about 500 kilometers above the ground
can generate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of the order of 50,000 volts over a radius of
2,500 kilometers around the point of burst which would be collected by any exposed
conductor. Such an attack will not cause any blast or thermal effects on the ground below
but it can produce a massive breakdown in the communications system.... It is certain that
most of the land communication networks and military command control links will be
affected and it will undermine our capability to retaliate. This, in fact, is the most
powerful incentive for a preemptive attack. And a high-altitude exo-atmospheric
explosion may not even kill a bird on the ground.”

Although India, Pakistan, and Israel are not rogue states, they all presently have missiles
and nuclear weapons giving them the capability to make EMP attacks against their
regional adversaries. An EMP attack by any of these states–even if targeted at a regional
adversary and not the United States–could collaterally damage U. S. forces in the region,
and would pose an especially grave threat to U. S. satellites.

Many foreign analysts–particularly in Iran, North Korea, China, and Russia–view the
United States as a potential aggressor that would be willing to use its entire panoply of
weapons, including nuclear weapons, in a first strike. They perceive the United States as
having contingency plans to make a nuclear EMP attack, and as being willing to execute
those plans under a broad range of circumstances.

Russian and Chinese military scientists in open source writings describe the basic
principles of nuclear weapons designed specifically to generate an enhanced-EMP effect,
that they term “Super-EMP” weapons. “Super-EMP” weapons, according to these foreign
open source writings, can destroy even the best protected U. S. military and civilian
electronic systems.

Chinese military writings are replete with references to the dependency of United States
military forces and civilian infrastructure upon sophisticated electronic systems, and to
the potential vulnerability of those systems. For example, consider this quote from an
official newspaper of the PLA: “Some people might think that things similar to the ‘Pearl
Harbor Incident’ are unlikely to take place during the information age. Yet it could be
regarded as the ‘Pearl Harbor Incident’ of the 21st century if a surprise attack is
conducted against the enemy’s crucial information systems of command, control, and
communications by such means as... electromagnetic pulse weapons.... Even a
superpower like the United States, which possesses nuclear missiles and powerful armed
forces, cannot guarantee its immunity... In their own words, a highly computerized open
society like the United States is extremely vulnerable to electronic attacks from all sides.
This is because the U. S. economy, from banks to telephone systems and from power
plants to iron and steel works, relies entirely on computer networks.... When a country
grows increasingly powerful economically and technologically... it will become
increasingly dependent on modern information systems.... The United States is more
vulnerable to attacks than any other country in the world.” (Zhang Shouqi and Sun
Xuegui, Jiefangjun Bao 14 May 1996)

Russian military writings are also replete with references to the dependency of United
States military forces and civilian infrastructure upon sophisticated electronic systems,
and to the potential vulnerability of those systems. Indeed, Russia made a thinly veiled
EMP threat against the United States on May 2,
1999. During the spring of 1999, tensions between the United States and Russia rose
sharply over Operation ALLIED FORCE, the NATO bombing campaign against
Yugoslavia. A bipartisan delegation from the House Armed Services Committee of the U.
S. Congress met in Vienna with their Russian counterparts on the Duma International
Affairs Committee, headed by Chairman Vladimir Lukin. The object of the meeting was
to reduce U. S. -Russia tensions and seek Russian help in resolving the Balkans crisis.
During the meeting, Chairman Lukin and Deputy Chairman Alexander Shaponov
chastised the United States for military aggression in the Balkans, and warned that Russia
was not helpless to oppose Operation ALLIED FORCE: “Hypothetically, if Russia really
wanted to hurt the United States in retaliation for NATO’s bombing of Yugoslavia,
Russia could fire a submarine launched ballistic missile and detonate a single nuclear
warhead at high-altitude over the United States. The resulting electromagnetic pulse
would massively disrupt U. S. communications and computer systems, shutting down
everything.” (HASC Transcript On Vienna Conference, 2 May 1999)

Iran, though not yet a nuclear weapon state, has produced some analysis weighing the use
of nuclear weapons to destroy cities, as “against Japan in World War II,” compared to
“information warfare” that includes “electromagnetic pulse... for the destruction of
unprotected circuits.” An Iranian analyst describes “terrorist information warfare” as
involving not just computer viruses but attacks using “electromagnetic pulse (EMP).”
(Tehran, Siyasat-e Defa-I, 1 March 2001)

An Iranian political-military journal, in an article entitled “Electronics To Determine Fate
Of Future Wars,” suggests that the key to defeating the United States is EMP attack:
“Advanced information technology equipment exists which has a very high degree of
efficiency in warfare. Among these we can refer to communication and information
gathering satellites, pilotless planes, and the digital system.... Once you confuse the
enemy communication network you can also disrupt the work of the enemy command
and decision-making center. Even worse, today when you disable a country’s military
high command through disruption of communications you will, in effect, disrupt all the
affairs of that country.... If the world’s industrial countries fail to devise effective ways to
defend themselves against dangerous electronic assaults, then they will disintegrate
within a few years.... American soldiers would not be able to find food to eat nor would
they be able to fire a single shot.” (Tehran, Nashriyeh-e Siasi Nezami, December 1998 -
January 1999)

Iranian flight-tests of their Shahab-3 medium-range missile, that can reach Israel and U.
S. forces in the Persian Gulf, have in recent years involved several explosions at high
altitude, reportedly triggered by a self-destruct mechanism on the missile. The Western
press has described these flight-tests as failures, because the missiles did not complete
their ballistic trajectories. Iran has officially described all of these same tests as
successful. The flight-tests would be successful, if Iran were practicing the execution of
an EMP attack.

Iran, as noted earlier, has also successfully tested firing a missile from a vessel in the
Caspian Sea. A nuclear missile concealed in the hold of a freighter would give Iran, or
terrorists, the capability to perform an EMP attack against the United States homeland,
without developing an ICBM, and with some prospect of remaining anonymous. Iran’s
Shahab-3 medium-range missile, mentioned earlier, is a mobile missile, and small enough
to be transported in the hold of a freighter. We cannot rule out that Iran, the world’s
leading sponsor of international terrorism, might provide terrorists with the means to
execute an EMP attack against the United States.

In closing, a few observations about the potential EMP threat from North Korea. North
Korean academic writings subscribe to the view voiced in Chinese, Russian, and Iranian
writings that computers and advanced communications have inaugurated an “information
age” during which the greatest strength, and greatest vulnerability, of societies will be
their electronic infrastructures. According to North Korean press, Chairman Kim Chong-
il is himself supposedly an avid proponent of this view. (M. A. Kim Sang-hak,
“development of Information Industry and Construction of Powerful Socialist State,”
Pyongyang Kyongje Yongu, 20 May 2002)

The highest ranking official ever to defect from North Korea, Hwang Chang-yop,
claimed in 1998 that North Korea has nuclear weapons and explained his defection as an
attempt to prevent nuclear war. According to Hwang, in the event of war, North Korea
would use nuclear weapons “to devastate Japan to prevent the United States from
participating. Would it still participate, even after Japan is devastated? That is how they
think.” Although Hwang did not mention EMP, it is interesting that he described North
Korean thinking about nuclear weapons employment as having strategic purposes–
nuclear use against Japan–and not tactical purposes–nuclear employment on the
battlefield in South Korea. It is also interesting that, according to Hwang, North Korea
thinks it can somehow “devastate” Japan with its tiny nuclear inventory, although how
precisely this is to be accomplished with one or two nuclear weapons is unknown.

Perhaps most importantly, note that the alleged purpose of a North Korean nuclear strike
on Japan would be to deter the United States. At the time of Hwang’s defection, in 1998,
North Korea’s longest-range missile then operational, the No Dong, limited North
Korea’s strategic reach to a strike on Japan. Today, North Korea is reportedly on the
verge of achieving an ICBM capability with its Taepo Dong-2 missile, estimated to be
capable of delivering a nuclear weapon to the United States. In 2004, the EMP
Commission met with very senior Russian military officers, who are experts on EMP
weapons. They warned that Russian scientists had been recruited by Pyongyang to work
on the North Korean nuclear weapons program. They further warned that the knowledge
and technology to develop “Super-EMP” weapons had been transferred to North Korea,
and that North Korea could probably develop these weapons in the near future, within a
few years. The Russian officers said that the threat to global security that would be posed
by a North Korea armed with “Super-EMP” weapons is unacceptable. The senior Russian
military officers, who claimed to be expressing their personal views to the EMP
Commission, said that, while the Kremlin could not publicly endorse U. S. preemptive
action, Moscow would privately understand the strategic necessity of a preemptive strike
by the United States against North Korea’s nuclear complex.

This concludes my statement. Thank you for the opportunity to share this information
with the U. S. Senate and the American people.




               Ex-CIA chief warns of EMP nuke threat
Woolsey calls on U. S. to defend against devastating 'Scud-in-a-bucket' attack

http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=44069

Posted: May 2, 2005, 1:00 a. m. Eastern

By Joseph Farah © 2005 WorldNetDaily. com

WASHINGTON – Former CIA chief James Woolsey affirms the work of a special
commission investigating the threat of a nuclear-bomb generated electromagnetic pulse
attack on the U. S. by rogue states or terrorists and is urging the country to take steps
necessary to protect against the potentially devastating consequences.
In testimony before the House International Terrorism and Non-Proliferation
Subcommittee, chaired by Ed Royce, R-Calif., Woolsey, director of the CIA from 1993
through 1995, referred to the nuclear EMP threat, characterized in intelligence circles, he
said, as "a SCUD in a bucket."

"That is a simple ballistic missile from a stockpile somewhere in the world outfitted on
something like a tramp steamer and fired from some distance offshore into an American
city or to a high altitude, thereby creating an electromagnetic pulse effect, which could
well be one of the most damaging ways of using a nuclear weapon," he said.

Woolsey commended the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from
EMP Attack for its years of work on the subject and for its dire report concluding that it
is a means of attack that could lead to the defeat of the U. S. by a much smaller enemy
and utter devastation of the country.

"That is a very serious threat," he told the committee. "And one thing we need badly to
do is to figure out ways to harden our electricity grid and various types of key nodes so
that electromagnetic pulse blasts of nuclear weapons, or other ways of generating
electromagnetic pulse, even if it knocks out our toaster ovens will not knock out, for
example, our electricity grid."

Woolsey, like the commission, specifically mentioned the new dimension a nuclear Iran
would add to the risk of such an attack.

"We do not have the luxury of assuming that Iran, if it develops fissionable materials, for
example, would not share it under some circumstances with al-Qaida operatives," he said.
"We don't have the luxury of believing that just because North Korea is a communist
state, it would not work under some circumstances to sell its fissionable material to
Hezbollah or al-Qaida."

There is increasing concern within the administration and Congress over Iran's missile
program, which has been determined by a commission of U. S. scientists to pose a serious
threat to U. S. security.

A report first published in Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin, a weekly, online, premium,
intelligence newsletter affiliated with WND, revealed last week that Iran has been
seriously considering an unconventional pre-emptive nuclear strike against the U. S.

An Iranian military journal publicly floated the idea of launching an electromagnetic
pulse attack as the key to defeating the U. S.

Congress was warned of Iran's plans last month by Peter Pry, a senior staffer with the
Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack
in a hearing of Sen. John Kyl's subcommittee on terrorism, technology and homeland
security.
In an article titled, "Electronics to Determine Fate of Future Wars," the journal explains
how an EMP attack on America's electronic infrastructure, caused by the detonation of a
nuclear weapon high above the U. S., would bring the country to its knees.

"Once you confuse the enemy communication network you can also disrupt the work of
the enemy command- and decision-making center," the article states. "Even worse today
when you disable a country's military high command through disruption of
communications, you will, in effect, disrupt all the affairs of that country. If the world's
industrial countries fail to devise effective ways to defend themselves against dangerous
electronic assaults then they will disintegrate within a few years. American soldiers
would not be able to find food to eat nor would they be able to fire a single shot."

WND reported the Iranian threat last Monday, explaining Tehran is not only covertly
developing nuclear weapons, it is already testing ballistic missiles specifically designed
to destroy America's technical infrastructure.

Pry pointed out the Iranians have been testing mid-air detonations of their Shahab-3
medium-range missile over the Caspian Sea. The missiles were fired from ships.

"A nuclear missile concealed in the hold of a freighter would give Iran or terrorists the
capability to perform an EMP attack against the United States homeland without
developing an ICBM and with some prospect of remaining anonymous," explained Pry.
"Iran's Shahab-3 medium range missile mentioned earlier is a mobile missile and small
enough to be transported in the hold of a freighter. We cannot rule out that Iran, the
world's leading sponsor of international terrorism might provide terrorists with the means
to executive an EMP attack against the United States."

Lowell Wood, acting chairman of the commission, said yesterday that such an attack – by
Iran or some other actor – could cripple the U. S. by knocking out electrical power,
computers, circuit boards controlling most automobiles and trucks, banking systems,
communications and food and water supplies.

"No one can say just how long systems would be down," he said. "It could be weeks,
months or even years."

EMP attacks are generated when a nuclear weapon is detonated at altitudes above a few
dozen kilometers above the Earth's surface. The explosion, of even a small nuclear
warhead, would produce a set of electromagnetic pulses that interact with the Earth's
atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field.

"These electromagnetic pulses propagate from the burst point of the nuclear weapon to
the line of sight on the Earth's horizon, potentially covering a vast geographic region in
doing so simultaneously, moreover, at the speed of light," said Wood. "For example, a
nuclear weapon detonated at an altitude of 400 kilometers over the central United States
would cover, with its primary electromagnetic pulse, the entire continent of the United
States and parts of Canada and Mexico."
The commission, in its work over a period of several years, found that EMP is one of a
small number of threats that has the potential to hold American society seriously at risk
and that might also result in the defeat of U. S. military forces.

"The electromagnetic field pulses produced by weapons designed and deployed with the
intent to produce EMP have a high likelihood of damaging electrical power systems,
electronics and information systems upon which any reasonably advanced society, most
specifically including our own, depend vitally," Wood said. "Their effects on systems and
infrastructures dependent on electricity and electronics could be sufficiently ruinous as to
qualify as catastrophic to the American nation."




             America At War - Six Months in the Dark
America At War by Hal Lindsey
5/4/2005

Six Months in the Dark

Senator John Kyl recently pointed out how vulnerable America really is in an Op-Ed
piece in the Washington Post. Senator Kyl argues that America’s first priority should be
defensive, not offensive.

Although it seems laughable to think America could be defeated militarily by any foreign
power (barring total nuclear destruction by a force like, say, the Russians), Kyl argues
that a single Iranian Scud missile armed with a single nuclear warhead, detonated 200
miles above the Midwest, could plunge America into the 1880s and render our amazing
military advantages useless.

It is hard to overestimate the scope of the threat an EMP attack against the United States
poses. It would take only a single nuclear warhead of sufficient size detonated from a
sufficient altitude.

Iran is working feverishly toward developing a nuclear weapon and has just successfully
tested a missile capable of delivering it at the right altitude.

A successful strike would be virtually silent. An EMP-blinded Pentagon could be
prevented from pinpointing its origin. And, since the damage is much less than a nuclear
explosion, there would be little support for a non-conventional counterstrike.

Especially if it is launched by terrorists not directly connected with Iran as a country.

While there would be no immediate loss of life, the cascading effects would result in
millions and millions of indirect casualties.
Contaminated water and food, no resupply, six months of darkness and total loss of
communications. It would potentially throw us, technologically speaking, back to the
1880’s.

Consider for example, the effect where I live, in what is called California’ s Inland
Empire. That is a triangle from the desert cities of San Bernardino to Temecula to Palm
Desert.

In the 1880’s very few lived in the desert. It wasn’t survivable. Without working
transportation, electricity for air-conditioning and pumps to supply water, the only way
out is to walk.

The California desert isn’t survivable without water. And if you could survive the walk,
where would you go? Nobody else has food or water either.

An EMP attack’s effects would be felt continent-wide, including Canada and Mexico.
Although our nuclear capability would survive, we dare not use them except to prevent a
direct attack. We would still have our submarine fleet, and shielded communications
would probably survive.

But who would we strike? And what would happen then?

Once our nukes are gone, we present no greater a military threat than, say, Argentina. We
wouldn’t dare to use them. Should Russia decide to help itself to a helpless Mexico or
Canada, there is little anybody could do to stop them.

Senator Kyl says it could take the US as long as six months to make a minimal recovery.
And that’s assuming the Russians, Europeans and Chinese will wait while we are
helpless. The Muslim nations certainly do not want us re-assume our place as “the Great
Satan superpower.”

None of this is an over-exaggeration of the threat posed by such an attack. Neither is it as
unlikely or impossible as we would like to believe.

It isn’t paranoia to think that the Russians would be opposed to seeing America reduced
to a third world country. It would restore Russia to her former status of one of the two
remaining superpowers without having to fire a shot or risk retaliation.

It isn’t paranoia to think Europe would be particularly saddened by the elimination of the
competition for global superpower, either.

Bible prophecy clearly identifies four spheres of global power during the final hours of
human history during the Great Tribulation.

Ezekiel identifies the Russian/Muslim Alliance. John foretells the
200-million-strong-military-force of the Kings of the East.

The prophet Daniel identifies the Kings of the South as the Muslim nations and a revived
form of the old Roman Empire.

There is no mention of a fifth global superpower that matches the description of the
United States. On the contrary, the Revived Roman Culture of Europe is predicted as the
supreme power.

The United States is the world’s only Christian country. It is the only country outside
Israel founded on Judeo-Christian principles.

The nation of Israel is the representative of the Jewish presence in the last days. So, I
believe, is the United States representative of the Church in the very last days.

The United States is mentioned in Scripture for the last days, but in a very different
context than the Tribulation.

Writing of the Church Age, the Apostle Paul wrote;

“But realize this, that in the last days difficult times will come. For men will be lovers of
self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful,
unholy, unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of
good, treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God,
holding to a form of godliness, although they have denied its power; Avoid such men as
these.” (2nd Timothy 3:1-5 NASB)

This is a hard truth. It is difficult not to recognize much of modern America’s social
culture in Paul’s description. But the Apostle Paul also holds out this promise to believers
who trust Jesus during the Church Age’s final hours.

He writes, “For this we say to you, BY THE WORD OF THE LORD, that we who are
alive and remain until the coming of the Lord will not precede those who have fallen
asleep. For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the
archangel and the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.”

Of the living believers at the close of the Church Age, Paul writes:

“Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to
meet the Lord in the air, and so shall we always be with the Lord.”

“Therefore, comfort one another with these words. -- 1 Thessalonians 4:15-16 (NASB)

Finally, Revelation gives a specific promise to the believing remnant Church of the last
days, “Because you have kept My command to persevere, I also will keep you from the
hour of trial which shall come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the
earth.” (Rev. 3:10)

John identifies “those who dwell on the earth” as unbelievers in the seven times they are
mentioned in the Revelation. These are contrasted with the “believers”. The believers are
removed from the place of trial, which is aimed at “those who dwell upon the earth.”

Make sure that you are one of those who will be removed from the time of trial aimed at
the unbelievers. Receive the gift of pardon Christ purchased for you now.



Iran plans to knock out U.S. with 1 nuclear bomb
Tests missiles for electro-magnetic pulse weapon that could destroy America's technical
infrastructure
Posted: April 25, 2005
1:00 a.m. Eastern
By Joseph Farah
© 2005 WorldNetDaily.com
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=43956

"Detonated at a height of 60 to 500 kilometers above the continental U. S., one nuclear
warhead could cripple the country – knocking out electrical power and circuit boards and
rendering the U. S. domestic communications impotent."

WASHINGTON -- Iran is not only covertly developing nuclear weapons, it is already
testing ballistic missiles specifically designed to destroy America's technical
infrastructure, effectively neutralizing the world's lone superpower, say U. S. intelligence
sources, top scientists and western missile industry experts.

The radical Shiite regime has conducted successful tests to determine
if its Shahab-3 ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear
warhead, can be detonated by a remote-control device while still in high-altitude flight.

Scientists, including President Reagan's top science adviser, William R. Graham, say
there is no other explanation for such tests than preparation for the deployment of
Electromagnetic Pulse weapons – even one of which could knock out America's critical
electrical and technological infrastructure, effectively sending the continental U. S. back
to the 19th century with a recovery time of months or years.

Iran will have that capability – at least theoretically – as soon as it has one nuclear bomb
ready to arm such a missile. North Korea, a strategic ally of Iran, already boasts such
capability.

The stunning report was first published over the weekend in Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin,
the premium, online intelligence newsletter published by WND's founder.
Just last month, Congress heard testimony about the use of such weapons and the threat
they pose from rogue regimes.

Iran has surprised intelligence analysts by describing the mid-flight detonations of
missiles fired from ships on the Caspian Sea as "successful" tests. Even primitive Scud
missiles could be used for this purpose. And top U. S. intelligence officials reminded
members of Congress that there is a glut of these missiles on the world market. They are
currently being bought and sold for about $100,000 apiece.

"A terrorist organization might have trouble putting a nuclear warhead 'on target' with a
Scud, but it would be much easier to simply launch and detonate in the atmosphere,"
wrote Sen. John Kyl, R-Ariz., in the Washington Post a week ago. "No need for the risk
and difficulty of trying to smuggle a nuclear weapon over the border or hit a particular
city. Just launch a cheap missile from a freighter in international waters – al-Qaida is
believed to own about 80 such vessels – and make sure to get it a few miles in the air."

The Iranian missile tests were more sophisticated and capable of detonation at higher
elevations – making them more dangerous.

Detonated at a height of 60 to 500 kilometers above the continental U. S., one nuclear
warhead could cripple the country – knocking out electrical power and circuit boards and
rendering the U. S. domestic communications impotent.

While Iran still insists officially in talks currently underway with the European Union
that it is only developing nuclear power for peaceful civilian purposes, the mid-flight
detonation missile tests persuade U. S. military planners and intelligence agencies that
Tehran can only be planning such an attack, which depends on the availability of at least
one nuclear warhead.

Some analysts believe the stage of Iranian missile developments suggests Iranian
scientists will move toward the production of weapons-grade nuclear material shortly as
soon as its nuclear reactor in Busher is operative.

Jerome Corsi, author of "Atomic Iran," told WorldNetDaily the new findings about Iran's
Electromagnetic Pulse experiments significantly raise the stakes of the mullah regime's
bid to become a nuclear power.

"Up until now, I believed the nuclear threat to the U. S. from Iran was limited to the
ability of terrorists to penetrate the borders or port security to deliver a device to a major
city," he said. "While that threat should continue to be a grave concern for every
American, these tests by Iran demonstrate just how devious the fanatical mullahs in
Tehran are. We are facing a clever and unscrupulous adversary in Iran that could bring
America to its knees."

Earlier this week, Iran's top nuclear official said Europe must heed an Iranian proposal on
uranium enrichment or risk a collapse of the talks.
The warning by Hassan Rowhani, head of the Supreme National Security Council, came
as diplomats from Britain, France and Germany began talks with their Iranian
counterparts in Geneva, ahead of a more senior-level meeting in London set for April 29.
Enrichment produces fuel for nuclear reactors, which can also be used in the explosive
core of nuclear bombs.

"The Europeans should tell us whether these ideas can work as the basis for continued
negotiations or not," Rowhani said, referring to the Iranian proposal put forward last
month that would allow some uranium enrichment. "If yes, fine. If not, then the
negotiations cannot continue," he said.

Some analysts believe Iran is using the negotiations merely to buy time for further
development of the nuclear program.

The U. S. plans, according to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, to allow the EU talks
to continue before deciding this summer to push for United Nations sanctions against
Iran.

Last month, the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland
Security chaired by Kyl, held a hearing on the Electromagnetic Pulse, or EMP, threat.

"An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on the American homeland, said one of the
distinguished scientists who testified at the hearing, is one of only a few ways that the
United States could be defeated by its enemies – terrorist or otherwise," wrote Kyl "And
it is probably the easiest. A single Scud missile, carrying a single nuclear weapon,
detonated at the appropriate altitude, would interact with the Earth's atmosphere,
producing an electromagnetic pulse radiating down to the surface at the speed of light.
Depending on the location and size of the blast, the effect would be to knock out already
stressed power grids and other electrical systems across much or even all of the
continental United States, for months if not years."

The purpose of an EMP attack, unlike a nuclear attack on land, is not to kill people, but
"to kill electrons," as Graham explained. He serves as chairman of the Commission to
Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack and was
director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and science adviser
to the president during the Reagan administration.

Graham told WorldNetDaily he could think of no other reason for Iran to be
experimenting with mid-air detonation of missiles than for the planning of an EMP-style
attack.

"EMP offers a bigger bang for the buck," he said. He also suggested such an attack makes
a U. S. nuclear response against a suspected enemy less likely than the detonation of a
nuclear bomb in a major U. S. city.
A 2004 report by the commission found "several potential adversaries have or can
acquire the capability to attack the United States with a high-altitude nuclear weapons-
generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A determined adversary can achieve an EMP
attack capability without having a high level of sophistication."

"EMP is one of a small number of threats that can hold our society at risk of catastrophic
consequences," the report said. "EMP will cover the wide geographic region within line
of sight to the nuclear weapon. It has the capability to produce significant damage to
critical infrastructures and thus to the very fabric of U. S. society, as well as to the ability
of the United States and Western nations to project influence and military power."

The major impact of EMP weapons is on electronics, "so pervasive in all aspects of our
society and military, coupled through critical infrastructures," explained the report.

"Their effects on systems and infrastructures dependent on electricity and electronics
could be sufficiently ruinous as to qualify as catastrophic to the nation," Lowell Wood,
acting chairman of the commission, told members of Congress.

The commission report went so far as to suggest, in its opening sentence, that an EMP
attack "might result in the defeat of our military forces."

"Briefly, a single nuclear weapon exploded at high altitude above the United States will
interact with the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetic field to produce an
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation down to the Earth and additionally create
electrical currents in the Earth," said the report. "EMP effects are both direct and indirect.
The former are due to electrical systems, and the latter arise from the damage that
'shocked' – upset, damaged and destroyed – electronics controls then inflict on the
systems in which they are embedded. The indirect effects can be even more severe than
the direct effects."

The EMP threat is not a new one considered by U. S. defense planners. The Soviet Union
had experimented with the idea as a kind of super-weapon against the U. S.

"What is different now is that some potential sources of EMP threats are difficult to deter
– they can be terrorist groups that have no state identity, have only one or a few weapons
and are motivated to attack the U. S. without regard for their own safety," explains the
commission report. "Rogue states, such as North Korea and Iran, may also be developing
the capability to pose an EMP threat to the United States and may also be unpredictable
and difficult to deter."

Graham describes the potential "cascading effect" of an EMP attack. If electrical power is
knocked out and circuit boards fried, telecommunications are disrupted, energy deliveries
are impeded, the financial system breaks down, food, water and gasoline become scarce.

As Kyl put it: "Few if any people would die right away. But the loss of power would have
a cascading effect on all aspects of U. S. society. Communication would be largely
impossible. Lack of refrigeration would leave food rotting in warehouses, exacerbated by
a lack of transportation as those vehicles still working simply ran out of gas

(which is pumped with electricity). The inability to sanitize and distribute water would
quickly threaten public health, not to mention the safety of anyone in the path of the
inevitable fires, which would rage unchecked. And as we have seen in areas of natural
and other disasters, such circumstances often result in a fairly rapid breakdown of social
order."

"American society has grown so dependent on computer and other electrical systems that
we have created our own Achilles' heel of vulnerability, ironically much greater than
those of other, less developed nations," the senator wrote. "When deprived of power, we
are in many ways helpless, as the New York City blackout made clear. In that case,
power was restored quickly because adjacent areas could provide help. But a large-scale
burnout caused by a broad EMP attack would create a much more difficult situation. Not
only would there be nobody nearby to help, it could take years to replace destroyed
equipment."

The commission said hardening key infrastructure systems and procuring vital backup
equipment such as transformers is both feasible and – compared with the threat –
relatively inexpensive.

"But it will take leadership by the Department of Homeland Security, the Defense
Department, and other federal agencies, along with support from Congress, all of which
have yet to materialize," wrote Kyl, so far the only elected official blowing the whistle
this alarming development.

Kyl concluded in his report: "The Sept. 11 commission report stated that our biggest
failure was one of 'imagination.' No one imagined that terrorists would do what they did
on Sept. 11. Today few Americans can conceive of the possibility that terrorists could
bring our society to its knees by destroying everything we rely on that runs on electricity.
But this time we've been warned, and we'd better be prepared to respond."




                          Have An Evacuation Plan
Below is an exact copy of an e-mail a friend sent to me. It's real, written in dialogue
form, of the talk he had with his family about their evacuation plan in case of an EMP
attack or virtually any other type of emergency. I did not write this, nor did I change a
word. If you do not have a family evacuation plan, what follows will give you the
guidelines you need for an evacuation plan for family members within a fixed location.

If you have family spread over a considerable distance, more planning will have to be
done. I may have to drive to Northern California to bring back our daughter and
granddaughter, so I have printed maps of all the side routes, logging roads, etc, to avoid
driving in the Interstate freeway. I also have enough fuel in 5 gallon cans to make it all
the way there and back. None of the service stations would be working (electric pumps
from underground tanks?), and I would not want to go near them in any case because the
"local authorities" would be guarding that fuel for their own use.

Doubt the need for these plans? Many nations are preparing for a paralyzing EMP first
strike! The latest word - May 27, 2005 - is that Iran is now equipped for an atomic
weapon, news that reportedly stunned President Bush. The "possibility" has now turned
into a "probability," not if, but when we get hit with a terrorist EMP bomb.

Miles

               ~~~~~~~~~~~~ Message from a friend ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Last night we had a "family meeting", primarily to discuss EMP with our teen aged
children. I started with a brief history of nuclear weapons, the cold war and ICBM's.
Then proliferation and the current religious war that we are calling a war on terrorism.
And, what could happen if a long list of enemies were able to pull off an air burst and
resultant EMP. We pointed out that the odds of it happening are not great but the
repercussions would be huge as it would end our society as we know it and therefore very
tempting to those who hate us. And actually would not be that difficult to pull off. So, a
prudent person would have a plan.



"So, what’s the plan", daughter asked. Bottom line is the entire family has to get home
(home base).

Step one is a threat assessment. Most likely such an attack would occur during a weekday
and relatively early on the west coast (where we live) (meaning mid-morning to mid-
afternoon attack in the Midwest or east coast so earlier our time). Wherever you are these
days, if the power goes out you have to investigate. First, check to see if phones are
working, both Cell and land line. Start calling people you know to see if their power is
out. If your power goes out but the phone is working and you call grandpa and their
power is on, its no big deal. Also, go outside and look around, if you can see streetlights
(or anything electric) functioning five blocks away, no big deal.

No power and no phones, the alert level goes up a notch. Next you need to see if cars are
working as an EMP pulse would likely make most cars inoperable, some simply dead in
the middle of the road. Some will work but most will not. At that point daughter asked
"which cars will work?". Mostly older vehicles and especially diesel vehicles. I told her.
To which she replied, "why don't we have any of those?". We have other plans I told her.
"Like what?" First we ground all our vehicles when parked and second our garage is
mostly metal and is grounded also.

Okay, no power, no phones, cars not working, its an “oh sh*t” situation and time to act. If
you are at school you have to get out of there and get to my office pronto which will be
our staging area. The teachers might not want you to leave but I don’t care. Tell them
whatever and don’t worry about getting in trouble. If you leave and it is not a major
problem I will take the blame. It is two miles from school to my office, your in good
shape so you should be able to make it in 20 minutes or less. Here is a map of the route I
want you to use and a key to the office. If I am out and you are the first one there just
lock yourself in and wait for the rest of the family to arrive.

The next day I drove the route I wanted them to take. To which daughter asked, "why did
you choose this route, we never drive this way?" (questions questions!) Two reasons, first
it is off the main arterials on residential streets which will be safer and second there is a
lot of shade in case its hot. She liked that. But the main point is that if our vehicles are
working and we come looking for you we have to know exactly where to look!

Now, everyone is at the office, step two. It is 14 miles from office to home. In the office
basement there are bicycles for everyone (purchased at pawn shops for a song, little oil
and tune up and they will do the job), a backpack with spare tubes, pump, tools, water,
energy bars and comfortable shoes. I described the route we will take and explained we
should have no trouble making it home in less than two hours given there is some
significant elevation gain.

“What if you are working from home and we are in town?”, she asked. The simplest
scenario is if we are all at our normal work/school locations, we all know what to do. Yet
there are a multitude of scenarios where we would not all be able to meet at the office in
a timely fashion. What do we do then, its not like we can call each other. That’s what our
radios are for. What radios? Do you remember those little walkie-talkies we take to the
mall and Disney Land (FRS), Yes. Well I bought four radios like those that are high
powered GMRS).

They say their rated for 5 to 8 miles range yet I have tested them and they will work
much farther than that. I climbed to the top of the hill above our house and I was able to
have a very clear conversation with you grampa at his house (over 15 miles as the crow
flies). “That’s crazy”, she said. They work on a principal of line of sight though so the
more in the open you are the better they work. I have put the four radios in small Faraday
cages so they will still work after the EMP. There is one in the office basement, One in
my truck, one at moms work and one at home. Inside each box is two sets of batteries, a
head set and instructions as to the channels we will use and power settings. With these we
should be able to communicate. At my office, they will work best if you go up on the roof
and at home we will have to climb up on the hill.

Last thing, there is also a small radio in my desk that is EMP protected. It gets AM/FM
and Short Wave stations. The first person there opens it and checks for news. If you girls
have to travel home alone the .357 S&W snub nose revolver is also in my desk. Wear it
inside your waste belt in the small of your back like we have practiced. The Sigg 9mm
with two 15 rd magazines is in the fanny pack which stays in the SUV, Okay? Sounds
like a good plan, Can we have some Ice Cream? Sure
         ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE RISKS AND
         TERRORISM
         Other Subjects:
          --- EMP and Faraday Cages
          --- EMP and Other Practical Advice
          --- EMP Senate Hearings March 2005
          --- EMP News Articles and Commentary

         General Definition - Electromagnetic pulse

         In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s
         atmosphere or alternatively an E-Bomb (see below) can create an electromagnetic
         pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical field. EMP acts like a stroke of lightning but is
         stronger, faster and briefer. EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected
         to power sources or antennas. This include communication systems, computers,
         electrical appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could
         range from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic
         equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected.
         Battery powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected.

         Although EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers
         or other implanted electronic devices.

         An Air Force spokesman, who describes this effect as similar to a lightning strike,
         points out that electronics systems can be protected by placing them in metal
         enclosures called Faraday Cages that divert any impinging electromagnetic energy
         directly to the ground. Foreign military analysts say this reassuring explanation is
         incomplete.

         What can be done?
         See Web Page on Faraday Cages
          (http://www.unitedstatesaction.com/emp_and_faraday_cages.htm)
         See Web Page on EMP Other Practical Advice
          and also latest news in Washington Times August 19, 2003 commentary ("The
         blackout next time").

         From: http://www.physics.northwestern.edu/classes/2001Fall/Phyx135-2/19/emp.htm

Home | Electromagnetic Pulse | Railgun Technology | Non-lethal Anti-Personnel Electromagnetic Weapons
Definition of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP):

1. The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion
caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from
photons scattered in the materials of the nuclear device or in a
surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields
may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce
damaging current and voltage surges. May also be caused by nonnuclear means.
2. A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy. Note: In the case of
a nuclear detonation, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most
of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz.




History of the EMP

The existence of the electromagnetic pulse has been known since the 1940's when nuclear
weapons were being developed and tested. However, because of lack of data, the effects of an
EMP were not fully known until 1962. At this time, the United States was conducting a series of
high-altitude atmospheric tests, code named "Fishbowl." The nuclear explosion, "Starfish Prime,"
which was detonated in the Pacific Ocean 800 miles from Hawaii, caused an EMP that disrupted
radio stations and electrical equipment throughout Hawaii. Consequently, in 1963, the United
States and the Soviet Union signed the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty to counter the considerable
threat posed by EMPs. Unfortunately, the destructive potential of an EMP increases everyday as
society becomes evermore technological because of an escalating dependence on electronics.



Physics of the EMP

An electromagnetic pulse starts with a short, intense burst of gamma rays produced from nuclear
detonation. The gamma rays interact with the atoms in air molecules through a process called the
Compton effect, wherein electrons are scattered at high energies, thus ionizing the atmosphere
and generating a powerful electrical field. The strength of the EMP depends highly on the altitude
at which it is released. At altitudes above 30,000m, it is the strongest. It is also significant at
surface or low altitude bursts, but is not as effective between the two extremes.



Effects of an EMP

Although the electric field created from an EMP lasts for only a short time, its effects can be
devastating. It is predicted that a single high altitude burst 200 miles above Kansas could
propagate an EMP enveloping the entire United States. Electrical systems connected to things that
can conduct current like wires, antennas, and metal objects will suffer significant damage. EMP
effects on electronics include interference of radio frequency links, irreparable damage to
microcircuits, and even the disabling of satellites. Fortunately, electronic equipment that is turned
off is less likely to be damaged.



Protecting Against EMP
Electrical equipment is "hardened" to protect itself from an EMP. The basic concern of protection is
cutting down the outside EMP level. Metallic shielding is used to route EMP fields away from vital
electrical components. If it is also connected to a cable, transient protection like surge protectors,
wire termination procedures, screened isolated transformers, protective enclosures, spark gaps,
and filters are used to protect at the point of entry. To protect against EMP in an indirect way, other
methods are used, such as increasing immediate backup units and avoidance (i.e. keeping
equipment out of range of EMP bursts).


                           Electromagnetic Pulse: A Terrifying Threat
                                  (click on the pictures to see a larger version)



       After the events of September 11 our nation has come to the
painful realization that our country, our way of life is not immune to
the attack of malicious peoples, peoples with no regard for the rights
we so highly value as Americans, life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness. These ideals have been tainted as the ominous specter
of terrorism has descended across them. We must not buckle; we
must not curb the practice of such self-evident truths, for to do so
would be to give in to our heartless assailants. However, we must
recognize the danger and take precautionary measures regarding all
possible avenues of terrorism so that the catastrophe of the twin
towers is never again repeated. One such vulnerability that must be
addressed is America's vast and virtually unprotected electrical
infrastructure. The development and maturity of electromagnetic
pulse technology has made the possibility of some terror
organization harnessing an E-Bomb practically inevitable. The
physics behind such a weapon as well as the dire consequences if such were to be harnessed by
hate-mongers such as Osama bin Laden who have already
proven beyond a doubt their complete lack of humanity will
be discussed. It will be made apparent why such a
horrendous tool in the hands of the enemy for less that $400
is a terrifying, yet very plausible, reality.

       The fundamentals of the workings of an E-bomb are
grounded in a basic understanding of electromagnetic
physics theory. The technology relies on an electromagnetic
pulse that may be conceptualized as an electric shockwave
created when a stream of highly energetic photons collides
with atoms of low atomic numbers to cause them to eject a
'pulse' of electrons. Such a phenomenon called the Compton
effect was first observed in open-air tests of nuclear bombs
when the immense detonation energy interacted with the
oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere to shoot mass
quantities of electrons radially outwards from the explosion.
Though these pulses diminish in strength over distance, electric lights hundreds of miles away
were overloaded. Today American scientists are working diligently on the creation of E-bombs that
can target artillery hells and missiles and disrupt their trajectory in mid-flight. They could be of
crucial assistance in today's strategic theater that is based much more around urban warfare
where one bomb could take out an enemy's electrical infrastructure before the arrival of ground
troops. America's first major tests of their high-tech EMP weapons based on using high-
temperature superconductors to create intense magnetic fields will take place in less than a year,
however terrorists can today easily construct a potent E-bomb using 1940s technology for only
$400.

       This rudimentary form of E-bomb is called a flux
compression generator. It consists of an explosives packed
tube inside a copper coil that is energized by a bank of
capacitors. This creates a magnetic field. When the
explosives are detonated from rear to front, the tube flares
outwards touching the copper coil and so creating a moving
short circuit. This compresses the magnetic field forward and
creates an EMP that surges from the ordnance with peak
currents of tens of millions of amps. Such a high frequency
pulse can pass through faraday cages used to ground
electromagnetic energy from lightening. However, even if the
cages were effective they would still be easily bypassed
since any wires running from the devices within them would
act as antennae and conduct the high transient voltage.
There is also a so called 'late-time EMP effect.' This refers to
the observations of EMPs creating localized magnetic fields
within electrical systems they pass through that soon collapse sending huge surges through power
and telecommunication infrastructure. This sparks a chain reaction in which all devices attached to
these lines will be rendered useless by the massive surge. Such FCGs can be made with basic
electrical materials, plastic explosives and readily available machine tools and can be smaller than
a suitcase. The fact that this weapon is so startlingly simple to construct and can potentially be so
devastating to our society coupled with the terrorist attacks of September 11th constitutes a
wakeup call to our national defense planners. Terrorists have proven that they are serious, now we
must prove ourselves up to the task of planning for every contingency, including the dreaded
scenario of a weapon that could propel our society back two-hundred years to an age devoid of
electricity.




Internet Sources
http://huachuca-usaic.army.mil/contlearning/infrastructure/media/mipb/janmarch97/merkle.html
http://popularmechanics.com/science/military/2001/9/e-bomb/
http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/kopp/apjemp.html
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/5971/emp.html
http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/nssp/nssq/Edwards.pdf
http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/dir-013/_1938.htm
                          The      E -BOMB
 In the blink of an eye, electromagnetic bombs could
throw civilization back 200 years ; and terrorists can
             build them for only $400 ....
        Text by : JIM WILSON, and educative illustration by : JOHN BATCHELOR


The next Pearl Harbor will not announce itself with a searing flash of nuclear
light. You only will hear a sharp crack in the distance. By the time you mistakenly
identify this sound as an innocent clap of thunder, the civilized world will have
become unhinged. Fluorescent lights and television sets will glow eerily bright,
despite being turned off. The aroma of ozone mixed with smoldering plastic will
seep from outlet covers as electric wires arc and telephone lines melt. Your Palm
Pilot and MP3 player will feel warm to the touch, their batteries overloaded. Your
computer, and every bit of data on it, will be toast. And then you will notice that the
world sounds different too. The background music of civilization, the whirl of
internal-combustion engines, will have stopped. Save a few diesels, engines will
never start again. You, however, will remain unharmed, as you find yourself thrust
backward 200 years, to a time when electricity meant a lightning bolt fracturing the
night sky. This is not a hypothetical, son-of-Y2K scenario. It is a realistic
assessment of the damage the Pentagon believes could be inflicted by a new
generation of weapons : E-bombs ....

The first major test of an American electromagnetic bomb was scheduled for 2002.
Ultimately, the Army hopes to use E-bomb technology to explode artillery shells in
midflight. The Navy wants to use the E-bomb's high-power microwave pulses to
neutralize antiship missiles. And, the Air Force plans to equip its bombers, strike
fighters, cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles with E-bomb capabilities.
When fielded, these will be among the most technologically sophisticated weapons
the U.S. military establishment has ever built ....

There is, however, another part to the E-bomb story, one that military planners are
reluctant to discuss. While American versions of these weapons are based on
advanced technologies, terrorists could use a less expensive, low-tech approach to
create the same destructive power. "Any nation with even a 1940s technology base
could make them", says Carlo Kopp, an Australian-based expert on high-tech
warfare : "the threat of E-bomb proliferation is very real". POPULAR
MECHANICS estimates a basic weapon could be built for only $400 ....

To ignite an E-bomb,
a starter current
energizes the stator
coil, creating a
magnetic field. The
explosion (A)
expands the tube,
short-circuiting the
coil and compressing
the magnetic field
forward (B). The
pulse is emitted (C)
at high frequencies
that defeat protective
devices like Faraday
Cages ....




An Old Idea Made New
The theory behind the E-bomb was proposed in 1925 by physicist Arthur H.
Compton — not to build weapons, but to study atoms. Compton demonstrated that
firing a stream of highly energetic photons into atoms that have a low atomic
number causes them to eject a stream of electrons. Physics students know this
phenomenon as the Compton Effect. It became a key tool in unlocking the secrets
of the atom ....

Ironically, this nuclear research led to an unexpected demonstration of the power of
the Compton Effect, and spawned a new type of weapon. In 1958, nuclear weapons
designers ignited hydrogen bombs high over the Pacific Ocean. The detonations
created bursts of gamma rays that, upon striking the oxygen and nitrogen in the
atmosphere, released a tsunami of electrons that spread for hundreds of miles. Street
lights were blown out in Hawaii and radio navigation was disrupted for 18 hours, as
far away as Australia. The United States set out to learn how to "harden" electronics
against this electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and develop EMP weapons ....
America has remained at the forefront of EMP weapons development. Although
much of this work is classified, it's believed that current efforts are based on using
high-temperature superconductors to create intense magnetic fields. What worries
terrorism experts is an idea the United States studied but discarded : the Flux
Compression Generator (FCG) ....

A Poor Man's E-Bomb
An FCG (flux compression generator), is an astoundingly simple weapon. It
consists of an explosives-packed tube placed inside a slightly larger copper coil, as
shown. The instant before the chemical explosive is detonated, the coil is energized
by a bank of capacitors, creating a magnetic field. The explosive charge detonates
from the rear forward. As the tube flares outward it touches the edge of the coil,
thereby creating a moving short circuit. "The propagating short has the effect of
compressing the magnetic field while reducing the inductance of the stator [coil]",
says Kopp : "the result is that FCGs will produce a ramping current pulse, which
breaks before the final disintegration of the device — published results suggest ramp
times of tens of hundreds of microseconds and peak currents of tens of millions of
amps". The pulse that emerges makes a lightning bolt seem like a flashbulb by
comparison ....

An Air Force spokesman, who describes this effect as similar to a lightning strike,
points out that electronics systems can be protected by placing them in metal
enclosures called Faraday Cages that divert any impinging electromagnetic energy
directly to the ground. Foreign military analysts say this reassuring explanation is
incomplete ....

The India Connection
The Indian military has studied FCG devices in detail because it fears that Pakistan,
with which it has ongoing conflicts, might use E-bombs against the city of
Bangalore, a sort of Indian Silicon Valley. An Indian Institute for Defense Studies
and Analysis study of E-bombs points to two problems that have been largely
overlooked by the West. The first is that very-high-frequency pulses, in the
microwave range, can worm their way around vents in Faraday Cages. The second
concern is known as the "late-time EMP effect," and may be the most worrisome
aspect of FCG devices. It occurs in the 15 minutes after detonation. During this
period, the EMP that surged through electrical systems creates localized magnetic
fields. When these magnetic fields collapse, they cause electric surges to travel
through the power and telecommunication infrastructure. This string-of-firecrackers
effect means that terrorists would not have to drop their homemade E-bombs
directly on the targets they wish to destroy. Heavily guarded sites, such as telephone
switching centers and electronic funds-transfer exchanges, could be attacked through
their electric and telecommunication connections ....
  CONCLUSION :» to knock out electric power, computers and telecommunication
  and you've destroyed the foundation of modern society. In the age of Third World-
  sponsored terrorism, the E-bomb is the great equalizer ....




E-Bomb



Wednesday, February 12, 2003


What Is It?

This type of electromagnetic pulse weapon is a warhead that, when exploded, emits a
high-energy pulse that will fuse electrical equipment within range. E-bombs can unleash
in a flash as much electrical power - 2 billion watts or more - as the Hoover Dam
generates in 24 hours.

The theory behind the E-bomb was proposed in 1925 by physicist Arthur H. Compton to
study atoms. His nuclear research led to an unexpected demonstration of the power and
spawned a new type of weapon. In 1958, nuclear weapons designers ignited hydrogen
bombs high over the Pacific Ocean. The detonations created bursts of gamma rays that,
upon striking the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere, released electrons that spread
for hundreds of miles. Street lights were blown out in Hawaii and radio navigation was
disrupted for 18 hours, as far away as Australia. The United States set out to learn how to
"harden" electronics against this electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and develop EMP
weapons.

British scientists at Matra Bae Dynamics developed a non-explosive artillery shell
serving as an E-bomb in 2000 that could destroy electrical and electronic systems for
miles.

How Is it Spread?

An "E-bomb" is delivered by a cruise missile. It can be fired from a long-range 155 mm
artillery gun or MLRS rocket launcher, then its outer casing breaks open over the target.
The shell or rocket unfolds its radio transmitter aerials, then the transmitter sends a high-
powered radio pulse of billions of watts that lasts just a few nanoseconds. It would zap
anything electronic on the ground. The high-powered microwaves (HPMs) are not
emitted as a single beam but from sidelobes. It's for this reason that E-bombs are dropped
mainly by cruise missiles and not manned aircraft, since the microwaves can reflect off
the ground and affect pilots.

What Are the Symptoms of Exposure?

The E-bomb mainly affects electronic equipment. It could cripple enemy communication
systems and could stop civilian infrastructures such as power plants, manufacturing,
hospitals and transportation, from working. It can scramble phones and computers and
knock out various facilities, and cause lights to blink out.

Fluorescent lights and television sets will glow eerily bright, even if they're turned off.
Electric wires and telephone lines will melt. Portable digital devices such as Palm Pilots
and MP3 players will feel warm to the touch, their batteries overloaded. Computers will
be toast.

The E-bomb isn't harmful to humans, unless one is set off near a hospital or anyone
wearing a pacemaker. Although testing is still ongoing to verify the effects on humans,
scientists do know that if someone with any electrical implants were hit with megawatt,
high-powered microwaves, the fluid in their body cells would vaporize into steam
immediately before they even realized what was happening. If a person was caught in the
sidelobe of a beam, or a weak reflection of the main beam off a metal surface, he or she
could suffer from burns and permanent brain damage.

How Is It Treated?

If a human was directly hit by microwave beams, he or she would be treated for any
burns they may have.

Who Has It?

Although it is still in the experimental phase, the United States may try to use an E-bomb
to seize the Iraqi airwaves if a war is launched on that country. The E-bomb will knock
out Saddam Hussein's ability to communicate with his military and the Iraq people. The
hope is to keep an Iraqi army in place so that it may help keep order in a post-Saddam
Iraq.

"[And], although the Pentagon prefers not to use experimental weapons on the battlefield,
"the world intervenes from time to time," Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said about
the E-bomb.

America has remained at the forefront of EMP weapons development. Although much of
this work is classified, it's believed that current efforts are based on using high-
temperature superconductors to create intense magnetic fields.
In December 2002, various companies were awarded U.S. military contracts to
investigate the lethality of HPM devices on target systems and the susceptibility of U.S.
systems to HPM threats. They're being tested at the Air Force Research Laboratory at
Kirtland Air Force base in New Mexico, as well as at locations in Virginia and
California. The work should be completed by February 2005.

What worries terrorism experts is the Flux Compression Generator (FCG). It's a simple
weapon, consisting of an explosives-packed tube placed inside a slightly larger copper
coil. The instant before the chemical explosive is detonated, the coil is energized by a
bank of capacitors, creating a magnetic field. The explosive charge detonates from the
rear forward. As the tube flares outward it touches the edge of the coil, thereby creating a
moving short circuit. The result is that FCGs will produce a ramping current pulse that
makes a lightning bolt seem like a flashbulb.

The Indian military has studied FCG devices because it fears that Pakistan might use E-
bombs against the city of Bangalore, a sort of Indian Silicon Valley.

==================================================

Report: Iran plans electro-magnetic pulse attack on USA with high-altitude nuke

Iran plans to knock out U.S. with 1 nuclear bomb

Tests missiles for electro-magnetic pulse weapon that could destroy America's technical
infrastructure
Posted: April 25, 2005

Editor's note: Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin is an online, subscription intelligence news
service from the creator of WorldNetDaily.com – a journalist who has been developing
sources around the world for almost 30 years.

By Joseph Farah
2005 WorldNetDaily.com

http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=43956

WASHINGTON -- Iran is not only covertly developing nuclear weapons, it is already
testing ballistic missiles specifically designed to destroy America's technical
infrastructure, effectively neutralizing the world's lone superpower, say U.S. intelligence
sources, top scientists and western missile industry experts.

The radical Shiite regime has conducted successful tests to determine if its Shahab-3
ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear warhead, can be detonated by a remote-
control device while still in high-altitude flight.

Scientists, including President Reagan's top science adviser, William R. Graham, say
there is no other explanation for such tests than preparation for the deployment of
Electromagnetic Pulse weapons – even one of which could knock out America's critical
electrical and technological infrastructure, effectively sending the continental U.S. back
to the 19th century with a recovery time of months or years.

Iran will have that capability – at least theoretically – as soon as it has one nuclear bomb
ready to arm such a missile. North Korea, a strategic ally of Iran, already boasts such
capability.

The stunning report was first published over the weekend in Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin,
the premium, online intelligence newsletter published by WND's founder.

Just last month, Congress heard testimony about the use of such weapons and the threat
they pose from rogue regimes.

Iran has surprised intelligence analysts by describing the mid-flight detonations of
missiles fired from ships on the Caspian Sea as "successful" tests. Even primitive Scud
missiles could be used for this purpose. And top U.S. intelligence officials reminded
members of Congress that there is a glut of these missiles on the world market. They are
currently being bought and sold for about $100,000 apiece.

"A terrorist organization might have trouble putting a nuclear warhead 'on target' with a
Scud, but it would be much easier to simply launch and detonate in the atmosphere,"
wrote Sen. John Kyl, R-Ariz., in the Washington Post a week ago. "No need for the risk
and difficulty of trying to smuggle a nuclear weapon over the border or hit a particular
city. Just launch a cheap missile from a freighter in international waters – al-Qaida is
believed to own about 80 such vessels – and make sure to get it a few miles in the air."

The Iranian missile tests were more sophisticated and capable of detonation at higher
elevations – making them more dangerous.

Detonated at a height of 60 to 500 kilometers above the continental U.S., one nuclear
warhead could cripple the country – knocking out electrical power and circuit boards and
rendering the U.S. domestic communications impotent.

While Iran still insists officially in talks currently underway with the European Union
that it is only developing nuclear power for peaceful civilian purposes, the mid-flight
detonation missile tests persuade U.S. military planners and intelligence agencies that
Tehran can only be planning such an attack, which depends on the availability of at least
one nuclear warhead.

Some analysts believe the stage of Iranian missile developments suggests Iranian
scientists will move toward the production of weapons-grade nuclear material shortly as
soon as its nuclear reactor in Busher is operative.

Jerome Corsi, author of "Atomic Iran," told WorldNetDaily the new findings about Iran's
Electromagnetic Pulse experiments significantly raise the stakes of the mullah regime's
bid to become a nuclear power.

"Up until now, I believed the nuclear threat to the U.S. from Iran was limited to the
ability of terrorists to penetrate the borders or port security to deliver a device to a major
city," he said. "While that threat should continue to be a grave concern for every
American, these tests by Iran demonstrate just how devious the fanatical mullahs in
Tehran are. We are facing a clever and unscrupulous adversary in Iran that could bring
America to its knees."

Earlier this week, Iran's top nuclear official said Europe must heed an Iranian proposal on
uranium enrichment or risk a collapse of the talks.

The warning by Hassan Rowhani, head of the Supreme National Security Council, came
as diplomats from Britain, France and Germany began talks with their Iranian
counterparts in Geneva, ahead of a more senior-level meeting in London set for April 29.
Enrichment produces fuel for nuclear reactors, which can also be used in the explosive
core of nuclear bombs.

"The Europeans should tell us whether these ideas can work as the basis for continued
negotiations or not," Rowhani said, referring to the Iranian proposal put forward last
month that would allow some uranium enrichment. "If yes, fine. If not, then the
negotiations cannot continue," he said.

Some analysts believe Iran is using the negotiations merely to buy time for further
development of the nuclear program.

The U.S. plans, according to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, to allow the EU talks
to continue before deciding this summer to push for United Nations sanctions against
Iran.

Last month, the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland
Security chaired by Kyl, held a hearing on the Electromagnetic Pulse, or EMP, threat.

"An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on the American homeland, said one of the
distinguished scientists who testified at the hearing, is one of only a few ways that the
United States could be defeated by its enemies – terrorist or otherwise," wrote Kyl "And
it is probably the easiest. A single Scud missile, carrying a single nuclear weapon,
detonated at the appropriate altitude, would interact with the Earth's atmosphere,
producing an electromagnetic pulse radiating down to the surface at the speed of light.
Depending on the location and size of the blast, the effect would be to knock out already
stressed power grids and other electrical systems across much or even all of the
continental United States, for months if not years."

The purpose of an EMP attack, unlike a nuclear attack on land, is not to kill people, but
"to kill electrons," as Graham explained. He serves as chairman of the Commission to
Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack and was
director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and science adviser
to the president during the Reagan administration.

Graham told WorldNetDaily he could think of no other reason for Iran to be
experimenting with mid-air detonation of missiles than for the planning of an EMP-style
attack.

"EMP offers a bigger bang for the buck," he said. He also suggested such an attack makes
a U.S. nuclear response against a suspected enemy less likely than the detonation of a
nuclear bomb in a major U.S. city.

A 2004 report by the commission found "several potential adversaries have or can
acquire the capability to attack the United States with a high-altitude nuclear weapons-
generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A determined adversary can achieve an EMP
attack capability without having a high level of sophistication."

"EMP is one of a small number of threats that can hold our society at risk of catastrophic
consequences," the report said. "EMP will cover the wide geographic region within line
of sight to the nuclear weapon. It has the capability to produce significant damage to
critical infrastructures and thus to the very fabric of U.S. society, as well as to the ability
of the United States and Western nations to project influence and military power."

The major impact of EMP weapons is on electronics, "so pervasive in all aspects of our
society and military, coupled through critical infrastructures," explained the report.

"Their effects on systems and infrastructures dependent on electricity and electronics
could be sufficiently ruinous as to qualify as catastrophic to the nation," Lowell Wood,
acting chairman of the commission, told members of Congress.

The commission report went so far as to suggest, in its opening sentence, that an EMP
attack "might result in the defeat of our military forces."

"Briefly, a single nuclear weapon exploded at high altitude above the United States will
interact with the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetic field to produce an
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation down to the Earth and additionally create
electrical currents in the Earth," said the report. "EMP effects are both direct and indirect.
The former are due to electrical systems, and the latter arise from the damage that
'shocked' – upset, damaged and destroyed – electronics controls then inflict on the
systems in which they are embedded. The indirect effects can be even more severe than
the direct effects."

The EMP threat is not a new one considered by U.S. defense planners. The Soviet Union
had experimented with the idea as a kind of super-weapon against the U.S.

"What is different now is that some potential sources of EMP threats are difficult to deter
– they can be terrorist groups that have no state identity, have only one or a few weapons
and are motivated to attack the U.S. without regard for their own safety," explains the
commission report. "Rogue states, such as North Korea and Iran, may also be developing
the capability to pose an EMP threat to the United States and may also be unpredictable
and difficult to deter."

Graham describes the potential "cascading effect" of an EMP attack. If electrical power is
knocked out and circuit boards fried, telecommunications are disrupted, energy deliveries
are impeded, the financial system breaks down, food, water and gasoline become scarce.

As Kyl put it: "Few if any people would die right away. But the loss of power would have
a cascading effect on all aspects of U.S. society. Communication would be largely
impossible. Lack of refrigeration would leave food rotting in warehouses, exacerbated by
a lack of transportation as those vehicles still working simply ran out of gas (which is
pumped with electricity). The inability to sanitize and distribute water would quickly
threaten public health, not to mention the safety of anyone in the path of the inevitable
fires, which would rage unchecked. And as we have seen in areas of natural and other
disasters, such circumstances often result in a fairly rapid breakdown of social order."

"American society has grown so dependent on computer and other electrical systems that
we have created our own Achilles' heel of vulnerability, ironically much greater than
those of other, less developed nations," the senator wrote. "When deprived of power, we
are in many ways helpless, as the New York City blackout made clear. In that case,
power was restored quickly because adjacent areas could provide help. But a large-scale
burnout caused by a broad EMP attack would create a much more difficult situation. Not
only would there be nobody nearby to help, it could take years to replace destroyed
equipment."

The commission said hardening key infrastructure systems and procuring vital backup
equipment such as transformers is both feasible and – compared with the threat –
relatively inexpensive.

"But it will take leadership by the Department of Homeland Security, the Defense
Department, and other federal agencies, along with support from Congress, all of which
have yet to materialize," wrote Kyl, so far the only elected official blowing the whistle
this alarming development.

Kyl concluded in his report: "The Sept. 11 commission report stated that our biggest
failure was one of 'imagination.' No one imagined that terrorists would do what they did
on Sept. 11. Today few Americans can conceive of the possibility that terrorists could
bring our society to its knees by destroying everything we rely on that runs on electricity.
But this time we've been warned, and we'd better be prepared to respond."
         ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE RISKS AND
         TERRORISM
         Other Subjects:
          --- EMP and Faraday Cages
          --- EMP and Other Practical Advice
          --- EMP Senate Hearings March 2005
          --- EMP News Articles and Commentary

         General Definition - Electromagnetic pulse

         In addition to other effects, a nuclear weapon detonated in or above the earth’s
         atmosphere or alternatively an E-Bomb (see below) can create an electromagnetic
         pulse (EMP), a high-density electrical field. EMP acts like a stroke of lightning but is
         stronger, faster and briefer. EMP can seriously damage electronic devices connected
         to power sources or antennas. This include communication systems, computers,
         electrical appliances, and automobile or aircraft ignition systems. The damage could
         range from a minor interruption to actual burnout of components. Most electronic
         equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected.
         Battery powered radios with short antennas generally would not be affected.

         Although EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers
         or other implanted electronic devices.

         An Air Force spokesman, who describes this effect as similar to a lightning strike,
         points out that electronics systems can be protected by placing them in metal
         enclosures called Faraday Cages that divert any impinging electromagnetic energy
         directly to the ground. Foreign military analysts say this reassuring explanation is
         incomplete.

         What can be done?
         See Web Page on Faraday Cages
          (http://www.unitedstatesaction.com/emp_and_faraday_cages.htm)
         See Web Page on EMP Other Practical Advice
          and also latest news in Washington Times August 19, 2003 commentary ("The
         blackout next time").

         From: http://www.physics.northwestern.edu/classes/2001Fall/Phyx135-2/19/emp.htm

Home | Electromagnetic Pulse | Railgun Technology | Non-lethal Anti-Personnel Electromagnetic Weapons
Definition of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP):
1. The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion
caused by Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from
photons scattered in the materials of the nuclear device or in a
surrounding medium. The resulting electric and magnetic fields
may couple with electrical/electronic systems to produce
damaging current and voltage surges. May also be caused by nonnuclear means.
2. A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic energy. Note: In the case of
a nuclear detonation, the electromagnetic pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most
of the energy is distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz.




History of the EMP

The existence of the electromagnetic pulse has been known since the 1940's when nuclear
weapons were being developed and tested. However, because of lack of data, the effects of an
EMP were not fully known until 1962. At this time, the United States was conducting a series of
high-altitude atmospheric tests, code named "Fishbowl." The nuclear explosion, "Starfish Prime,"
which was detonated in the Pacific Ocean 800 miles from Hawaii, caused an EMP that disrupted
radio stations and electrical equipment throughout Hawaii. Consequently, in 1963, the United
States and the Soviet Union signed the Atmospheric Test Ban Treaty to counter the considerable
threat posed by EMPs. Unfortunately, the destructive potential of an EMP increases everyday as
society becomes evermore technological because of an escalating dependence on electronics.



Physics of the EMP

An electromagnetic pulse starts with a short, intense burst of gamma rays produced from nuclear
detonation. The gamma rays interact with the atoms in air molecules through a process called the
Compton effect, wherein electrons are scattered at high energies, thus ionizing the atmosphere
and generating a powerful electrical field. The strength of the EMP depends highly on the altitude
at which it is released. At altitudes above 30,000m, it is the strongest. It is also significant at
surface or low altitude bursts, but is not as effective between the two extremes.



Effects of an EMP

Although the electric field created from an EMP lasts for only a short time, its effects can be
devastating. It is predicted that a single high altitude burst 200 miles above Kansas could
propagate an EMP enveloping the entire United States. Electrical systems connected to things that
can conduct current like wires, antennas, and metal objects will suffer significant damage. EMP
effects on electronics include interference of radio frequency links, irreparable damage to
microcircuits, and even the disabling of satellites. Fortunately, electronic equipment that is turned
off is less likely to be damaged.



Protecting Against EMP

Electrical equipment is "hardened" to protect itself from an EMP. The basic concern of protection is
cutting down the outside EMP level. Metallic shielding is used to route EMP fields away from vital
electrical components. If it is also connected to a cable, transient protection like surge protectors,
wire termination procedures, screened isolated transformers, protective enclosures, spark gaps,
and filters are used to protect at the point of entry. To protect against EMP in an indirect way, other
methods are used, such as increasing immediate backup units and avoidance (i.e. keeping
equipment out of range of EMP bursts).


                           Electromagnetic Pulse: A Terrifying Threat
                                  (click on the pictures to see a larger version)



       After the events of September 11 our nation has come to the
painful realization that our country, our way of life is not immune to
the attack of malicious peoples, peoples with no regard for the rights
we so highly value as Americans, life, liberty and the pursuit of
happiness. These ideals have been tainted as the ominous specter
of terrorism has descended across them. We must not buckle; we
must not curb the practice of such self-evident truths, for to do so
would be to give in to our heartless assailants. However, we must
recognize the danger and take precautionary measures regarding all
possible avenues of terrorism so that the catastrophe of the twin
towers is never again repeated. One such vulnerability that must be
addressed is America's vast and virtually unprotected electrical
infrastructure. The development and maturity of electromagnetic
pulse technology has made the possibility of some terror
organization harnessing an E-Bomb practically inevitable. The
physics behind such a weapon as well as the dire consequences if such were to be harnessed by
hate-mongers such as Osama bin Laden who have already proven beyond a doubt their complete
lack of humanity will be discussed. It will be made apparent why such a horrendous tool in the
hands of the enemy for less that $400 is a terrifying, yet very plausible, reality.

       The fundamentals of the workings of an E-bomb are grounded in a basic understanding of
electromagnetic physics theory. The technology relies on an electromagnetic pulse that may be
conceptualized as an electric shockwave created when a stream of highly energetic photons
collides with atoms of low atomic numbers to cause them to eject a 'pulse' of electrons. Such a
phenomenon called the Compton effect was first observed in open-air tests of nuclear bombs
when the immense detonation energy interacted with the oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the
atmosphere to shoot mass quantities of electrons radially outwards from the explosion. Though
these pulses diminish in strength over distance, electric lights hundreds of miles away were
overloaded. Today American scientists are working diligently on the creation of E-bombs that can
target artillery hells and missiles and disrupt their trajectory in mid-flight. They could be of crucial
assistance in today's strategic theater that is based much more around urban warfare where one
bomb could take out an enemy's electrical infrastructure before the arrival of ground troops.
America's first major tests of their high-tech EMP weapons based on using high-temperature
superconductors to create intense magnetic fields will take place in less than a year, however
terrorists can today easily construct a potent E-bomb using 1940s technology for only $400.

       This rudimentary form of E-bomb is called a flux
compression generator. It consists of an explosives packed
tube inside a copper coil that is energized by a bank of
capacitors. This creates a magnetic field. When the
explosives are detonated from rear to front, the tube flares
outwards touching the copper coil and so creating a moving
short circuit. This compresses the magnetic field forward and
creates an EMP that surges from the ordnance with peak
currents of tens of millions of amps. Such a high frequency
pulse can pass through faraday cages used to ground
electromagnetic energy from lightening. However, even if the
cages were effective they would still be easily bypassed
since any wires running from the devices within them would
act as antennae and conduct the high transient voltage.
There is also a so called 'late-time EMP effect.' This refers to
the observations of EMPs creating localized magnetic fields
within electrical systems they pass through that soon collapse sending huge surges through power
and telecommunication infrastructure. This sparks a chain reaction in which all devices attached to
these lines will be rendered useless by the massive surge. Such FCGs can be made with basic
electrical materials, plastic explosives and readily available machine tools and can be smaller than
a suitcase. The fact that this weapon is so startlingly simple to construct and can potentially be so
devastating to our society coupled with the terrorist attacks of September 11th constitutes a
wakeup call to our national defense planners. Terrorists have proven that they are serious, now we
must prove ourselves up to the task of planning for every contingency, including the dreaded
scenario of a weapon that could propel our society back two-hundred years to an age devoid of
electricity.




Internet Sources
http://huachuca-usaic.army.mil/contlearning/infrastructure/media/mipb/janmarch97/merkle.html
http://popularmechanics.com/science/military/2001/9/e-bomb/
http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/kopp/apjemp.html
http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/5971/emp.html
http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/nssp/nssq/Edwards.pdf
http://www.its.bldrdoc.gov/fs-1037/dir-013/_1938.htm
                            The     E -BOMB
   In the blink of an eye, electromagnetic bombs could
  throw civilization back 200 years ; and terrorists can
               build them for only $400 ....
          Text by : JIM WILSON, and educative illustration by : JOHN BATCHELOR


The next Pearl Harbor will not announce itself with a searing flash of nuclear light.
You only will hear a sharp crack in the distance. By the time you mistakenly identify this
sound as an innocent clap of thunder, the civilized world will have become unhinged.
Fluorescent lights and television sets will glow eerily bright, despite being turned off.
The aroma of ozone mixed with smoldering plastic will seep from outlet covers as
electric wires arc and telephone lines melt. Your Palm Pilot and MP3 player will feel
warm to the touch, their batteries overloaded. Your computer, and every bit of data on it,
will be toast. And then you will notice that the world sounds different too. The
background music of civilization, the whirl of internal-combustion engines, will have
stopped. Save a few diesels, engines will never start again. You, however, will remain
unharmed, as you find yourself thrust backward 200 years, to a time when electricity
meant a lightning bolt fracturing the night sky. This is not a hypothetical, son-of-Y2K
scenario. It is a realistic assessment of the damage the Pentagon believes could be
inflicted by a new generation of weapons : E-bombs ....

The first major test of an American electromagnetic bomb was scheduled for 2002.
Ultimately, the Army hopes to use E-bomb technology to explode artillery shells in
midflight. The Navy wants to use the E-bomb's high-power microwave pulses to
neutralize antiship missiles. And, the Air Force plans to equip its bombers, strike
fighters, cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles with E-bomb capabilities. When
fielded, these will be among the most technologically sophisticated weapons the U.S.
military establishment has ever built ....

There is, however, another part to the E-bomb story, one that military planners are
reluctant to discuss. While American versions of these weapons are based on advanced
technologies, terrorists could use a less expensive, low-tech approach to create the same
destructive power. "Any nation with even a 1940s technology base could make them",
says Carlo Kopp, an Australian-based expert on high-tech warfare : "the threat of E-bomb
proliferation is very real". POPULAR MECHANICS estimates a basic weapon could be
built for only $400 ....
To ignite an E-bomb,
a starter current
energizes the stator
coil, creating a
magnetic field. The
explosion (A) expands
the tube, short-
circuiting the coil and
compressing the
magnetic field forward
(B). The pulse is
emitted (C) at high
frequencies that defeat
protective devices like
Faraday Cages ....




An Old Idea Made New
The theory behind the E-bomb was proposed in 1925 by physicist Arthur H. Compton —
not to build weapons, but to study atoms. Compton demonstrated that firing a stream of
highly energetic photons into atoms that have a low atomic number causes them to eject a
stream of electrons. Physics students know this phenomenon as the Compton Effect. It
became a key tool in unlocking the secrets of the atom ....

Ironically, this nuclear research led to an unexpected demonstration of the power of the
Compton Effect, and spawned a new type of weapon. In 1958, nuclear weapons
designers ignited hydrogen bombs high over the Pacific Ocean. The detonations created
bursts of gamma rays that, upon striking the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere,
released a tsunami of electrons that spread for hundreds of miles. Street lights were
blown out in Hawaii and radio navigation was disrupted for 18 hours, as far away as
Australia. The United States set out to learn how to "harden" electronics against this
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and develop EMP weapons ....

America has remained at the forefront of EMP weapons development. Although much of
this work is classified, it's believed that current efforts are based on using high-
temperature superconductors to create intense magnetic fields. What worries terrorism
experts is an idea the United States studied but discarded : the Flux Compression
Generator (FCG) ....
A Poor Man's E-Bomb
An FCG (flux compression generator), is an astoundingly simple weapon. It consists of
an explosives-packed tube placed inside a slightly larger copper coil, as shown. The
instant before the chemical explosive is detonated, the coil is energized by a bank of
capacitors, creating a magnetic field. The explosive charge detonates from the rear
forward. As the tube flares outward it touches the edge of the coil, thereby creating a
moving short circuit. "The propagating short has the effect of compressing the magnetic
field while reducing the inductance of the stator [coil]", says Kopp : "the result is that
FCGs will produce a ramping current pulse, which breaks before the final disintegration
of the device — published results suggest ramp times of tens of hundreds of
microseconds and peak currents of tens of millions of amps". The pulse that emerges
makes a lightning bolt seem like a flashbulb by comparison ....

An Air Force spokesman, who describes this effect as similar to a lightning strike, points
out that electronics systems can be protected by placing them in metal enclosures called
Faraday Cages that divert any impinging electromagnetic energy directly to the ground.
Foreign military analysts say this reassuring explanation is incomplete ....

The India Connection
The Indian military has studied FCG devices in detail because it fears that Pakistan, with
which it has ongoing conflicts, might use E-bombs against the city of Bangalore, a sort of
Indian Silicon Valley. An Indian Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis study of E-
bombs points to two problems that have been largely overlooked by the West. The first
is that very-high-frequency pulses, in the microwave range, can worm their way around
vents in Faraday Cages. The second concern is known as the "late-time EMP effect," and
may be the most worrisome aspect of FCG devices. It occurs in the 15 minutes after
detonation. During this period, the EMP that surged through electrical systems creates
localized magnetic fields. When these magnetic fields collapse, they cause electric
surges to travel through the power and telecommunication infrastructure. This string-of-
firecrackers effect means that terrorists would not have to drop their homemade E-bombs
directly on the targets they wish to destroy. Heavily guarded sites, such as telephone
switching centers and electronic funds-transfer exchanges, could be attacked through
their electric and telecommunication connections ....

CONCLUSION :» to knock out electric power, computers and telecommunication and
you've destroyed the foundation of modern society. In the age of Third World-sponsored
terrorism, the E-bomb is the great equalizer ....




  Military Source Warns of North Korea's EMP Bomb
September 02, 2009
http://joongangdaily.joins.com/artic...sp?aid=2909545

North Korea is developing a bomb that emits an electromagnetic field upon
explosion and damages nearby electronic devices, a South Korean military
source has revealed to the JoongAng Ilbo.

The source said North Korea has been working on the electromagnetic pulse
bomb, or EMP bomb, since the mid-1990s, with help from Russian scientists,
adding that the weapon may be near completion.

The EMP bomb produces a short but strong electromagnetic pulse that, if
exploded 40 kilometers (25 miles) above ground, would affect equipment within a
700-kilometer radius, including exposed electrical conductors, such as wires.

According to Australia-based defense analyst Carlo Kopp and his paper at the
GlobalSecurity. org Web site, the EMP effect can cause irreversible damage to
electrical and electronic devices, such as computers, radio and radar. He noted
that EMP devices can render many modern military platforms useless because
they are packed with electronic equipment. He argued that the damaged inflicted
by such a bomb is akin to the harm caused by powerful bolts of lightning. The
EMP bomb is not known to cause casualties. The U. S. forces used them at the
onset of the war on Iraq in 2003.

The South Korean source said he expects the North to develop EMP bombs as
warheads for aircraft bombs and for Scud-B missiles, warning that the North
could use the weapons early and often if war broke out on the peninsula. South
Korean and U. S. forces are vulnerable to EMP attacks since they rely on a great
number of computer systems and their weapons are heavily equipped with
electronic devices, the source explained.

South Korean military's C4I, or command, control, communications, computers
and intelligence, system, could be paralyzed and the nation's air force bases, K-9
self-propelled artillery and other support systems put out of action. For instance,
if an air force base loses its control functions after an EMP explosion, fighter jets
may not be able to land.

The Agency for Defense Development, an institute under the Ministry of National
Defense, announced in July that the South Korean military plans to invest 100
billion won ($80.6 million) in a system that defends against EMP attacks. The
agency said it is targeting 2014 for the advent of an EMP bomb that can paralyze
objects within a 1-kilometer radius. The agency currently has technology for an
EMP weapon with a 100-meter radial range.

Four types of hydrogen bomb raids
The game plan for nuclear war specifies four types of thermonuclear assault: (1)
the bombing of operating nuclear power stations; (2) detonations of a hydrogen
bombs in seas off the US, Japan and South Korea; (3) detonations of H-bombs in
space far above their heartlands; and (4) thermonuclear attacks on their urban
centers.
(snip)

The third possible attack, a high-altitude detonation of hydrogen bombs that
would create a powerful electromagnetic pulse (EMP), would disrupt the
communications and electrical infrastructure of the US, the whole of Japan, and
South Korea.

Many of the essential systems needed to survive war would be knocked out, as
computers are instantly rendered malfunctioning or unusable. Military and
communications systems such as radars, antennas, and missiles, government
offices, would be put out of use, as would energy sources such as nuclear power
stations and transport and communications systems including airports, airplanes,
railways, cars and cell phones.

Ironically the ubiquity of high-tech computing gadgets in the US, Japan and
South Korea has made them most vulnerable to EMP attacks.

Researchers developing portable E-Bomb

By Paul Evans
http://www.gizmag.com/portable-e-bomb/11522/
23:24 April 22, 2009 PDT

High-power microwave (HPM) bombs that use an enormous electromagnetic
radio pulse to disable computers, electronics, vehicles, guided missiles and
communications while leaving people and structures unharmed have been under
investigation in research labs for a number of years. Until recently these
weapons have been impractically large at over 3.5 meters long, but researchers
at Texas Tech University have now built a self powered device with U. S. Army
funding that measures 15 cm in diameter and only 1.5 meters long, making it
small enough to be considered portable.

The device being tested at an arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama should produce a
peak power of 35 MW with a pulse length of 100 to 150 nanoseconds, emitting a
microwave beam in the 2- to 6-GHz range.

You may be wondering how so much energy can be generated with such a small
portable device. Firstly it is due to the apparent power generated by compressing
a lot of energy into a very short period of time. Where electrical power is normally
measured in kilowatt hours on your utility bill, the peak pulse of this E-bomb lasts
just 36 billionths of an hour. Secondly, an E-Bomb is a device that can convert
the output of high explosives into radio waves. The 1.5 meter long Texas Tech
HPM contains three main components: a power generator in the form of a flux
compression generator (FCG), a microwave source called a vircator (for virtual
cathode oscillator), and an antenna that radiates the resultant high-power
microwave radiation.

The source of all this power is the Flux Compression Generator (FCG). In an
FCG, the energy is primarily stored as chemical energy in an explosive like
plastic C4. It consists of a metal pipe with a helical stator coil wound inside it like
a solenoid and a second smaller diameter armature tube which contains the C4
explosive, with an insulating layer between the two in a coaxial arrangement. The
process is started with a 12-volt lead acid battery one end of the coil which
provides a field current. Once detonated the explosive front propagates through
the explosive in the armature pressing the inner pipe against the outer, rapidly
compressing the magnetic field and generating a pulse of electromagnetic
energy. An FCG is a one use device as it is destroyed by the explosive and
although they are relatively cheap, they become less efficient as they get smaller.

In the second part of the process, the FCG's energy pulse is fed through an
inductor producing a voltage of about 100 kilovolts. This voltage powers the
vircator, which converts the energy into microwaves. The same vircator can also
be driven by power sources other than a FCG such as explosive or propellant
driven Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD) generators or by a nonexplosive power
generator that don't self-destruct such as a Marx generator, although these tend
to be much larger than a simple FCG.

Texas Tech is working on a Marx generator in the hopes of making a portable
directed energy weapon called a microwave cannon. The first application may be
to stop vehicles by using a HPM to destroy the electronics and shut the engine
down.

The amount of damage an E-bomb can do depends on its ability to couple the
energy into the target. There are several ways for the microwave power to enter
a system. Front door coupling happens when the pulse weapon couples with an
antenna associated with radar or communications equipment. Back door
coupling occurs through fixed electrical wiring and cables that connect equipment
like mains power or telephone wires. Lower frequencies work better on standing
wiring while higher frequencies can work better through antennas. In both cases
a high voltage standing wave enters the equipment and these spikes cause
damage to electric power supplies and electronic components. For example a
typical semiconductor such as a microprocessor is designed to operate at 3.3 - 5
volts. A large voltage spike can do extensive damage often requiring the
replacement of most semiconductors in the equipment.

Lab testing on the portable HPM has begun, but the technology is not expected
to reach the field any time soon.
Paul Evans

Via: IEEE Spectrum (Image: http://blog.puppetgov.com/).




E-Bomb
Wednesday, February 12, 2003


What Is It?

This type of electromagnetic pulse weapon is a warhead that, when exploded, emits a
high-energy pulse that will fuse electrical equipment within range. E-bombs can unleash
in a flash as much electrical power - 2 billion watts or more - as the Hoover Dam
generates in 24 hours.

The theory behind the E-bomb was proposed in 1925 by physicist Arthur H. Compton to
study atoms. His nuclear research led to an unexpected demonstration of the power and
spawned a new type of weapon. In 1958, nuclear weapons designers ignited hydrogen
bombs high over the Pacific Ocean. The detonations created bursts of gamma rays that,
upon striking the oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere, released electrons that spread
for hundreds of miles. Street lights were blown out in Hawaii and radio navigation was
disrupted for 18 hours, as far away as Australia. The United States set out to learn how to
"harden" electronics against this electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and develop EMP
weapons.

British scientists at Matra Bae Dynamics developed a non-explosive artillery shell
serving as an E-bomb in 2000 that could destroy electrical and electronic systems for
miles.

How Is it Spread?

An "E-bomb" is delivered by a cruise missile. It can be fired from a long-range 155 mm
artillery gun or MLRS rocket launcher, then its outer casing breaks open over the target.
The shell or rocket unfolds its radio transmitter aerials, then the transmitter sends a high-
powered radio pulse of billions of watts that lasts just a few nanoseconds. It would zap
anything electronic on the ground. The high-powered microwaves (HPMs) are not
emitted as a single beam but from sidelobes. It's for this reason that E-bombs are dropped
mainly by cruise missiles and not manned aircraft, since the microwaves can reflect off
the ground and affect pilots.

What Are the Symptoms of Exposure?

The E-bomb mainly affects electronic equipment. It could cripple enemy communication
systems and could stop civilian infrastructures such as power plants, manufacturing,
hospitals and transportation, from working. It can scramble phones and computers and
knock out various facilities, and cause lights to blink out.

Fluorescent lights and television sets will glow eerily bright, even if they're turned off.
Electric wires and telephone lines will melt. Portable digital devices such as Palm Pilots
and MP3 players will feel warm to the touch, their batteries overloaded. Computers will
be toast.

The E-bomb isn't harmful to humans, unless one is set off near a hospital or anyone
wearing a pacemaker. Although testing is still ongoing to verify the effects on humans,
scientists do know that if someone with any electrical implants were hit with megawatt,
high-powered microwaves, the fluid in their body cells would vaporize into steam
immediately before they even realized what was happening. If a person was caught in the
sidelobe of a beam, or a weak reflection of the main beam off a metal surface, he or she
could suffer from burns and permanent brain damage.

How Is It Treated?

If a human was directly hit by microwave beams, he or she would be treated for any
burns they may have.

Who Has It?

Although it is still in the experimental phase, the United States may try to use an E-bomb
to seize the Iraqi airwaves if a war is launched on that country. The E-bomb will knock
out Saddam Hussein's ability to communicate with his military and the Iraq people. The
hope is to keep an Iraqi army in place so that it may help keep order in a post-Saddam
Iraq.

"[And], although the Pentagon prefers not to use experimental weapons on the battlefield,
"the world intervenes from time to time," Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said about
the E-bomb.

America has remained at the forefront of EMP weapons development. Although much of
this work is classified, it's believed that current efforts are based on using high-
temperature superconductors to create intense magnetic fields.
In December 2002, various companies were awarded U.S. military contracts to
investigate the lethality of HPM devices on target systems and the susceptibility of U.S.
systems to HPM threats. They're being tested at the Air Force Research Laboratory at
Kirtland Air Force base in New Mexico, as well as at locations in Virginia and
California. The work should be completed by February 2005.

What worries terrorism experts is the Flux Compression Generator (FCG). It's a simple
weapon, consisting of an explosives-packed tube placed inside a slightly larger copper
coil. The instant before the chemical explosive is detonated, the coil is energized by a
bank of capacitors, creating a magnetic field. The explosive charge detonates from the
rear forward. As the tube flares outward it touches the edge of the coil, thereby creating a
moving short circuit. The result is that FCGs will produce a ramping current pulse that
makes a lightning bolt seem like a flashbulb.

The Indian military has studied FCG devices because it fears that Pakistan might use E-
bombs against the city of Bangalore, a sort of Indian Silicon Valley.

==================================================

Report: Iran plans electro-magnetic pulse attack on USA with high-altitude nuke

Iran plans to knock out U.S. with 1 nuclear bomb

Tests missiles for electro-magnetic pulse weapon that could destroy America's technical
infrastructure
Posted: April 25, 2005

Editor's note: Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin is an online, subscription intelligence news
service from the creator of WorldNetDaily.com – a journalist who has been developing
sources around the world for almost 30 years.

By Joseph Farah
2005 WorldNetDaily.com

http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=43956

WASHINGTON -- Iran is not only covertly developing nuclear weapons, it is already
testing ballistic missiles specifically designed to destroy America's technical
infrastructure, effectively neutralizing the world's lone superpower, say U.S. intelligence
sources, top scientists and western missile industry experts.

The radical Shiite regime has conducted successful tests to determine if its Shahab-3
ballistic missiles, capable of carrying a nuclear warhead, can be detonated by a remote-
control device while still in high-altitude flight.

Scientists, including President Reagan's top science adviser, William R. Graham, say
there is no other explanation for such tests than preparation for the deployment of
Electromagnetic Pulse weapons – even one of which could knock out America's critical
electrical and technological infrastructure, effectively sending the continental U.S. back
to the 19th century with a recovery time of months or years.

Iran will have that capability – at least theoretically – as soon as it has one nuclear bomb
ready to arm such a missile. North Korea, a strategic ally of Iran, already boasts such
capability.

The stunning report was first published over the weekend in Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin,
the premium, online intelligence newsletter published by WND's founder.

Just last month, Congress heard testimony about the use of such weapons and the threat
they pose from rogue regimes.

Iran has surprised intelligence analysts by describing the mid-flight detonations of
missiles fired from ships on the Caspian Sea as "successful" tests. Even primitive Scud
missiles could be used for this purpose. And top U.S. intelligence officials reminded
members of Congress that there is a glut of these missiles on the world market. They are
currently being bought and sold for about $100,000 apiece.

"A terrorist organization might have trouble putting a nuclear warhead 'on target' with a
Scud, but it would be much easier to simply launch and detonate in the atmosphere,"
wrote Sen. John Kyl, R-Ariz., in the Washington Post a week ago. "No need for the risk
and difficulty of trying to smuggle a nuclear weapon over the border or hit a particular
city. Just launch a cheap missile from a freighter in international waters – al-Qaida is
believed to own about 80 such vessels – and make sure to get it a few miles in the air."

The Iranian missile tests were more sophisticated and capable of detonation at higher
elevations – making them more dangerous.

Detonated at a height of 60 to 500 kilometers above the continental U.S., one nuclear
warhead could cripple the country – knocking out electrical power and circuit boards and
rendering the U.S. domestic communications impotent.

While Iran still insists officially in talks currently underway with the European Union
that it is only developing nuclear power for peaceful civilian purposes, the mid-flight
detonation missile tests persuade U.S. military planners and intelligence agencies that
Tehran can only be planning such an attack, which depends on the availability of at least
one nuclear warhead.

Some analysts believe the stage of Iranian missile developments suggests Iranian
scientists will move toward the production of weapons-grade nuclear material shortly as
soon as its nuclear reactor in Busher is operative.

Jerome Corsi, author of "Atomic Iran," told WorldNetDaily the new findings about Iran's
Electromagnetic Pulse experiments significantly raise the stakes of the mullah regime's
bid to become a nuclear power.

"Up until now, I believed the nuclear threat to the U.S. from Iran was limited to the
ability of terrorists to penetrate the borders or port security to deliver a device to a major
city," he said. "While that threat should continue to be a grave concern for every
American, these tests by Iran demonstrate just how devious the fanatical mullahs in
Tehran are. We are facing a clever and unscrupulous adversary in Iran that could bring
America to its knees."

Earlier this week, Iran's top nuclear official said Europe must heed an Iranian proposal on
uranium enrichment or risk a collapse of the talks.

The warning by Hassan Rowhani, head of the Supreme National Security Council, came
as diplomats from Britain, France and Germany began talks with their Iranian
counterparts in Geneva, ahead of a more senior-level meeting in London set for April 29.
Enrichment produces fuel for nuclear reactors, which can also be used in the explosive
core of nuclear bombs.

"The Europeans should tell us whether these ideas can work as the basis for continued
negotiations or not," Rowhani said, referring to the Iranian proposal put forward last
month that would allow some uranium enrichment. "If yes, fine. If not, then the
negotiations cannot continue," he said.

Some analysts believe Iran is using the negotiations merely to buy time for further
development of the nuclear program.

The U.S. plans, according to Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, to allow the EU talks
to continue before deciding this summer to push for United Nations sanctions against
Iran.

Last month, the Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland
Security chaired by Kyl, held a hearing on the Electromagnetic Pulse, or EMP, threat.

"An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack on the American homeland, said one of the
distinguished scientists who testified at the hearing, is one of only a few ways that the
United States could be defeated by its enemies – terrorist or otherwise," wrote Kyl "And
it is probably the easiest. A single Scud missile, carrying a single nuclear weapon,
detonated at the appropriate altitude, would interact with the Earth's atmosphere,
producing an electromagnetic pulse radiating down to the surface at the speed of light.
Depending on the location and size of the blast, the effect would be to knock out already
stressed power grids and other electrical systems across much or even all of the
continental United States, for months if not years."

The purpose of an EMP attack, unlike a nuclear attack on land, is not to kill people, but
"to kill electrons," as Graham explained. He serves as chairman of the Commission to
Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack and was
director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and science adviser
to the president during the Reagan administration.

Graham told WorldNetDaily he could think of no other reason for Iran to be
experimenting with mid-air detonation of missiles than for the planning of an EMP-style
attack.

"EMP offers a bigger bang for the buck," he said. He also suggested such an attack makes
a U.S. nuclear response against a suspected enemy less likely than the detonation of a
nuclear bomb in a major U.S. city.

A 2004 report by the commission found "several potential adversaries have or can
acquire the capability to attack the United States with a high-altitude nuclear weapons-
generated electromagnetic pulse (EMP). A determined adversary can achieve an EMP
attack capability without having a high level of sophistication."

"EMP is one of a small number of threats that can hold our society at risk of catastrophic
consequences," the report said. "EMP will cover the wide geographic region within line
of sight to the nuclear weapon. It has the capability to produce significant damage to
critical infrastructures and thus to the very fabric of U.S. society, as well as to the ability
of the United States and Western nations to project influence and military power."

The major impact of EMP weapons is on electronics, "so pervasive in all aspects of our
society and military, coupled through critical infrastructures," explained the report.

"Their effects on systems and infrastructures dependent on electricity and electronics
could be sufficiently ruinous as to qualify as catastrophic to the nation," Lowell Wood,
acting chairman of the commission, told members of Congress.

The commission report went so far as to suggest, in its opening sentence, that an EMP
attack "might result in the defeat of our military forces."

"Briefly, a single nuclear weapon exploded at high altitude above the United States will
interact with the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetic field to produce an
electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation down to the Earth and additionally create
electrical currents in the Earth," said the report. "EMP effects are both direct and indirect.
The former are due to electrical systems, and the latter arise from the damage that
'shocked' – upset, damaged and destroyed – electronics controls then inflict on the
systems in which they are embedded. The indirect effects can be even more severe than
the direct effects."

The EMP threat is not a new one considered by U.S. defense planners. The Soviet Union
had experimented with the idea as a kind of super-weapon against the U.S.

"What is different now is that some potential sources of EMP threats are difficult to deter
– they can be terrorist groups that have no state identity, have only one or a few weapons
and are motivated to attack the U.S. without regard for their own safety," explains the
commission report. "Rogue states, such as North Korea and Iran, may also be developing
the capability to pose an EMP threat to the United States and may also be unpredictable
and difficult to deter."

Graham describes the potential "cascading effect" of an EMP attack. If electrical power is
knocked out and circuit boards fried, telecommunications are disrupted, energy deliveries
are impeded, the financial system breaks down, food, water and gasoline become scarce.

As Kyl put it: "Few if any people would die right away. But the loss of power would have
a cascading effect on all aspects of U.S. society. Communication would be largely
impossible. Lack of refrigeration would leave food rotting in warehouses, exacerbated by
a lack of transportation as those vehicles still working simply ran out of gas (which is
pumped with electricity). The inability to sanitize and distribute water would quickly
threaten public health, not to mention the safety of anyone in the path of the inevitable
fires, which would rage unchecked. And as we have seen in areas of natural and other
disasters, such circumstances often result in a fairly rapid breakdown of social order."

"American society has grown so dependent on computer and other electrical systems that
we have created our own Achilles' heel of vulnerability, ironically much greater than
those of other, less developed nations," the senator wrote. "When deprived of power, we
are in many ways helpless, as the New York City blackout made clear. In that case,
power was restored quickly because adjacent areas could provide help. But a large-scale
burnout caused by a broad EMP attack would create a much more difficult situation. Not
only would there be nobody nearby to help, it could take years to replace destroyed
equipment."

The commission said hardening key infrastructure systems and procuring vital backup
equipment such as transformers is both feasible and – compared with the threat –
relatively inexpensive.

"But it will take leadership by the Department of Homeland Security, the Defense
Department, and other federal agencies, along with support from Congress, all of which
have yet to materialize," wrote Kyl, so far the only elected official blowing the whistle
this alarming development.

Kyl concluded in his report: "The Sept. 11 commission report stated that our biggest
failure was one of 'imagination.' No one imagined that terrorists would do what they did
on Sept. 11. Today few Americans can conceive of the possibility that terrorists could
bring our society to its knees by destroying everything we rely on that runs on electricity.
But this time we've been warned, and we'd better be prepared to respond."
          New Congress warning on nuclear EMP threat
U. S. vulnerable to attack by terrorists that could cripple nation, kill millions
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=44866
------- Posted: June 20, 2005, 1:00 a. m. Eastern

Editor's note: This report originates in Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin, an online, subscription
intelligence news service from the creator of WorldNetDaily.com – a journalist who has
been developing sources around the world for almost 30 years. The annual subscription
price for the premium newsletter has been slashed in half and G2B is now available for
only $9.95 per month.

© 2005 WorldNetDaily. com

WASHINGTON – Joining Sen. John Kyl, who earlier warned of how an electromagnetic
pulse attack threatens U. S. survival, Rep. Roscoe Bartlett, chairman of the House
Projection Forces Subcommittee, says an EMP attack – even by an underfunded,
unsophisticated terrorist group – has the potential to cripple U. S. society and kill
millions.

"Today we are very much concerned ... about asymmetric weapons," Bartlett told his
colleagues. "We are a big, powerful country. Nobody can contend with us shoulder-to-
shoulder, face-to-face. So all of our potential adversaries are looking for what we refer to
as asymmetric weapons. That is a weapon that overcomes our superior capabilities. There
is no asymmetric weapon that has anywhere near the potential of EMP."

EMP attacks are generated when a nuclear weapon is detonated at altitudes above a few
dozen kilometers above the Earth's surface. The explosion, of even a small nuclear
warhead, would produce a set of electromagnetic pulses that interact with the Earth's
atmosphere and the Earth's magnetic field.

Joseph Farah's G2 Bulletin first reported the shocking findings of the U. S. EMP
commission that rogue nations, such as Iran and North Korea, have the capability of
launching an undetected, catastrophic EMP attack on the U. S. – and are actively
developing plans.

"These electromagnetic pulses propagate from the burst point of the nuclear weapon to
the line of sight on the Earth's horizon, potentially covering a vast geographic region in
doing so simultaneously, moreover, at the speed of light," said Dr. Lowell Wood, acting
chairman of the commission appointed by Congress to study the threat. "For example, a
nuclear weapon detonated at an altitude of 400 kilometers over the central United States
would cover, with its primary electromagnetic pulse, the entire continent of the United
States and parts of Canada and Mexico."

The commission, in its work over a period of several years, found that EMP is one of a
small number of threats that has the potential to hold American society seriously at risk
and that might also result in the defeat of U. S. military forces.

"The electromagnetic field pulses produced by weapons designed and deployed with the
intent to produce EMP have a high likelihood of damaging electrical power systems,
electronics and information systems upon which any reasonably advanced society, most
specifically including our own, depend vitally," Wood said. "Their effects on systems and
infrastructures dependent on electricity and electronics could be sufficiently ruinous as to
qualify as catastrophic to the American nation."

The commission concluded in its report to Congress earlier this year: "EMP is one of a
small number of threats that may hold at risk the continued existence of today's U. S.
civil society.''

"The number of U. S. adversaries capable of EMP attack is greater than during the Cold
War," said Bartlett. "We may look back with some fondness on the Cold War. We then
had only one potential adversary. We knew him quite well."

Bartlett pointed out that Iran has tested launching of a Scud missile from a surface vessel,
"a launch mode that could support a national or transnational EMP attack against the
United States."

"Iran has conducted tests with its Shahab-3 missile that have been described as failures
by the Western media because the missiles did not complete their ballistic trajectories,
but were deliberately exploded at high altitude," he said. "This, of course, would be
exactly what you would want to do if you were going to use an EMP weapon. Iran
described these tests as successful. We said they were a failure because they blew up in
flight. They described them as successful. Of course, they would be, if Iran's intent was
practicing for an EMP attack."

Bartlett added: "Potential adversaries are aware of the EMP's strategic attack option.
Ninety-nine percent of Americans may not know very much about EMP, but I will assure
you ... that 100 percent of our potential enemies know all about EMP. I think that the
American people need to know about EMP because they need to demand that their
government do the prudent thing so that we will be less and less susceptible, less and less
at risk to an EMP attack year by year. The threat is not adequately addressed in U. S.
national and homeland security programs. Not only is it not adequately addressed; it is
usually ignored, not even mentioned, and it certainly needs to be considered."

"Terrorists could steal, purchase, or be provided a nuclear weapon and perform an EMP
attack against the United States simply by launching a primitive Scud missile off a
freighter near our shores," he said. "We do not need to be thinking about missiles coming
over the pole. There are thousands of ships out there, particularly in the North Atlantic
shipping lanes, and any one of them could have a Scud missile on board. If you put a
canvas over it, we cannot see through the thinnest canvas. We would not know whether it
was bailed hay or bananas or a Scud launcher. You cannot see through any cover on ship.
Scud missiles can be purchased on the world market today for less than $100,000. Al-
Qaida is estimated to own about 80 freighters, so all they need, ... is $100,000, which I
am sure they can get, for the missile and a crude nuclear weapon."

Bartlett revealed Russian, Chinese, and Pakistani scientists are working in North Korea
and could enable that country to develop an EMP weapon in the near future.

The congressman also raised the question of retaliation – and how an EMP sneak attack
could not only go undetected, but that it might be impossible to find out who was
responsible after the fact.

"If it were launched from the ocean, we would not know who launched it," he said. "So
against whom would we retaliate? Even if we knew who launched it ... if all they have
done is to disable our computers, do we respond in kind, or do you incinerate their
grandmothers and their babies? This would be a really tough call. Responding in kind
might do very little good. There is no other country in the world that has anything like
our sophistication in electronic equipment, and no other country in the world is so
dependent as we are on our national infrastructure."

Yet, over time, an EMP attack would likely result in much more death than a nuclear
attack on a major city, he said.

"Can you imagine our country ... with 285 million people, no electricity, and there will be
no electricity, no transportation, no communication?" he asked. "The only way you can
go anywhere is to walk, and the only person you can talk to is the person next to you.
What would we do? How many of our people might not survive the transition from that
situation to where you had established a sort of infrastructure that could support civil
society as we know it today."

An EMP attack is far more dangerous to the West than it is to other less technologically
developed countries, he said.

Russian officers have told U. S. officials, Bartlett said, that the knowledge and
technology to develop what they called super-EMP weapons had been transferred to
North Korea and that the rogue state could probably develop these weapons in the near
future, within a few years.

EMP, he warned, can cause catastrophic damage to the nation by destroying the electric
power infrastructure, causing cascading failures in the infrastructure for everything:
telecommunications, energy, transportation, finance, food, and water.

Bartlett is urging a major national commitment to preparing for such an attack, which, he
said, would not be nearly as costly as might be expected.

"Every new water system we put in, every new sewage system we put in, every new
power line we run, every new distribution system we put in needs to be hardened," he
explained. "It is not all that expensive to do. You just need to do it."
               Radiation Detectors to Scan Calif. Ports
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2005/06/04/AR2005060400010_pf.html

By ALEX VEIGA The Associated Press Saturday, June 4, 2005; 12:11 AM

LOS ANGELES -- The ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach will receive radiation
detectors to scan every incoming cargo container for nuclear weapons or dirty bombs,
Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff said Friday.

The 20-foot-high devices, already in use in at seaports in Jersey City, N. J., and
elsewhere, should be at the Southern California ports by the end of the year, Chertoff
said. They are part of the U. S. government's strategy to prevent a possible attack by
terrorists using nuclear or radiological weapons at the nation's busiest port complex.

"A key element of that strategy is detection," Chertoff said after touring the waterways
surrounding the ports aboard a Coast Guard ship. "If we know this radiological material
is coming in ... we can take the appropriate steps to intercept a threat."

About 4.3 million containers are shipped to the dual ports each year. The Southern
California harbor will become the second major U. S. harbor to have all incoming cargo
screened, Chertoff said.

In April, officials announced Oakland was the first major harbor to install enough
radiation machines to check all incoming cargo. It has 25.

Trucks carrying containers unloaded from ships will pass through the detectors. If the
machines find signs of radiation, containers will get another scan and possibly inspection
by hand-held devices.

At a cost of about $250,000 each, the machines were funded by federal dollars and take
about five seconds to screen each container, officials said.

Union officials representing port workers said some cargo containers linger on the docks
for hours or days _ and might not be checked right away.

"We think it's hypocritical that they don't screen it immediately after it's unloaded, said
Miguel Lopez, port representative of the International Brotherhood of Teamsters, whose
union has about 500 truckers at the ports. "It puts everybody in jeopardy, not just the
truckers."

Chertoff said the process of checking containers could be optimized to reduce delays in
scanning, citing officials in Baltimore who found ways to speed up the process.

He also said scanning would not slow the flow of cargo at the ports, which last year
experienced delays handling a large volume of cargo from the Far East.

"Taking an extra couple minutes to promote homeland security is something the trucking
industry would endorse," said Patty Senecal, vice president of Transport Express Inc., a
harbor trucking and warehouse company. "It's a different story if trucks are delayed for
hours and hours ... but we don't expect that."




      EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) info. collection
 This page will remain in a constant state of expansion, so bookmark and revisit
                                      often!
                             Last updated: June 28, 2003 -
                Added "Hardening Your Computer Assets" and the link to the
                             Journal of Electronic Defense.
                   http://www.sphosting.com/myguinness/emp.htm

         General EMP Info.       QST Magazine Articles        Military Manuals
            Equipment                                          Congressional
                                     Faraday Cages
          Manufacturers                                          Testimony

"...the de facto national policy of nakedness to all of our potentially EMP-armed enemies
 takes on ever more the character of national scale masochism. It is perverse, irrational,
                       and assuredly not necessary or foreordained."
                       - Dr. Lowell Wood, Lawrence Livermore Labs


    What is EMP?
    According to the Institute for Telecommunications Sciences,
    Electromagnetic Pulse is:


    "1. The electromagnetic radiation from a nuclear explosion caused by
    Compton-recoil electrons and photoelectrons from photons scattered in
    the materials of the nuclear device or in a surrounding medium.
    The resulting electric and magnetic fields may couple with
    electrical/electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage
    surges. May also be caused by non-nuclear means;


    2. A broadband, high-intensity, short-duration burst of electromagnetic
    energy. Note: In the case of a nuclear detonation, the electromagnetic
    pulse consists of a continuous frequency spectrum. Most of the energy is
    distributed throughout the lower frequencies between 3 Hz and 30 kHz."
In plain language, it is an electromagnetic "shock wave" that is released
from nuclear detonations that can seriously damage any electrical
components in its path. EMP can travel either through air or through
conductive pathways such as electrical or phone lines. It can affect
electronic equipment regardless of whether the equipment is switched on
or off.

The goal of this site is to help you protect your communications and
computing gear from EMP, as well as provide an understanding of the
threats to and vulnerabilities of our electronics-based society.


General EMP Information
The Electromagnetic Bomb - A Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction -
a long and interesting article on E-Bombs.
Balanced Electromagnetic Hardening Program - R&D wing of the
Defense Threat Reduction Agency.
Electromagnetic Pulse-From Chaos To A Manageable Solution - A very
interesting white paper by a USMC Major on the EMP threat, dated
1988.
A short Popular Mechanics article from 2001 on E-Bombs and the
potential for terrorists to use them.
The Threat of High Altitude EMP to Force XXII - 20 page 1997 article
from National Security Studies Quarterly on the threat to US Forces from
EMP - Adobe .pdf document.
Hardening Your Computer Assets - an article by Carlo Kopp on how to
protect IT systems from EMP - very good! Adobe .pdf document.


QST Magazine Articles - 1986
In 1986, QST magazine published a 4-part article on "Electromagnetic
Pulse and the Radio Amateur". The article offered some in-depth
technical information on hardening radio equipment against lightning
strikes or nuclear explosions. More than you ever wanted to know...
Here are the 4 articles in Adobe Acrobat: (NOTE: files are hosted at the
ARRL.org site)
Article 1 - How EMP works and its effects on antennas, equipment,
phone lines, etc. (1.09MB .pdf file)
Article 2 - Tests of EMP & transient protection devices. (523k .pdf file)
Article 3 - More tests of EMP & transient protection devices (583k .pdf
file)
Article 4 - Procedures and products to protect your gear (568k .pdf file)
Military Manuals
Military Handbook MIL-HDBK-1195 30 (SEPTEMBER 1988) - "Radio
Frequency Shielded Enclosures" - 79 pages of technical and practical
informtion on shielding devices from EMP and EMI. HTML Version or the
Zipped Version which includes all the illustrations.
Field Manual 24-18 (Tactical Single Channel Radio Communications)
has some good EMP info in Appendix J.
US Army Corps of Engineers Pamphlet EP 1110-3-2 - "Electromagnetic
Pulse (EMP) and Tempest Protection for Facilities"; a 467 page technical
manual!


EMI/EMP Shielding Equipment Manufacturers
Manufacturers' websites, ranging from bomb-proof to simple surge
protection.
CCI - Conduit-mount and explosion-proof EMI suppressors
Chomerics - EMI/EMP shielding for cables that uses a sheath that you
zip around the cable and connections
Citel - Coaxial surge protectors, AC surge protectors, and more - good
stuff!
Control Concepts - mostly large industrial applications
Fischer Custom Communications - check out the EM Pro Cord...neat
stuff.
NexTek - mostly lightning surge protection, but still good stuff.
Polyphaser - Great products for the protection of your commo gear!


Faraday Cage Information - Faraday cages are devices that protect
objects within the cage from electric charges and EMP. Based upon
principles put forth by Michael Faraday in 1836, the Faraday cage is still
being tinkered with by modern inventors. There are a LOT of strange
ideas out there on what Faraday cages can and cannot do. I've tried to
filter out the wingnuts and provide only solid data:
Bolt Lighning Protection - An EXCELLENT overview of the basic
properties of a Faraday cage.
Dixel Electronics - This Israeli company manufactures all sorts of
fascinating products like Mu-copper foil that you can roll onto walls like
wall paper to create your own EMP-safe rooms; transparent protective
mesh you can add to windows and more...


Congressional Testimony on EMP Topics
1997 Congressional Testimony on the effect of EMP Blasts on the
national infrastructure in the House Committess on National Security - a
long and fascinating read; Note - sometimes this link works, sometimes
not - keep trying.
1999 Congressional Testimony on the effect of an EMP attack on the US
economy.
1999 Testimony in front of the House Armed Services Committee from
Dr. Lowell Wood from Livermore National Labs on the EMP threat.
1998 Testimony in front of the Joint Economic Committee on "Radio
Frequency Weapons and Proliferation"


Other
The Journal of Electronic Defense - Publication of the Association of Old
Crows, an association of electronic warfare parctitioners - very
professional!



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                         PRICES




                    Nuclear War Survival
                    American's have been led to believe that nuclear war is "the end." In
                    fact, it is survivable. The "Cold War" is over, but nobody told China or
                    Iran...and Bush is threatening to nuke Iran soon, possibly igniting a
                    nuclear WW III. Ten Steps to ensure your survival, including the
                    effects of nuclear explosions, the facts of radioactive fallout, shelters,
                    decontamination, potassium iodide, an action plan for survival,
                    measuring radiation, and much more. Twenty-four packed pages. ©2000
                    by Miles Stair
Civil Defense: Evacuation and Relocation; What
to Pack for Evacuation in any type of Emergency

This booklet covers what each member of a family should have for an
immediate evacuation; the various levels of evacuation preparations;
preparing a safety retreat; storage at the retreat (including how to use
carbide to treat grains for long term storage, and how to conceal the
cache); the value of an evacuation trailer and what to store in it; a
complete listing for a portable 72 hour survival kit, and much, much
more. ©1997




Biological Warfare: Detection,
Treatment & Decontamination

This booklet covers biological warfare agents, how they are distributed
by terrorists, diagnosis of infection, the persistence of the specific
agents, and readily-available antidotes. Also covered are chemical
warfare agents and decontamination procedures, and overviews of
both biological and chemical warfare agents for ready reference. ©1997
by Miles Stair
Survival Reloading

Keep your rifles and handguns shooting with properly reloaded
ammunition using portable reloading equipment. Includes tool
selection, adaptable shell holders, and complete reloading data for
virtually every caliber, including cast bullet loads -- all with only
three different smokeless powders for ease of storage and versatility.
Twenty four pages.

[Note: The focus of this booklet is very specific - Survival Reloading. I make no
attempt to list max loads for every caliber with every powder - you can get that from
any reloading manual. I do list loads for virtually every cartridge manufactured in the
past 120 years, including many long obsolete, for both jacketed and cast bullets with
only 3 powders: H4895, Herco and Red Dot.] ©1980 to 2010 by Miles Stair




The Secret Garden

This booklet develops the concept that gardening in the new
Millennium may be very different, and presents plans on survival
gardening, maximum yield of edibles per area, how to make a "French
Intensive" garden as well as an all-year vegetable garden. Subjects
include edible flowers and herbs, and how to use them; the adverse
growing conditions we can expect in the new Millennium; UV-b
sensitivity of various vegetables; selection of fast-maturing varieties of
veggies; early and late planting guide for direct seeded and transplanted
edibles; preparing the soil for row gardens; planting guide, by row, for
an all-year greens garden; gardening in tires; cross pollination; saving
seed; storing seeds; and an overview of gardening chemicals. ©1995
                               Rain Water Collection & Storage

                               Complete instructions, including color photographs and a complete
                               parts list, showing how to collect rain water from household gutters,
                               deliver it to an easily built filter bucket, and from there store it in a
                               barrel or tank and deliver the water to the home -- all completely
                               passive, using gravity flow only. For those who already have barrels for
                               water storage, the entire system need not be built: the filter bucket may
                               be easily modified ($1.29 for a 1 ½ " to 3/4" fitting) so a hose may be
                               used to fill buckets with clean, filtered water -- by gravity! ©1999 - 2007
                               by Miles Stair




    Printed booklets are $3.95 each, the complete set of seven (7) booklets is $17.95. See below.

  All six booklets listed      All seven Hard Times Survival booklets,
     above, revised &          revised and expanded, with many new color photographs,
  expanded on CD, plus         on CD.
 "Tips on Surviving Off the
Grid," - and Bonus Material      PLUS THE FOLLOWING FREE BONUS BOOKS!!!
       listed at right!          8. "Family Shelter Designs" - Office of Civil Defense, 30 pages.
                                 9. EMP - How EMP could be employed against the US.
       Only $13.95              10. EMP - Practical Protection, by Miles Stair.
                                11. Nuclear War Survival Skills book by Cresson Kearney.
                                12. Recovery from Nuclear Attack, 24 pages.
                                13. Survival and Austere Medicine - full 213 page ebook.
                 1 CD           14. Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers, 210 pages.
                                15. Emergency Food and Water Supplies.
     Add the CD of this         16. Disinfecting Exposed Surfaces.
EndTimesReport web site         17. Preparing for the Coming Influenza Pandemic
for an incredible collection    18. Versatile mini kerosene heaters you can make.
    of extremely useful         19. Circular wick reading lamps - care and feeding of.
information on two packed       20. Kerosene heaters and stoves - photos, uses.
   CD's for only $21.95         21. Nuclear Weapons Effects; 37 pages.
                                22. Defense Against Toxic Weapons; 60 pages.
                                23. Field Management of Chemical Casualties; 129 pages.
                                24. Medical Management of Biological Casualties; 182 pages.
                                25. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, US
                 2 CD's        Military; 5,374 pages!
                                26 - 30. Information to aid survival during civil insurrection.
                                31. Foods That Will Win The War And How To Cook Them (1918), 126
                             pages.
                             New additions!!!
                             32. Planning Guidance for a Nuclear Detonation. Homeland Security. 97
                             pages.
                             33. Shelters, Shacks and Shanties. 274 pages. 1914. How to build shelter in
                             the woods.
                             34. Appleton's Cyclopedia of Applied Mechanics: Mechanical
                             Engineering and the Mechanical Arts. 1884. 999 pages. Fabulous reference for how
                             things worked before the age of electricity.
                             35. Deadfalls and Snares. 248 pages. 1907. Comprehensive work on catching
                             things.
                             36. Hungry Forties. 291 pages. Meals and living in a terrible induced depression.
                             1904.

                                      PLUS SEVEN PREP BOOKLETS FROM FEMA!




                             The Honey Factory
                             How to maximize honey production and receive adequate pollination
                             from only a few hives. This book is complete, covering virtually
                             everything about beekeeping, from how to assemble hives to how to
                             prevent swarming, processing honey, etc. Those who have adopted my
                             methods of beekeeping have been able to average close to 200 pounds
                             of honey per year per hive, as I have since 1991. In 1995 I set a world
                             record for multiple hives of 645 pounds of honey from two hives sitting
                             side-by-side! Updated, with many full color photos - 126 full size
                             pages. Why an e-book? For research, the power of a computer can be
                             utilized to search for any word, phrase or topic in the entire book! You
                             can then print individual pages, whole chapters or the entire book. A
Only $13.95 on CD in Adobe
                             download eBook is also available and is a great convenience to store on
             7
                             your own hard drive.




 EndTimesReport web
       site CD
                             Now available for safekeeping! This web site is available in
                             Adobe Acrobat 7.0. Read on the CD or print individual pages or
                             sections. Includes an Adobe 5.0 reader. Only $13.95 plus postage.




      Valuable Information for Hard Times
Hard Times BOOKLETS - PRINT EDITIONS



                 Nuclear War Survival                        $3.95




                Evacuation & Relocation                      $3.95




                   Biological Warfare                        $3.95




                   Survival Reloading                        $3.95




                  The Secret Garden                          $3.95




           Rain Water Collection & Storage                   $3.95




SPECIAL - ALL SEVEN BOOKLETS ABOVE - Print Hard Copy
    (Including "Tips on Surviving Without the Power Grid")
                                                             $17.95
                         Mail Order Form < click

                           AVAILABLE ON CD


   ALL SEVEN BOOKLETS on CD PLUS BONUS MATERIAL in Adobe 7                         $13.95




           The Honey Factory (CD only, not printed book)                           $13.95




        EndTimesReport.com web site in Acrobat 7.0 on one CD                       $13.95




  Both CD's = All Booklets and EndTimesReport.com web site, 2
                                                                                   $21.95
                    CD's, in Adobe Acrobat 7.0


Medical Survival Info from the CDC, OZ, Canada, Switzerland, FEMA,
Homeland Security, FDA, USDA, Extension Services, Red Cross, etc, for
virtually all medical emergencies. Influenza information specifically related to
prevention, treatment, preparations for both business and individuals, food,
health care, quarantine, sanitation, water, etc. 296 MB's, prints to 6,289 pages   $7.95
not including the complete texts of "Where There is No Dentist,"
"Where There is No Doctor," and "Survival and Austere
Medicine."


    ALL CD'S: Booklets (with extras), Influenza Survival CD,
 EndTimesReport.com AND The Honey Factory - 4 CD's - Shipped                       $28.95
          Quickly via Priority Mail to US addresses.


     PRIORITY MAIL upgrade for small orders (Priority to US Zip Codes)             $1.00

				
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